011) and iliac or brachial exposures (2 8% vs 1 0%, P = 009) Ov

011) and iliac or brachial exposures (2.8% vs 1.0%, P = .009). Overall morbidity and mortality were 11.9% and 2.1%, respectively. Mortality in women was significantly higher (3.4% vs 2.1%, P = .014), as,vas morbidity (17.8% vs 10.6%, P < .001). Of thirteen independent preoperative risk factors for mortality or morbidity, women had a higher incidence in five: emergent operation, functional dependence, recent weight loss, underweight

status or morbid obesity, and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). After adjustment for these variables, the odds ratio (OR) for mortality in women vs check details men was 1.52 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-2.69, P = .157); OR for morbidity was 1.65 (95% CI 1.28-2.14, P < .001). Female gender was also found to be an independent risk factor for length of stay (Beta 0.7 days, 95% see more CI 0.2-1.2, P = .006), infectious complications (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.10-2.03, P = .011), wound complications (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.12-2.90, P = .015) and postoperative transfusion (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.39-6.13, P = .002).\n\nConclusions. Mortality and morbidity were higher in women than men undergoing EVAR. Multivariate analysis showed

that the increased risk of mortality was related to women presenting more emergently, more debilitated (recent weight loss and functional dependence), and requiring iliac or brachial exposure. After adjustment for multiple preoperative and operative factors, women remained at significantly higher risk for the development of a broad range of complications and increased length of stay. (J Vasc Surg 2009;50:486-91.)”
“Congenital epulis of the newborn (CEN) is a rare benign lesion that exclusively occurs in the oral and maxillofacial regions of newborns. The clinicopathologic features of CEN were examined and reviewed from the files of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology from 1970 to 2000. Ten cases were included. Patient lesions were all present at birth but were surgically excised between 2 days and 6 weeks (median, 5.5 days). Nine lesions were in females; I case did not

designate patient sex. Locations included 6 on the maxilla, 2 on the mandible, I on the designated maxillary lip, and 1 unknown. The cases included a patient with 2 lesions: 1 on mandibular Selleckchem ON-01910 and 1 on maxillary alveolar ridges, respectively. All other lesions were solitary and polypoid. Microscopically, these were pedunculated and nodular, composed of sheets to grouped clusters of medium-sized, ovoid-to-polygonal cells with abundant granular cytoplasm, distinct cell membranes, vascular-rich stroma, and attenuated overlying mucosa. Two cases also demonstrated spindled cells. The nuclei were vesicular and focally stippled, with distinct and slightly convoluted nuclear membranes; nucleoli were visible but not prominent. Mitotic activity was not observed. The vascular channels ranged from capillary-sized to venous, some staghorn-like with rare perivascular long-term inflammation.

As observed elsewhere in Europe, mean A (M) decreased significant

As observed elsewhere in Europe, mean A (M) decreased significantly with increasing TL at age 2. Using this relationship, which has been proposed elsewhere as a potential predictive model of pumpkinseed invasiveness, eight of the ten populations could be provisionally categorized as ‘non-invasive’ (five populations),

‘transitional’ (one population) and ‘potentially invasive’ (two populations), with two populations not categorized due to insufficient data. Based on the available knowledge on each population, the relationship between juvenile growth and age at maturity appeared to predict reasonably the status of pumpkinseed in northwestern Europe and its applicability to other species should be tested.”
“Background Work-related rhinitis and asthma symptoms frequently co-exist.\n\nAims To determine the prevalence and Sapitinib nature of nasal, pharyngeal, laryngeal and sinus symptoms among

individuals with work-related respiratory symptoms.\n\nMethods Individuals referred to a tertiary Nepicastat concentration occupational asthma clinic for investigations with specific inhalation challenges were evaluated using the RHINASTHMA quality of life questionnaire and a questionnaire that assessed the nature and frequency of upper airway symptoms, their relationship to the workplace and their temporal relationship with the onset of asthma symptoms.\n\nResults There were 83 study participants. At least one upper airway symptom was reported by all of these individuals: nasal in 92%; pharyngeal in 82%; laryngeal in 65% and sinus in 53% of participants. Overall, there were no significant differences in the frequencies of nasal, pharyngeal, laryngeal and sinus symptoms when comparing these with

occupational asthma click here (OA), work-exacerbated asthma (WEA) and work-related respiratory symptoms (WRS), except that nasal bleeding was most frequent among those with WRS. The presence of laryngeal symptoms was significantly associated with rhinitis-specific quality of life impairment. Individuals with workplace exposures to high molecular weight agents had greater impaired quality of life than those who were exposed to low molecular weight agents (RHINASTMA Upper Airway sub-scores: 24.0 +/- 10.4 versus 19.8 +/- 6.8; P < 0.05).\n\nConclusions Individuals who were referred for work-related respiratory symptoms experienced high rates of work-related nasal, pharyngeal, laryngeal and sinus symptoms, regardless of having OA, WEA or WRS.”
“A facile, general, and highly efficient one-pot approach to obtain azobenzene (azo)-containing molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanoparticles with photoresponsive template binding and release properties in aqueous media is described, which involves the combined use of hydrophilic macromolecular chain transfer agent-mediated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer precipitation polymerization and easily available water-insoluble azo functional monomers.

The content of angiotensin I and II was increased and the renin-a

The content of angiotensin I and II was increased and the renin-angiotensin system was in a hyperfunctional state in experimental

rats with myocardial damage. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor 1 antagonists improved the myocardial structure and cardiac function. It is concluded that hyperfunction of the renin-angiotensin system is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy, with an increase in angiotensin being a key factor. Preventing the increase in angiotensin II or the action of angiotensin II on its receptor can prevent the occurrence and development of diabetic cardiomyopathy.”
“Purpose: To evaluate deflection capability of a prototype endovascular catheter, which is remotely magnetically steerable, for use in the interventional. GSK923295 chemical structure magnetic click here resonance (MR) imaging environment.\n\nMaterials and Methods: Copper coils were mounted on the tips of commercially available 2.3-3.0-F microcatheters. The coils were fabricated in a novel manner by plasma vapor deposition of a copper layer followed by laser lithography of the layer into coils. Orthogonal helical (ie, solenoid) and saddle-shaped (ie, Helmholtz) coils were mounted

on a single catheter tip. Microcatheters were tested in water bath phantoms in a 1.54 clinical MR scanner, with variable simultaneous currents applied to the coils. Catheter tip deflection was imaged in the axial plane by using a “real-time” steady-state free precession MR imaging sequence. Degree of deflection and catheter tip orientation were measured for each current

application.\n\nResults: The catheter tip was clearly visible in the longitudinal and axial planes. Magnetic field artifacts were visible when the orthogonal coils at the catheter tip were energized. Variable amounts Of current applied to a single coil demonstrated consistent catheter deflection in all water bath experiments. Changing current polarity reversed the observed direction of deflection, whereas current applied to two different coils resulted, in deflection represented Vadimezan purchase by the composite vector of individual coil activations: Microcatheter navigation through the vascular phantom was successful through control of applied current to one or more coils.\n\nConclusions: Controlled catheter deflection is possible with laser lithographed multiaxis coil-tipped catheters in. the MR imaging environment.”
“Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of colorectal neoplasia. However, association between prediabetes and colorectal adenoma has not been reported.\n\nThe aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between prediabetes and the presence of colorectal adenomas.

Powder XRD studies reveal some interesting features in the XRD pr

Powder XRD studies reveal some interesting features in the XRD profiles with changes in intensity patterns in doped specimen due to stress development in the crystal. The incorporation

this website of Cs(I) into the crystal lattice was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Slight shifts in vibrational patterns of doped specimen indicate that the crystal undergoes considerable lattice stress as result of doping. SEM studies of pure and doped samples reveal the external morphology. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal studies reveal the purity of the material and the specimens are stable up to the melting point. The optical studies reveal that absorption is minimum in the visible region and doping influenced the diffuse reflectance spectrum. The band gap energies of the pure and doped specimens were estimated by the

application of Kubelka-Munk algorithm. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: In sickle cell disease (SCD), pulmonary hypertension (assessed by tricuspid regurgitant jet [TRJ] velocity >= 2.5 m/sec) is associated with increased mortality. Selleckchem NCT-501 The relationships among TRJ velocity and left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) systolic and diastolic function (i.e., relaxation and compliance) have not been well characterized in SCD.\n\nMethods: A prospective study was conducted in 53 ambulatory adults with SCD (mean age, 34 years; range, 21-65 years) and 33 African American controls to define the relationship Sonidegib between

LV and RV function and TRJ velocity using echocardiography.\n\nResults: Subjects with SCD had larger left and right atrial volumes and increased LV mass compared with controls. When patients with SCD were compared with controls, LV and RV relaxation (i.e., E’) were similar. Among subjects with SCD, pulmonary hypertension (TRJ >= 2.5 m/sec) was present in 40%. Higher TRJ velocity was correlated with larger left atrial volumes in patients with SCD. Additionally, some measures of LV (peak A, lateral and septal annular E/E’ ratio) and RV (tricuspid valve E/E’ ratio) compliance were correlated with TRJ velocity. No other measures of LV and RV systolic function or LV diastolic function (i.e., relaxation and compliance) were associated with TRJ velocity.\n\nConclusions: Ambulatory adults with SCD exhibited structural (i.e., LV and RV chamber enlargement) and functional (i.e., higher surrogate measures of LV and RV filling pressure) abnormalities compared with the control group. In subjects with SCD, few abnormalities of LV and RV structure and function were associated with TRJ velocity. (J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2011; 24: 1285-90.)”
“The objective of the present study was to evaluate the changes in daily spermatozoa motility, hypoosmotic resistance test, dead and abnormal spermatozoa rates of ram semen was diluted and stored at 4 degrees C. A total of 25 ejaculates were collected from five rams via an artificial vagina to evaluate the spermatological features of ram semen.

Experimental diets contained 0% (D1), 10% (D2), 20% (D3) and 100%

Experimental diets contained 0% (D1), 10% (D2), 20% (D3) and 100% (D4) carob pulp on a dry matter (DM) basis and were incubated in glass syringes for 72 h at 39 degrees C. Carob pulp contained 313 g neutral detergent fibre/kg DM with a high acid detergent fibre (263 g/kg DM) content, resulting in a low hemicellulose content of 50 g/kg DM. Potential

gas production ranged from 123 (D1) to 179 (D4) mL/g DM and was similar for the D1 (123 mL/g DM), D2 (126 mL/g DM) and D3 (130 mL/g DM) treatments. The lowest this website pH value of 6.47 and the highest organic matter degradation (OMD, 64.3%) were observed in the 100% carob pulp (D4) treatment, while its inclusion at 10% and 20% tended to improve the OMD of the diets. These results show that carob pulp is well fermented by the caecal micro-organisms of rabbits. Although its inclusion at 20% did not improve in vitro fermentation and degradation of the commercial concentrate, it was concluded see more that carob pulp has potential as an unconventional feed resource for rabbits. Its utilization could have a positive effect on intestinal microbiota owing to its high content of soluble fibre.”
“Objective: To evaluate 24-week virologic

effectiveness of novel antiretroviral regimens for treatment of three-class experienced adult patients in a clinical practice setting following the US Food and Drug Administration approval of darunavir (DRV) for this population.\n\nDesign: A prospective cohort study.\n\nSetting: A single-center, academic

HIV clinic.\n\nParticipants: Three-class antiretroviral-experienced patients changing regimens between July 2006 and May 2008. Sociodemographic, psychosocial, and clinical characteristics were collected at baseline and during prospective follow-up.\n\nOutcome measures: Plasma click here HIV viral load below 50 copies/ml and change in CD4 cell count at 24 weeks following regimen change. The Stanford Genotype Database was used to analyze HIV genotype resistance results and determine the number of active drugs in each regimen. Multivariate models and propensity score methods were employed to assess outcome measures.\n\nResults: Among 109 three-class experienced patients, who previously received an average of 10.5 prior antiretrovirals, 55% achieved viral load below 50 copies/ml at 24 weeks. Treatment strategy was classified as nonprotease inhibitor (n=25), DRV/ritonavir (DRV/r) (n=51), or other protease inhibitor (n=33). The number of active drugs was not significantly different across strategies (P=0.24). In multivariate analysis, patients treated with DRV/r (65%, odds ratio=4.24 vs. nonprotease inhibitor strategy, 95% confidence interval=1.28-14.06), raltegravir (65%, odds ratio=3.10, 95% confidence interval=1.12-8.62), or both were more likely to achieve viral load below 50 copies/ml.

Since it was impossible to explain this phenomenon in terms of st

Since it was impossible to explain this phenomenon in terms of static three-dimensional structures, the term chronosteric effects was coined to capture the observation that transient species are relevant to protein function(s). Here, some recent results on the folding and function of proteins are reported on the light of chronosteric effects. (c) 2013 IUBMB Life, 65(10):836-844, 2013″
“Objectives: Since 2002, the treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors (CHEIs) for Alzheimer’s Selleckchem LB-100 disease (AD) has been paid for by the public health system of the Brazilian Ministry of Health for any patient that fulfills clinical

criteria established by an evidence-based guideline developed and published by the Ministry. The aim of this study

was to evaluate compliance of prescription patterns to the national guideline for use of CHEIs’ in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul.\n\nMethods: We created a regional expert-committee reference center to review all prescriptions of CHEIs and to send feedback to physicians whenever prescriptions without compliance to the guideline were noted. One thousand three hundred ninety-nine (1,399) CHEI prescriptions presented to the public health system from 2005 to 2007 were evaluated by an expert team of neurologists and psychiatrists. Clinical history, performance on mental status screening Selleck HDAC inhibitor by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR), laboratory results,

and neuroimaging findings were evaluated in relation to the adherence to the national guideline’s recommendations. If the prescription was rejected because of lack of adherence to the criteria of the guideline, a written response was sent by the expert committee to physicians concerning the request.\n\nResults: The majority of the requests (n = 1,044; 75 percent) did not meet the AD guideline’s criteria, either for diagnosis or for treatment, and were not granted. A diagnostic mistake was evident in 64.3 percent of cases. Findings of vascular or Parkinson’s dementia or severe AD were the main reasons for rejection. Rivastigmine was the most prescribed cholinesterase inhibitor, used in 86 percent of cases. Of note was the reduction in the number of CHEIs prescriptions in the years CX-6258 following this intervention.\n\nConclusions: The public health strategy of using expert-review of prescriptions and their compliance to national guideline revealed a low rate of rational use of CHEIs for dementia. Such a strategy is relevant for protecting patients from unproven medical interventions and for reducing waste of resources.”
“We describe MRI findings in a fatal case of culture proven Salmonella typhi-associated encephalopathy. MRI findings included symmetrical diffuse abnormal signal in centrum semiovale, periventricular and deep white matter, splenium of corpus callosum and cerebellar deep white matter with central area of restricted diffusion.

(C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc J Appl Polym Sci 114: 1670-1681,

(C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 1670-1681, 2009″
“To develop more “H”-shape nonlinear optical polymers, in this paper, four new polymers embedded with “H”-type chromophore moieties were designed and synthesized through a Suzuki coupling copolymerization reaction. The “H”-type chromophores were easily prepared

by the utilization of “Click Chemistry” reactions, and their structures could be conveniently adjusted by changing the diazido groups. All the polymers exhibited good film-forming ability, thermal stability, and large optical nonlinearities. As a typical example, P4 demonstrated the highest d(33) value of 94.7 pm/V, and its onset temperature for decay was up to 103 degrees C, making it promising candidate for practical applications in photonic fields. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“It Ruboxistaurin has long been known that amyloid beta protein (A beta) plays a key role in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and in Down Syndrome cognitive decline. Recent findings have shown that soluble forms of A beta (mostly A beta oligomers; A beta o), rather than insoluble forms (fibrils and plaques), are associated with memory impairments in early stages of AD. Since synaptic plasticity and oscillatory

network activity are required for memory formation, C59 cell line consolidation and retrieval, numerous attempts have been made to establish whether or not A beta o-induced alterations in synaptic plasticity PI3K inhibitor and oscillatory network activity cause memory impairment. Despite a wealth of uncorrelated experimental evidence, such a relationship remains elusive. Furthermore, the specific cellular mechanisms underlying these disruptions remain to be determined. This review will discuss

recent findings about the cellular and network mechanisms involved in A beta o-induced alterations of network oscillations and synaptic plasticity that could be responsible for the learning and memory impairments observed in early AD. Additionally, we will review some of the signal transduction pathways involved in these deleterious effects, which are revealing promising therapeutic targets to ease A beta o-induced brain dysfunction and treat AD.”
“We investigated whether the Discovery total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) system had good results and survival in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. In a prospective cohort study, one elbow surgeon performed TEA on 25 consecutive RA patients (31 elbows) between December 2004 and November 2012 using the Discovery system. We evaluated the preoperative elbow range of motion (ROM), functional outcome with QuickDash and quality of life with EQ-5D. An independent colleague evaluated the same parameters 1-8 years (mean 4.5) postoperatively. The medical records of the follow-up visits for the study period were available for review. A complete set of results was available for 19 patients (25 elbows).

Results aEuro integral Our quantitative analysis did not find com

Results.aEuro integral Our quantitative analysis did not find compelling evidence of widespread and significant effects of

polio eradication campaigns, either positive or negative, on measures of RI and maternal healthcare. Our BYL719 research buy qualitative analysis revealed context-specific positive impacts of polio eradication activities in many of our case studies, particularly disease surveillance and cold chain strengthening. These impacts were dependent on the initiative of policy makers. Negative impacts, including service interruption and public dissatisfaction, were observed primarily in districts with many campaigns per year. Conclusions.aEuro integral Polio eradication activities can provide support for RI and PHC, but many opportunities to do so remain missed. Increased commitment to scaling up best practices could lead to significant positive impacts.”
“A paucity of data exists concerning PFTα purchase the presentation, natural course and outcome of extramedullary

plasmcytoma (EMP). It is difficult to determine the optimal treatment strategy and prognostic factors for EMP. We present an additional case of laryngeal EMP and systemic review relevant reports in the English and Chinese literature. We found, to our knowledge, 147 cases in larynx in the English-language literature and Chinese-literature. The most common treatment modality was radiotherapy alone. The mean survival duration was similar to 184 months, and the 5- and 10-year survival rates were 76.1% and 67.4%, respectively. The univariate analysis suggested that progression to multiple myeloma and amyloid deposits may be poor prognostic factors. The multivariate analysis suggested that only progression to multiple myeloma may be a poor prognostic factor. Laryngeal EMP is uncommon. Progression to multiple myeloma may be a poor prognostic factor.”
“A tunneling nanotube (TNT) is a newly discovered structure involved in cell-cell communication and is found in various types of cells. Here we identify S100A4

as an extracellular molecule and describe its role in attracting the growth direction of TNTs. Together with its putative receptor, receptor for advanced glycation end product, we demonstrate their Vadimezan concentration involvement in TNT direction guidance. Our results further suggest a mechanism for direction guidance of TNTs. In TNT-initiating cells, p53 activates caspase-3, which leads to S100A4 cleavage and its subsequent decrease in cellular concentration. The decrease in cellular S100A4 induces the formation of a gradient of S100A4, from a low concentration in initiating cells toward a high concentration in target cells. This concentration gradient of S100A4 induces direction guidance for TNTs. Cell Death and Disease (2012) 3, e438; doi:10.1038/cddis.2012.

A preoperative core needle biopsy could be useful in identifying

A preoperative core needle biopsy could be useful in identifying the sclerosing subtype.”
“Loss of complex natural microhabitats due to human activity is a major cause of decreased biodiversity but its effects on biological

invasion are not well understood. The effects of physical environmental factors, especially the type of agricultural canals, on the invasive freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata were studied at 33 sites selleck kinase inhibitor in the Chikugogawa River basin, Kyushu, Japan. Differences among sites in the local fauna and vegetation were also monitored. Structural equation modeling with a model selection procedure revealed that canals with a concrete lining had more snails. The effect was indirect in that the concrete lining reduced animal species richness and increased the invasive waterweed Egeria densa, which may serve as a refuge, protecting the snails from predation. A tethering experiment conducted simultaneously indicated high predation pressure on the snails: over 20% of the tethered snails were lost within a day. Thus, human impacts may increase biological invasion by reducing

biotic resistance and increasing the risk of invasional meltdown.”
“In addition to a proven efficacy in lowering blood pressure, the AT1 receptor blocker telmisartan has recently been shown to exert pleiotropic effects as a partial agonist of the nuclear peroxisome selleck screening library proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma). Based on these findings and an excellent side-effect profile, telmisartan may serve as a lead structure for the development of new PPAR gamma ligands. Therefore, we analyzed the structual components of telmisartan to identify those necessary for PPAR gamma activation. Synthesized compounds were tested in a differentiation assay using 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and a luciferase assay with COS-7 cells transiently transfected with pGal4-hPPAR gamma DEF, pGal5-TK-pGL3 and pRL-CMV. The data obtained selleck inhibitor in this structure-activity relationship (SAR) study provide the

basis for the development of new PPAR gamma ligands, which could lead to active compounds with a distinct, beneficial pharmacological profile compared with the existing full agonists. The basic 1-(biphenyl-4-ylmethyl)-1H-benzimidazole scaffold of telmisartan was identified as an essential moiety with either a carboxylic acid or tetrazole group at the C-2 position of the biphenyl. For maximum potency and activity, the alkyl chain in position 2 requires a minimum length of at least two C atoms (ethyl group), while the methyl group at position 4 of the benzimidazole core seems to contribute to partial activity. An additional benzimidazole at position 6 appears to be a further determination of potency. Similar conclusions can be drawn for the methyl group in position 1.”
“The mechanisms through which aldosterone promotes apparently opposite effects like salt reabsorption and K(+) secretion remain poorly understood.

190(1) angstrom, c = 6 727(3) angstrom, and V = 118 10(7) angstro

190(1) angstrom, c = 6.727(3) angstrom, and V = 118.10(7) angstrom(3). The cell volume obtained from single crystal X-ray diffraction data shows a larger volume than expected for a Yb3+ compound. Magnetic susceptibility measurements on single crystals of YbCoGa5 display temperature independent Pauli paramagnetic behavior. Electrical resistivity measurements of YbCoGa5 display metallic behavior with a residual resistivity ratio (RRR) of 150 indicating the high crystal find more quality.”
“Objectives: Presentation of a group of patients with diagnosed malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (MOGCT), determination of prognostic factors and outcome analysis.\n\nMaterial and methods: We selected

patients with diagnosed malignant ovarian germ cell tumors from the patient registry of Cancer Center in Warsaw from 1990 to 2001. We analyzed clinical and pathological features of the study group, as well as methods and results of treatment.\n\nResults: We collected documentation of 83 patients. Most were diagnosed with dysgerminoma and immature teratoma in the early stages of development. 73 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery At the end of the first line of treatment complete response was achieved in 63 patients (75.9%). Time to recurrence Omipalisib ranged from 25 to 518 days (mean 176 days). The most common site of recurrence

was the true pelvis. The five-year overall survival was 62.7%. Significant favorable prognostic factor was early stage of disease and the histological diagnosis of dysgerminoma. From the 46 women after fertility-sparing surgery 8 became pregnant.\n\nConclusions: MOGCT

are a group of potentially curable, yet very aggressive malignant ovarian tumors. The main condition for obtaining good results is quick diagnosis and appropriate treatment, usually surgery associated with multidrug chemotherapy The stage of the disease remains the most important prognostic factor Patients diagnosed with dysgerminoma are a separate group with very good prognosis.”
“Trunk www.selleckchem.com/products/lazertinib-yh25448-gns-1480.html instability during sitting is a major problem following neuromuscular injuries such as stroke and spinal cord injury. In order to develop new strategies for alleviating this problem, a better understanding of the intrinsic contributions of the healthy trunk to sitting control is needed. As such, this study set out to propose and validate a novel methodology for determining multidirectional trunk stiffness during sitting using randomized transient perturbations. Fifteen healthy individuals sitting naturally on a custommade seat were randomly perturbed in eight horizontal directions. Trunk stiffness and damping were quantified using force and trunk kinematics in combination with translational and torsional models of a mass-spring-damper system. The results indicate that stiffness and damping of the healthy trunk are roughly symmetrical between the two body sides. Moreover, both quantities are smallest in the anterior and largest in the lateral directions.