CT is a well-known mucosal adjuvant that stimulates Th2-type resp

CT is a well-known mucosal adjuvant that stimulates Th2-type responses [38] and [39]. Elevated IgG1 Abs to F1- and V-Ag were induced, which has been previously deemed important since enhanced IgG1 subclass titers to F1- and V-Ag correlated with protection against plague [40]. Thus, using the described vaccination regimens, mixed Th cell responses were induced supporting the varied IgG subclass responses. Our

results show that immunity to both V- and F1-Ags are required for protection against pneumonic plague evident by the similar levels of protection conferred by mice vaccinated i.m. with LTN/V or LTN/F1-V DNA vaccines plus F1-Ag boosts. These results are consistent with previous observations Selleck MEK inhibitor that a combination or fusion of these Ags has an additive protective effect when used to immunize mice against plague [9], [10], [11] and [12]. In addition, others have also reported that the F1- and V-Ag are considered the most effective candidates for vaccines against plague, although vaccination with each protein alone Selleck BIBW2992 is sufficient for protecting mice against plague challenges [7] and [8]. Indeed, our Ab results in mice immunized with LTN DNA vaccine

expressing V-Ag only or F1-V were consistent with Ab responses obtained in these other studies. Therefore, DNA vaccine expressing a combination of F1- and V-Ag, or as a fusion F1-V-Ag protein, is able to effectively prime for protection against plague. In summary, this is the first description of LTN as a molecular adjuvant that tests DNA vaccines mucosally and parenterally for plague. Using a bicistronic plasmid encoding LTN plus the vaccine encoding V-Ag or F1-V-Ag, we showed effective priming by i.m. delivery of

LTN DNA vaccine followed by booster immunizations with recombinant F1-Ag protein, resulting in protection against pneumonic plague. Th1, Th2, and Th17 cell responses were induced either by mucosal or parenteral vaccination; however, i.m. immunization with Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase the LTN DNA vaccine markedly enhanced Th17 cell immunity when compared to the same vaccines administered nasally. These results suggest LTN can be used as a molecular adjuvant to allow inclusion of a cell-mediated component to enhance protective immunity against plague. This work was supported by NIH-NIAIDR01 AI-56286, NIH/National Center for Research Resources, Centers of Biomedical ExcellenceP20 RR-020185 and, in part, by Montana Agricultural Station and USDA Formula Funds. The challenge studies were partly supported by the Rocky Mountain Regional Center of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, NIH U54 AI-06537. We thank Ms. Nancy Kommers for her assistance in preparing this manuscript.

Conflict of interest statement: L A B Camacho and M M Siqueira

Conflict of interest statement: L.A.B. Camacho and M.M. Siqueira are researchers in FIOCRUZ and collaborate in several research projects sponsored by Bio-Manguinhos, the manufacturer of the yellow fever vaccines. M.S. Freire, M.L.S. Maia, A.M.Y. Yamamura, R.M. Martins and M.L.F. Leal are

employees of Bio-Manguinhos. All authors have approved the final article. Funding: National Immunization Program, Ministry of Health; Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-FIOCRUZ; CNPq (Brazilian National Research Council); Local and State Health Departments. “
“The authors regret that there were some errors in the text. In the second paragraph of page 2992, χ10015(pCD1Ap) (Pgm− ΔlpxP32::PlpxLlpxL) should read: χ10015(pCD1Ap) (ΔlpxP32::PlpxLlpxL). The authors wish to apologize Selumetinib for an omission in the Acknowledgements section. The Acknowledgements section should read as follows: The authors wish to thank Dr. C. Michael Reynolds for his valuable assistance in performing Mass spectra data (Fig. 2A and C), Dr. Susan selleck compound Straley for providing anti-YopM antibodies and Dr. Praveen Alamuri for his valuable assistance

in performing animal experiments. Conflict of interest: All authors declare none. Funding: This work was supported by National Institutes of Health grant 5R01 AI057885 to R.C. and by grant GM51310 to C.R.H.R. The mass spectrometry facility in the Department of Biochemistry of the Duke University Medical Center is supported by the LIPID MAPS Large why Scale Collaborative Grant number GM-069338 from NIH. “
“The authors regret that on page 1856 of the journal, there is a discrepancy between the explanation in the text and Fig. 1. The description in the text is correct while Fig. 1 is wrong. The problem in the figure pertains to the discrepancies in the duration of probiotics BBG-01/placebo and vaccine administration. The horizontal arrow should extend from day 14 to day 42 (in figure it now extends from day 14 to day 35 only).

In the last section of the figure, relating to the vaccine administration, the vertical arrows should point at day 21 and day 35 (in figure it points to day 14 and day 35). The correct version of Fig. 1 is reproduced below. The authors apologise for any inconvenience caused. “
“Diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae are a major health problem. The World Health Organization has estimated that 1.6 million people die annually from pneumococcal disease. For individuals aged ≥65 years, the reported worldwide incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) ranges from 24 to 85 per 100,000 persons [1]. As the treatment of pneumococcal disease is limited by the continuous increase in antimicrobial resistance of S. pneumoniae, vaccination is considered an important preventive strategy [1] and [2]. Currently, a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) is available for the protection of older persons against pneumococcal disease.

pylori activity with MIC value of 10 μg/ml However C1, C13, and

pylori activity with MIC value of 10 μg/ml. However C1, C13, and C24 have not shown anti-H. pylori activity while, remaining CDs showed MIC in the range of 20–40 μg/ml. From the

overall result it can be stated that the anti-H. pylori activity of the selected CDs is closely related with the degree and substitution of hydroxyl groups. However the methyl group substitution in combination with hydroxyl group has both positive as well as negative influence on the activity of the selected CDs. More specifically it was observed that the presence of 4-, 5-, 6- and/or 7-hydroxyl groups seems to be essential for display of higher BTK inhibitor order anti-H. pylori activity. In the previous work carried out using molecular modelling simulations and high-throughput virtual screening, new derivatives of coumarin have been shown to bind in the active site of GDC-0449 datasheet urease. 22 While describing the structure–activity relationship studies, it has been described in the earlier investigation that the presence of hydroxyl group at 4, 5, 6 and/or 7 and the presence of methyl group at C4 position enhanced the anti-H. pylori activity. 15 Our findings are in agreement with above

described hydroxyl substitutions, as it was observed that the 7-hydroxyl substituted and CDs like C5, C12, C15, C16, C17 and 4-methyl substituted CDs like C12, C15, C16 have demonstrated significant anti-H. pylori activity as compared to other test CDs. The results of the urease inhibition using selected CDs are summarized in Table 2. Amongst the tested CDs the compounds crotamiton like C3, C10, C11, C12, C13, C14, C20, C21, C22 and C23 showed considerable

urease inhibition activity. However the CDs like C20, C23, C10, C21, and C22 have shown significant urease inhibition activity with IC50 values of 48.90, 47.80, 54.63, 53.88 and 55.34 μM respectively. The results were compared with a reference urease inhibitor acetohydroxamic acid (IC50 – 44.64 μM). It was observed from the present result that the presence of 4-, 5-, 7- and/or 8-hydroxyl substituted and 4-phenyl group seems to be a pharmacophore for the manifestation of significant anti-H. pylori urease activity. An attempt was made to unravel the possible structure–activity relationship of the selected CDs and the urease inhibition using molecular docking studies (ArgusLab 4.0.1). The selected CDs were docked onto the ligand (acetohydroxamic acid) binding site of the H. pylori urease (PDB ID-1E9Y) and the docking scores (release of internal energy, kcal/mol) were calculated. The more the amount of internal energy released is attributed with stressful binding of the ligand, while the release of minimum amount of internal energy has relevance with structurally compatible binding of the ligand onto the ligand binding site of the receptor. The results of the docking scores of the selected CDs are shown in Table 3.

The only axioscapular muscle to record high mean levels of activi

The only axioscapular muscle to record high mean levels of activity in the current study was rhomboid major. This result was expected since scapula downward rotation accompanies adduction and rhomboid major generates scapular torque in a downward rotation direction and into retraction (Oatis 2009). The level of activity recorded in rhomboid major in the current study supports previous research, which reported similar levels during manual muscle testing with a manoeuvre involving adduction (Smith

et al 2004). Activity in serratus anterior, the only other axioscapular muscle to be activated above minimal levels in this study, may be present to prevent rhomboid major from retracting the scapula during isometric adduction or to hold the scapula against the thoracic wall. The pattern of increasing muscle activation with increased load was the same across all angles for all the Alectinib active muscles in the current study. Muscles recruited at low loads during isometric adduction are the same muscles recruited at higher loads but at a higher percentage of their maximum voluntary contraction. Additional muscles are not activated to cope with the additional load. This seems to contradict the ‘law of minimal muscle action’, proposed by MacConaill and Basmajian (1977), which states that ‘the muscles with least synergistic activity will be recruited first and then as load increases

other muscles

are recruited’. Similar motor patterns at low and high load with systematic increases in activity in all active shoulder muscles selleck screening library have been demonstrated previously in normal participants during isometric shoulder rotation exercises (Dark et al 2007), isotonic scaption exercises up to 90° (Alpert et al 2000) and shoulder flexion exercises. This study adds to the evidence that normal shoulder motor patterns Etomidate do not vary with load. Ethics: Participants were fully informed of the study protocol and signed a consent form prior to participation. The study was approved by The University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee. Our thanks to Mr Daniel Tardo for his assistance with participant recruitment and data collection in this study. “
“Walking aids are provided to patients as part of routine rehabilitation following surgery for hip fracture to compensate for pain, reduced strength and balance, and postoperative restrictions on weight-bearing. The ultimate goal of rehabilitation is to reduce the level of assistance required with ambulation and to return to pre-morbid levels of function. However, progression in individual patients varies dramatically depending on the rate of improvement of strength, balance, confidence, and pain (Bohannon 1997). As a result, it would be appropriate for many of the walking aids to be changed over the first six months, although the time of change would vary.

Tr-1 conversion depends on TCR signaling and a direct T-/B-intera

Tr-1 conversion depends on TCR signaling and a direct T-/B-interaction through CD40/CD40L and B7-1/CD28. B cell-induced Tr-1 cells RAD001 in vitro acquire suppressive activity in vitro and in vivo. In addition, systemic injection of Pam2 lipopeptides (a TLR-2 ligand) induced IL-10 in a TLR2-dependent manner [31]. The Pam2 lipopeptides increased the frequencies of Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory T (T reg) cells in a TLR2- and IL-10-dependent manner.

Then, the possibility that human OMV vaccination induced T regulatory cells which suppressed B cell activation cannot be ruled out and further investigation may be conducted in the future. Interesting enough, we have previously reported a negative dose-effect on booster bactericidal antibody response, in that mice immunised with four doses of VA-MENGOC-BC®, but not with two or three AZD8055 chemical structure doses, responded less well to the booster dose compared with the primary series [14]. In conclusion, this study suggests that vaccination with the VA-MENGOC-BC® induced a robust immune response after three injections of vaccine. Vaccination induced the generation and activation of memory T-cells

after primary and booster schedules but failed to maintain a memory B-cell population at a stable size and/or functionality. The weak boosting antibody response reinforces suboptimal recall functions of the remaining memory B-cell population. More studies are needed in view of the scarce knowledge about cellular mechanisms of antibody response and development of immunological memory by meningococcal vaccines. We are thankful to Ricardo da Costa Cruz for proof-reading the manuscript. We acknowledge FAPERJ/SR2-UERJ/CAPES very and CNPq for financial support.

This study would not be possible without the consent of the volunteers. “
“The first barriers that microorganisms including viruses must breach for being successful pathogens are imposed by the innate immune system of which the complement system constitutes a major arm [1], [2], [3] and [4]. The complement system comprises of an intricate group of both soluble and cell-associated proteins activated through three major pathways, the classical, alternative and lectin pathways. Complement activation results in the generation of active components, including C3b and C4b, which aid in the assembly of enzymes called as C3/C5-convertases that facilitate downstream cleavage and formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC) capable of lysing pathogens. Additionally, the activation products C3a and C5a show anaphylatoxic and chemotactic properties [5] and also play a role in T cell activation [6], and surface bound complement components derived from C3 interact with specific immune receptors, thus acting as a connecting link with the adaptive immune system [7]. Hence, the complement system exerts assault on pathogens directly by lysis and indirectly by boosting the pathogen-specific immune responses [8].

3, Table 2) Evidence on indirect impact in low-coverage (<70%) s

3, Table 2). Evidence on indirect impact in low-coverage (<70%) settings

is mixed, with significant impact seen in some populations and not others. Data on indirect effect of PCV on AT–IPD showed a trend toward increasing impact with time (median decrease: 33%; IQR: 7–42%), though this website with lower overall impact compared to that on VT-IPD (Appendix B.3, Table 3). This impact on AT-IPD was observed in all non-target age-groups (Fig. 5) and is also noted in pneumococcal pneumonia [10] and [29]. Data from mixed target and non-target groups show a greater decrease in VT-IPD rates than that in pure non-targeted groups, reflecting a mix of direct and indirect effect (Appendix B.3, Table 4). However, studies with 1-dose coverage data suggest a vaccine impact on VT-IPD that cannot be entirely accounted for by direct effect. Data were available for six unique populations: Australian aboriginals, Alaska Natives, American Indians, Gambians, Israelis and Portuguese PF-01367338 nmr (Appendix B.3, Table 5). Studies in children were primarily RCTs; those in adults were primarily observational. The median decrease

in VT-carriage prevalence (among either the study sample or, rarely, the subset who were carriers of any pneumococcal strain) was 77% (IQR 64–80%). Data points did not span a sufficient time range to evaluate time-related trends. The majority of carriage data is drawn from high-risk populations. Few additional supporting data points were identified for NP carriage. Supporting data are listed for pre- vs. post-introduction all-type NP in non-target groups and pre- vs. post-introduction VT-carriage in mixed groups in Appendix B.3, Tables 6 and 7; a discussion is provided in Appendix B.4. A relevant data point not eligible for inclusion due to publication

date comes from an observational study including Native American adults shortly after PCV introduction Ketanserin (2001–2002) and subsequently (2006–2008), finding a relative decrease of 97.5% and an absolute reduction of 4.0% in VT-NP [46]. Most individual data points were categorized as low or very-low quality by GRADE criteria because nearly all data were from observational studies, and over half the primary evidence sources were further downgraded for including only high-risk populations, but few for methodological issues (Appendix B.5). While GRADE methodology categorizes observational studies as ‘low quality’, the GRADE system was designed to assess individual patient treatments, not to assess public health benefit. Furthermore, only observational, or community randomized studies can assess population-level post-introduction effects. An additional 14 studies published after the PCV Dosing Landscape Review search met primary evidence inclusion criteria.

Finally, applications of this delivery mechanism to vaccines for

Finally, applications of this delivery mechanism to vaccines for other pathogens where CTL targeting is potentially relevant, such as hepatitis C [35], [36], [37] and [38], and influenza [39] and [40], should be investigated. We thank Darrell Irvine of the Ragon Institute for helping www.selleckchem.com/products/OSI-906.html us review previous research in the area, Nicole Frahm of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center for immunochemistry advice, Dan Barouch of the Beth Israel Hospital for his interest and support, Niraj Patil for assistance with illustration preparation, Craig Rouskey for

helpful comments and Jonathan Carlson of Microsoft Research who helped review the manuscript. This work was supported in part by a Qualifying Therapeutic Drug Discovery Project Grant from the United States Government and a grant from Microsoft Research. Conflict of interest: RMR, CVH, and PML are employees of shareholders of Flow Pharma Inc., and DEH is an employee and shareholder of Microsoft. “
“All children worldwide should be fully vaccinated against polio, and every country should seek to achieve and maintain high levels of coverage with polio vaccine in support of the global commitment to eradicate polio.

WHO no longer recommends an OPV-only vaccination schedule. For all countries currently using OPV only, at least 1 dose of IPV should be added to the schedule. The primary purpose of the IPV dose is to maintain immunity against type 2 poliovirus during almost and after the planned global withdrawal SCH727965 purchase of OPV2 and switch from tOPV to bOPV. Depending on the timing of the IPV administration, the introduction of IPV may reduce VAPP risks. Adding an IPV dose will boost

both humoral and mucosal immunity against poliovirus types 1 and 3, which may also hasten the eradication of these WPVs. In polio-endemic countries and in countries at high risk for importation and subsequent spread [3], WHO recommends an OPV birth dose (a zero dose) followed by a primary series of 3 OPV and at least 1 IPV doses. The birth dose of OPV should be administered at birth, or as soon as possible after birth, to maximize the seroconversion rates with subsequent doses and to induce mucosal protection before enteric pathogens may interfere with the immune response. Also, administering the first dose of OPV while infants are still protected by maternally derived antibodies may, at least theoretically, prevent VAPP. Even in cases of perinatal HIV infection, early OPV vaccination seems to be well tolerated, and no additional risk of VAPP has been documented in such children. The primary series consisting of 3 OPV doses plus 1 IPV dose can be initiated from the age of 6 weeks with a minimum interval of 4 weeks between the OPV doses. If 1 dose of IPV is used, it should be given from 14 weeks of age (when maternal antibodies have diminished and immunogenicity is significantly higher) and can be co-administered with an OPV dose.

Tout comme l’obésité, les prévalences du SMet et du DT2 s’élèvent

Tout comme l’obésité, les prévalences du SMet et du DT2 s’élèvent avec l’âge. Et fait de nombreuses fois démontré par les études épidémiologiques, elles restent

supérieures chez l’homme à ce qui est observé dans le sexe féminin. A découlé fort logiquement AC220 cost de ce constat, la question du rôle éventuel des stéroïdes sexuels dans cette différence liée au genre. De nombreuses études ont mis en évidence, chez l’homme adulte, un lien indiscutable entre abaissement du taux de testostérone plasmatique et syndrome d’insulino-résistance. Insulino-résistance et hypotestostéronémie sont par ailleurs impliqués dans la physiopathologie de plusieurs facteurs de risque vasculaire : hypertension artérielle, trouble de l’équilibre glycémique, dyslipidémie [1], [2], [3] and [4]. Deux constations supplémentaires ont amené à évaluer plus précisément l’équilibre androgénique des hommes suivis pour obésité, SMet ou DT2 : • la fréquence de ces anomalies métaboliques s’élève avec l’âge tandis que parallèlement la sécrétion testiculaire endocrine décline ; Chez l’homme, une baisse de la testostéronémie a été démontrée dans chacun des Ibrutinib chemical structure trois cadres pathologiques que constituent obésité, SMet et DT2. Il s’agit donc bien

là d’un point commun supplémentaire à ces trois entités, point commun dont l’identification a amené à s’interroger sur son implication physiopathologique, sa valeur pronostique et l’intérêt thérapeutique d’un rééquilibrage du statut androgénique. Une réduction du taux de testostérone plasmatique, dont l’ampleur est inversement corrélée à l’index de masse corporelle (IMC), a été mise en évidence chez l’homme adulte en surcharge pondérale. Dans le surpoids simple ou l’obésité non morbide, le taux de testostérone libre reste others situé dans les limites de la normale pour la tranche d’âge considérée. Dans ces deux situations, l’abaissement de la testostérone totale est en effet liée à la diminution du taux de la Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG), protéine porteuse des stéroïdes sexuels encore dénommée Testosterone-estradiol-Binding Globulin (TeBG) dont le taux est négativement corrélé

à l’IMC ( figure 1) [5]. L’obésité massive s’accompagne, par contre, d’une réduction de l’ensemble des fractions, libre et liée, de la testostérone plasmatique [6]. L’obésité androïde s’associe à une insulino-résistance. Testostéronémie totale et taux de SHBG plasmatique en représenteraient des marqueurs, susceptibles également d’être impliqués dans son développement et, à un stade évolutif ultérieur, à celui d’un DT2. Il a été montré que le taux de testostérone plasmatique était fréquemment plus bas dans la population d’hommes atteints d’insulino-résistance que dans une population du même âge indemne de pathologie quelconque [2], [7] and [8]. Les résultats de ces études font même l’hypothèse qu’un taux bas de testostérone plasmatique exposerait à un risque plus élevé de développement d’un DT2.

While global economic data from WHO or from other countries are o

While global economic data from WHO or from other countries are often used as a reference, data from Korea are always preferred, and local studies are sometimes recommended, since the economic and disease burden parameters change from country to country. The results

of economic evaluations conducted by vaccine producers usually are not considered, because of the obvious concern of bias. The KACIP and sub-committees do not have set rules on ranking the various factors and types of data (e.g., disease burden vs. vaccine cost-effectiveness) in order of importance when making recommendations. This is because specific factors, such as the potential for disease outbreaks, whether the disease has seasonal peaks, and the groups most affected by the disease (e.g., children vs. adults), differ for each disease and thus the committee considers the preponderance of data when making FK228 supplier recommendations. Sub-committees also make recommendations concerning measures selleck compound for controlling the disease they focus on that go beyond immunization. For example, in response to an outbreak of pertussis among infants, in 2009, the Sub-committee on Diphtheria/Tetanus/Pertussis and Polio held meetings

to develop recommendations concerning case management and surveillance, as well as immunization. These recommendations included the isolation of pertussis patients and the distribution of antibiotics for prophylactic use among the patient’s contacts; polymerase chain reaction testing to diagnose all suspected pertussis patients, where available; a survey to determine what proportion of patients

with chronic cough have pertussis; and the replacement of the tetanus–diphtheria (Td) Bay 11-7085 booster for adolescents with the new tetanus–diphtheria–acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine. The KCDC ordered the implementation of the medical-related recommendations immediately in public health facilities, while the vaccine-related recommendations have been sent to the KACIP to address at its next meeting in 2010. The launch and successful implementation of Korea’s Hepatitis B Perinatal Transmission Prevention Program illustrates the important role of both the World Health Organization in setting goals for the National Immunization Program, and the KACIP and ancillary working groups in developing practical recommendations to achieve these goals. In 2002, the Western Pacific Office of WHO (WPRO) set the goal for the region to reduce hepatitis B transmission from mothers to their infants, with a benchmark for countries to achieve a seroprevalence rate of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in children 5 years and older of <2% by 2012 [2]. In response, the KACIP established the following goals: (1) reduce the seroprevalence rate of HbsAg in the total population to <1% within 10 years; (2) achieve 95% coverage of the 3rd dose of hepatitis B vaccine in infants; and (3) strengthen the disease surveillance system to monitor and evaluate progress with hepatitis B control.

Phylogenetic dendrograms based on nucleotide sequences were const

Phylogenetic dendrograms based on nucleotide sequences were constructed and compared to previously reported G1, G2, G9 and G12 strains. Kolkata G1 strains

clustered in two subsets within two different lineages. One subset of G1 strains (BCK-2129/2011, BCK-2304/2011 and IDK-4418/2012) exhibited maximum similarities (>97%) with Thailand, India and Bangladesh G1 strains during BLAST analysis. Those strains remained in the same cluster within lineage I in phylogenetic dendrogram, though these were distant from the vaccine strains RotaTeq W179-9 and Rotarix A41CB052A (Fig. 3A). The other subset of G1 strains (IDK-4226/2011, BCK-2644/2012 and IDK-5042/2013) exhibited maximum similarities (>98%) with strains from Australia and Thailand. http://www.selleckchem.com/autophagy.html These G1 strains clustered with Rotarix

vaccine strain within lineage II (Fig. 3A), while the VP7 (G1) of Rotateq vaccine strain clusters in lineage III (Fig. 3A). All G2 strains (BCK-2601/2012, BCK-2409/2012, BCK-2953/2013, BCK-2852/2013, IDK-4292/2011, IDK-4599/2012 and IDK-5034/2013) showed 98–99% nucleotide similarities with previously reported strains from India, Nepal and Bangladesh Everolimus price and clustered in lineage IV. The G2 strains from this study were distant to RotaTeq vaccine strains in lineage II (Fig. 3B). Phylogenetic analysis showed all G9 strains from this study were in lineage III. Six of eight G9 strains (BCK-2168/2011, BCK-2679/2012, BCK-2934/2013, IDK-4321/2011, IDK-4957/2012

and IDK-5033/2013) revealed maximum identities (>96%) with previously reported human G9 strains from India and USA. These six G9 strains were in one subcluster, whereas, IDK-4176/2011 shared maximum homology with South African human G9 strain and BCK-2295/2011 was more similar with an American G9 strain. These two strains were placed in two other subclusters of lineage III (Fig. 4A). All the G9 strains from this study were found to be genetically distant from G9 vaccine strain 116E, which was in lineage II (Fig. 4A). The current G12 strains shared close nucleotide similarity (>95%) with previously reported Indian human lineage III G12 strains. Sample IDK-5082/2013 formed distant too subcluster, whereas other three (BCK-2783/2012, BCK-2907/2013 and IDK-5095/2013) formed another subcluster with Indian, Nepalese and Belgian G12 strains within lineage III (Fig. 4B). The amino acid homology of the current circulating strains was compared to the vaccine strains. The lineage II G1 strains were similar (92–95%) to Rotarix-G1 strain which also clustered in lineage II (Fig. 3A), but lineage I G1 strains had 91–94% homology to either Rotarix-G1 or RotaTeq-G1 strains (Table 3). Amino acid homology of G2 strains with RotaTeq G2 was ∼91%, whereas Kolkata G9 strains showed 89–92% amino acid homology with 116E-G9 vaccine strains (Table 3). The VP7 trimer contains two structurally defined antigenic epitopes: 7-1 and 7-2.