Afferent activity from multifidus

and longissimus muscle

Afferent activity from multifidus

and longissimus muscle spindles was recorded in the L-6 dorsal root in 30 anesthetized cats. To alter movement history, a feedback-controlled motor attached to the L-6 spinous process held (conditioned for 4 s) the L-6 vertebra at an intermediate position or at positions that either lengthened find more or shortened the muscles. With the vertebra returned to the intermediate position, resting spindle discharge was measured over the next 0.5 s (static test) and then during a dynamic test consisting of ramp vertebral movement at four velocities (0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mm/s). Spindle activity during the tests was measured relative to hold-intermediate. For both tests, hold-long decreased and hold-short increased muscle spindle responsiveness. For the static test

position responsiveness was not different among the velocity protocols for either hold-long or hold-short (P = 0.42 and 0.24, respectively). During the dynamic test, hold-long conditioning significantly decreased [F-(3,F-119) = 7.99, P < 0.001] spindle responsiveness to increasing velocity. Mean velocity sensitivity was 4.44, 3.39, and 1.41 (impulses/s)/(mm/s) for the hold-short, hold-intermediate, and hold-long protocols, respectively. The nearly 2.5-fold decrease in velocity sensitivity following hold-long was significantly less than that for either hold-intermediate (P = 0.005) or hold-short conditioning (P < 0.001). Hold-short

conditioning had little effect on velocity responses during the dynamic test [F-(3,F-119) = 0.23, P = 0.87]. In conclusion, only movement histories that GSI-IX supplier stretch but not shorten muscle spindles alter their velocity sensitivity. In the low back, forward flexion and lateral bending postures would likely be the most provocative.”
“Purpose: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are highly aggressive pediatric malignancies characterized by biallelic inactivation of the SMARCB1 tumor suppressor gene. We searched for novel genomic aberrations by investigating the copy number and expression alterations of let-7a3/let-76 microRNA (miRNA) and correlated these with expression of high-mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) oncoprotein, a target of let-7 miRNA family, in 18 AT/RT samples to elucidate potential roles Selleck Ro 61-8048 of HMGA2 in the pathogenesis of AT/RT.\n\nExperimental Design: Genomic aberrations, let-7a3/let-7b miRNA and HMGA2 expression in AT/RT tissues were identified using quantitative PCR, reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry. The impact of let-76 iniRNA on HMGA2 expression and the malignant potential of human rhabdoid tumor cell G401 (SMARCB1(-/-)) were investigated by antisense inhibition and ectopic overexpression studies.\n\nResults: The copy number of let-7a3/let-76 miRNA was substantially decreased in 4 of 11 AT/RT samples.

“The discovery of fullerenes in 1985 opened a new chapter

“The discovery of fullerenes in 1985 opened a new chapter in the chemistry of highly symmetric molecules. Fullerene-like

metal dusters, characterized by (multi)shell-like structures, are one rapidly developing class of molecules that share this shape. In addition to creating aesthetically pleasing molecular Structures, the ordered arrangement of metal atoms within such frameworks provides the opportunity to develop materials with properties not readily achieved in corresponding mononuclear or lower-nuclearity complexes.\n\nIn this Account, we survey the great variety of fullerene-like AC220 order metal-containing clusters with an emphasis on their synthetic and structural chemistry, a first step in the discussion of this fascinating field of cluster chemistry. We group the compounds of interest into three categories based on the atomic composition of the cluster core: those with formal metal-metal bonding, those characterized by ligand participation, and those supported by polyoxometalate building blocks. The number of clusters in the first group, containing metal-metal

bonds, is relatively small. However, because of the unique and complex bonding scenarios observed for some of these species, these metalloid clusters present a number of research questions with significant ramifications. Because these cores contain molecular clusters of selleckchem precious metals at the nanoscale, they offer an opportunity to study chemical properties at size ranges from the molecular to nanoscale and to gain insights into the electronic structures and properties of nanomaterials of similar chemical compositions.\n\nClusters of the second type, whose core structures are facilitated by ligand participation, could aid in the development of functional materials. Of particular interest are the magnetic clusters containing both transition and lanthanide elements. A series of such heterometallic clusters that we prepared demonstrates diverse

magnetic properties including antiferromagnetism, ferrimagnetism, and ferromagnetism. Considering the diversity of their composition, their distinct electronic structures, and the disparate coordination behaviors of the different metal elements, these materials suggest abundant opportunities for designing multifunctional materials with Acalabrutinib molecular weight varied structures.\n\nThe third type of dusters that we discuss are based on polyoxometalates, in particular those containing pentagonal units. However, unlike in fullerene chemistry, which does not allow the use of discrete pentagonal building blocks, the metal oxide-based pentagonal units can be used as fundamental building blocks for constructing various Keplerate structures. These structures also have a variety of functions, including intriguing magnetic properties in some cases. Coupled with different linking groups, such pentagonal units can be used for the assembly of a large number of spherical molecules whose properties can be tuned and optimized.

05), and IL-1RA treatment initiated at 24 hr postinjury resulted

05), and IL-1RA treatment initiated at 24 hr postinjury resulted in weaker but still significant neuroprotection. IL-1RA treatment also reduced the number of microglial cells significantly when initiated within 36 hr postinjury (P < 0.05). In conclusion, IL-1RA exhibits significant neuroprotective effects in this in vitro model of excitotoxic injury even after delayed application. (C) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“It has been previously reported that overweight and obese individuals perceive exercise as more difficult than their lean counterparts, and this difference may not be solely attributed

to physiological differences. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that individual differences in the perception of exercise difficulty during exercise, independent of concurrently measured physiological markers of exertion, are predictive of weight regain, after completion of a weight loss program. A total of 113 formerly overweight women who had AZD1208 in vivo previously completed a weight-loss program to achieve a normal body weight (BMI <25 kg/m(2)) underwent a submaximal aerobic exercise task while MCC950 datasheet measures of physiological and perceived exertion (rating of perceived exertion (RPE)) were recorded. Weight gain was assessed following a subsequent 1-year free-living

period. Average weight regain 1 year following the intervention was 5.46 +/- 3.95 kg. In regression modeling, RPE (beta = 0.21, P = 0.01), but not physiological exertion (beta = 0.02, P = 0.81), during the submaximal exercise task was positively associated with 1-year weight regain following weight loss in premenopausal women, independent of measured confounding variables. The association between RPE and weight regain suggests that perception of exercise difficulty is an important predictor of weight

Epacadostat manufacturer regain following a weight-loss intervention.”
“There is growing interest regarding the role of the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG) during a particular form of executive control referred to as response inhibition. However, tasks used to examine neural activity at the point of response inhibition have rarely controlled for the potentially confounding effects of attentional demand. In particular, it is unclear whether the RIFG is specifically involved in inhibitory control, or is involved more generally in the detection of salient or task relevant cues. The current fMRI study sought to clarify the role of the RIFG in executive control by holding the stimulus conditions of one of the most popular response inhibition tasks-the Stop Signal Task-constant, whilst varying the response that was required on reception of the stop signal cue. Our results reveal that the RIFG is recruited when important cues are detected, regardless of whether that detection is followed by the inhibition of a motor response, the generation of a motor response, or no external response at all. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

The analysis of the impact of illiteracy on neuropsychological te

The analysis of the impact of illiteracy on neuropsychological test performance represents a crucial approach to understanding human cognition and its brain organization under normal and abnormal conditions.”
“Three cores were collected in the lagoon of Ghar El Melh (Northern Tunisia) and the sediments were analysed for trace and

major elements, sulfides acid volatile sulfides (AVS) and pyrite and total organic Cediranib ic50 carbon (TOC). The sediments are composed of black-mud in the upper layer (0-10 cm depth) and grey-mud underneath. Based on the lagoon history, it was believed that the black-mud is endogenic, while the grey-mud is exogenic (derived from old contributions of the Selleck Cyclosporin A Mejerda River before its diversion). The concentrations of TOC and AVS decrease with depth, while the redox potential (Eh) is negative in the black-mud and positive in the grey-mud. The Eh measurements thus

revealed the singularity of the sedimentation mode in this lagoon. The North American Composite Shale (NASC) normalisation indicated that Cd, Zn and Pb were enriched through the entire profiles, indicating that this sediment was contaminated for a long time by mining activities and human pollution. Trace metal profiles of Fe, Cd, and Cu approximated that of TOC, while the profiles of Mn, Co, Pb, Ni and Zn followed the Eh. These results, confirmed by the principal component analysis (PCA), suggested that some metals can accumulate

in the reduced sediment, while others accumulate in the sub-oxic sediment. Such inference is supported by the metal chemical speciation, which showed these metal sediment component 5-Fluoracil datasheet associations: Mn, Co, Ni, Pb and Zn to the Mn-oxi-hydroxide fraction, Fe to the residual and organic sulfide-fractions, Cu to the organic sulfide fraction and Cd to carbonates and sulfides.”
“Kong, C., Lee, J. H. and Adeola, O. 2011. Supplementation of beta-mannanase to starter and grower diets for broilers. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 91: 389-397. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the efficacy of P-mannanase on ileal nutrient digestibility, total tract utilization of dry matter (DM), N, energy, and apparent metabolizable energy (AME, exp. 1), and growth performance (exp. 2) of birds fed practical corn-soybean meal (SBM)-based diets. In each experiment, 192 male broilers were assigned to four diets arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial of energy level [corn-SBM-based diet that met or exceeded NRC nutrient requirements (AE) or low energy (LE) diet containing 100 kcal of ME kg(-1) less than the AE diet] and enzyme supplementation (with or without beta-mannanase) for 21 d. Supplementing the diet with P-mannanase increased the birds’ apparent ileal DM digestibility of the experimental diets (P<0.05), whereas there was no effect of energy level.

However, evaluating their performance is unfeasible unless a ‘gol

However, evaluating their performance is unfeasible unless a ‘gold standard’ is available to measure how close the reconstructed

network is to the ground truth. One measure of this is the stability of these predictions to data resampling approaches. We introduce NetSI, a family of Network Stability Indicators, to assess quantitatively the stability of a reconstructed network in terms of inference variability selleck screening library due to data subsampling. In order to evaluate network stability, the main NetSI methods use a global/local network metric in combination with a resampling (bootstrap or cross-validation) procedure. In addition, we provide two normalized variability scores over data resampling to measure edge weight stability and node degree stability, and then introduce a stability ranking for edges and nodes. A complete implementation of the NetSI indicators, including the Hamming-Ipsen-Mikhailov (HIM) network distance adopted in this paper is available with the R package

nettools. We demonstrate the use of the NetSI family by measuring network stability on four datasets against alternative network reconstruction methods. First, the effect of sample size on stability of inferred networks is studied in a gold standard framework on yeast-like data from the Gene Net Weaver simulator. We also consider the impact of varying Cell Cycle inhibitor modularity on a set of structurally different networks (50 nodes,

from 2 to 10 modules), and then of complex feature covariance structure, showing the different behaviours of standard reconstruction methods based on Pearson correlation, Maximum Information Coefficient (MIC) and False Discovery Rate (FDR) Selleckchem Dorsomorphin strategy. Finally, we demonstrate a strong combined effect of different reconstruction methods and phenotype subgroups on a hepatocellular carcinoma miRNA microarray dataset (240 subjects), and we validate the analysis on a second dataset (166 subjects) with good reproducibility.”
“The pro-apoptotic effects of hydrogen peroxide and the purported anti-apoptotic effects of Vitamin C on chicken embryonic fibroblasts were investigated. Hydrogen peroxide induced morphological changes in a dose dependent manner, and a myriad of autophagosomes were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Doxorubicin elicited alterations were not inhibited by co-incubation with Vitamin C except that mitochondrial structure was slightly improved. TUNEL assay, cytotoxicity analysis and flow cytometry revealed that the cytotoxicity, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic rates were dose dependent upon treatment with hydrogen peroxide. Calcium homeostasis was disrupted in a dose dependent manner, and cell cycle was blocked at G(2)/M checkpoint at low concentration and S/G(2) checkpoint at high concentration respectively upon treatment with hydrogen peroxide.

Large amounts of thiols, including H(2)S, are secreted upon cysti

Large amounts of thiols, including H(2)S, are secreted upon cystine uptake by selleck the CyuC transporter. A cystathionine gamma-lyase (cgl) gene is cotranscribed with the cyu genes in several L. reuteri strains and was hypothesized to participate in cystine-mediated oxidative defense by producing reducing equivalents. This hypothesis was tested with L. reuteri BR11 by constructing a cgl mutant (PNG901) and comparing it to a similarly constructed cyuC mutant (PNG902). Although Cgl was required for H2S production from cystine, it was not crucial

for oxidative defense in de Mann-Rogosa-Sharpe medium, in contrast to CyuC, whose inactivation resulted in lag-phase arrest in aerated cultures. The importance of Cgl in oxidative defense was seen only in the presence of hemin, which poses severe oxidative

stress. The growth defects in aerated cultures of both mutants were alleviated by supplementation with cysteine ( and cystine in the cgl mutant) but not methionine, with the cyuC mutant showing a much higher concentration requirement. We conclude that L. reuteri BR11 requires a high concentration of exogenous cysteine/cystine to grow optimally under aerobic conditions. This requirement is fulfilled by the abundant CyuC transporter, which has probably arisen due to the broad substrate specificity of Cgl, resulting in a futile pathway which degrades cystine taken up by the CyuC transporter to H2S. Cgl plays a secondary role in oxidative defense by its well-documented function of cysteine biosynthesis.”
“BACKGROUND: Selleck HIF inhibitor Ablation is increasingly used to treat primary

and secondary liver cancer. Ablation near portal pedicles and hepatic veins is challenging. Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a new ablation technique that does not rely on heat and, in animals, appears to be safe and effective when applied near hepatic veins and portal pedicles. This study evaluated the safety and short-term outcomes of IRE to ablate perivascular malignant liver tumors.\n\nSTUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review Caspase inhibitor of patients treated with IRE between January 1, 2011 and November 2, 2011 was performed. Patients were selected for IRE when resection or thermal ablation was not indicated due to tumor location. Treatment outcomes were classified by local, regional, and systemic recurrence and complications. Local failure was defined as abnormal enhancement at the periphery of an ablation defect on post-procedure contrast imaging.\n\nRESULTS: Twenty-eight patients had 65 tumors treated. Twenty-two patients (79%) were treated via an open approach and 6 (21%) were treated percutaneously. Median tumor size was 1 cm (range 0.5 to 5 cm). Twenty-five tumors were <1 cm from a major hepatic vein; 16 were <1 cm from a major portal pedicle. Complications included 1 intraoperative arrhythmia and 1 postoperative portal vein thrombosis.

8); Group M (n=83, GRWR 0 8-1 0); Group L (n=73, GRWR > 1 0)

8); Group M (n=83, GRWR 0.8-1.0); Group L (n=73, GRWR > 1.0). Recovery of graft function, incidence of small-for-size syndrome and rate of complications were compared among the three groups. Results: There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics in both the donors and recipients, nor in the intensive care unit stay hours, re-operation rate, hospital stay after operation, Clavien System score and recovery of graft function

after transplantation, VX-680 molecular weight among the three groups. The small-for-size syndrome rates were 13%, 7.23% and 11% in Groups S, M and B, and no significant difference was noted among the three groups. Conclusions: GRWR may not be the only factor affecting recipient prognosis after LDLT. Local graft dysfunction such as impaired venous outflow, severity of disease and portal hyperperfusion in the recipient, and fatty liver in donor may influence the graft and thus the prognosis of transplantation.”
“Obesity is accompanied by adipocyte death and

accumulation of macrophages and mast cells in expanding adipose tissues. Considering the differences in biological behavior of fat found in different anatomical locations, we explored the distribution of mast cells, solitary macrophages, and crown-like structures (CLS), the surrogates INCB28060 research buy for dead adipocytes, in subcutaneous and abdominal visceral fat of lean and diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice. In fat depots of lean mice, mast cells were far less prevalent than solitary macrophages. Subcutaneous fat contained more mast cells, but fewer solitary macrophages and CLS, than visceral fat. Whereas no significant change in mast cell density of subcutaneous

fat was observed, obesity was accompanied by a substantial increase in mast cells in visceral fat. CLS became prevalent in visceral fat of obese mice, and the distribution paralleled mast cells. Adipose tissue mast cells XMU-MP-1 price contained and released preformed TNF-alpha, the cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-linked insulin resistance.jlr In summary, subcutaneous fat differed from visceral fat by immune cell composition and a lower prevalence of CLS both in lean and obese mice. The increase in mast cells in visceral fat of obese mice suggests their role in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance.-Altintas, M. M., A. Azad, B. Nayer, G. Contreras, J. Zaias, C. Faul, J. Reiser, and A. Nayer. Mast cells, macrophages, and crown-like structures distinguish subcutaneous from visceral fat in mice. J. Lipid Res. 2011. 52: 480-488.”
“Background: Chronic pain affects nearly 116 million American adults at an estimated cost of up to $635 billion annually and is the No. 1 condition for which patients seek care at integrative medicine clinics. In our Study on Integrative Medicine Treatment Approaches for Pain (SIMTAP), we observed the impact of an integrative approach on chronic pain and a number of other related patient-reported outcome measures.

All patients received PJM of the dominant arm (shoulder, elbow, a

All patients received PJM of the dominant arm (shoulder, elbow, and wrist) for 4 sessions for 2 weeks. Pain severity was measured by visual analog scale, and pain sensitivity

was measured with pressure pain threshold (PPT) at CMC joint, at the tubercle of the scaphoid bone, and at the unciform apophysis of the hamate bone. Tip and tripod pinch strength were measured by a pinch gauge.\n\nResults: Passive joint mobilization reduced pain severity after the first follow-up by 30%, in addition to increased PPT by 13% in the hamate bone. Strength was enhanced after treatment. Tripod pinch increased by 18% in the dominant hand after treatment.\n\nConclusions: This case series provides preliminary evidence that PJM of upper extremity joints diminished pain and may increase PPT tip and tripod pinch in some participants 3-Methyladenine purchase with secondary CMC OA. (J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2012;35:735-742)”
“We studied the relationships among strength, muscle mass, and bone mineral density (BMD) with lifestyle change. Lifestyle therapy consisted of exercise, diet, and diet plus exercise. Diet was by caloric restriction to induce and maintain a weight loss of 10 % from baseline body weight. Exercise attenuated weight loss-induced muscle and bone losses. Exercise improved strength despite muscle loss in patients on diet and exercise. Changes in strength did not correlate with

changes in BMD. However, changes in thigh muscle volume correlated with, and predicted changes selleck screening library in hip BMD. Losses of hip BMD and lean body mass are major complications of lifestyle therapy in frail, obese older adults; however, the contribution of mechanical strain loss

from muscle loss is poorly defined. We determined the effect of changes in thigh muscle volume and muscle strength on BMD in frail, obese older adults undergoing lifestyle therapy aimed at intentional weight loss with or without exercise. One hundred seven obese older adults were randomized to control, diet, exercise, and diet-exercise groups for 1 year. Thigh muscle volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, BMD by DXA, knee strength by dynamometry, learn more total strength by one-repetition maximum (1-RM), and bone markers by immunoassay. Thigh muscle volume decreased in the diet group (-6.2 +/- 4.8 %) and increased in the exercise group (2.7 +/- 3.1 %), while it was not significantly different from the control in the diet-exercise group. Changes in hip BMD followed similar pattern as those in thigh muscle volume. Knee extension and flexion increased in the exercise group (23 +/- 20 %; 25 +/- 19 %) and diet-exercise group (20 +/- 19 %; 20.6 +/- 27 %) but were unchanged in the control and diet groups. Changes in thigh muscle volume correlated with changes in hip BMD (r = 0.55, P = smaller than 0.001) and were an independent predictor of changes in hip BMD (beta = 0.


“Introduction this website The Phillips Report on traumatic

brain injury (TBI) in Ireland found that injury was more frequent in men and that gender differences were present in childhood. This study determined when gender differences emerge and examined the effect of gender on the mechanism of injury, injury type and severity and outcome.\n\nMethods A national prospective, observational study was conducted over a 2-year period. All patients under 17 years of age referred to a neurosurgical service following TBI were included. Data on patient demographics, events surrounding injury, injury type and severity, patient management and outcome were collected from ‘on-call’ logbooks and find more neurosurgical admissions records.\n\nResults 342 patients were included. Falls were the leading cause of injury for both sexes. Boys’ injuries tended to involve greater energy transfer and involved more risk-prone behaviour resulting in a higher rate of other (non-brain) injury and a higher mortality rate. Intentional injury occurred only in boys. While injury severity was similar for boys and girls, significant gender differences in injury type were present;

extradural haematomas were significantly higher in boys (p=0.014) and subdural haematomas were significantly higher in girls (p=0.011). Mortality was 1.8% for girls and 4.3% for boys.\n\nConclusions Falls were responsible for most

TBI, the home is the most common place of injury and non-operable TBI was common. These findings relate to all children. Significant gender differences exist from infancy. Boys sustained injuries associated with a greater energy transfer, were less likely to use protective devices and more likely to be injured deliberately. This results in a different pattern of injury, higher levels of associated injury and a higher mortality rate.”
“Brown rice malt from Indica and Japonica type rice were prepared and their nutrient composition as well as non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) contents and also some of the physico-chemical characteristics were determined. The activity of alpha- and beta-amylases in the ungermmated (native) rice was negligible but Increased considerably on germination Malting altered the chemical composition of both Indica and Japonica rice to a small extent but caused noticeable changes in the pasting characteristics The free sugars and water-soluble non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) contents of the malt samples were considerably higher than the native samples.

“A taxonomic and phylogenetic study based on morphological

“A taxonomic and phylogenetic study based on morphological characters revealed the type species of the genus Lucida Evans, 1955, Lucida lucia (Capronnier, 1874) to be paraphyletic to other species of the genus. As a result, a new genus, Ginungagapus gen. nov., is erected including four species previously placed in

Lucida: Ginungagapus schmithi (Bell, 1930) comb. nov., Ginungagapus bocus (Bell, 1947) comb. nov., Ginungagapus ranesus Selleck Combretastatin A4 (Schaus, 1902) comb. nov., and Ginungagapus rogan (Evans, 1955) comb. nov.; and four new species are added: Ginungagapus awarreni, sp. nov., Ginungagapus tangerinii, sp. nov., Ginungagapus fiedleri, sp. nov. and Ginungagapus brasilia, sp. nov. The new genus is taxonomically revised, genitalia are illustrated, except of the female of G. rogan (Evans, 1955) and GPCR Compound Library nmr of the male of G. brasilia, sp. nov., which are still unknown. An identification key is provided.”
“Ex vivo expansion of skin epithelial stem cells has long attracted great interest because of the potential utilization in transplantation and gene therapy. The use of cultured stem or progenitor cells was limited by the lack of applicable culturing system with both satisfactory expansion efficacy and well suppressed differentiation ex vivo. The p38 mitogen-activated

protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are responsible for cell growth and differentiation process. We investigated the function of p38 inhibitor SB203580 in the ex vivo expansion of skin epithelial progenitor cells by comparing media with or without addition of this inhibitor. Our results showed that the culturing medium with murine this website 3T3 feeder layers added with 10 mu M SB203580 was more effective in promoting clonal growth of human skin epithelial progenitors or stem cells than

the conventional medium without SB203580. The clone initial day in cells treated with 10 mu M SB203580 came 2 d earlier with higher colony formation efficiency. The skin epithelial progenitor cells treated with 10 mu M SB203580 formed clones that were uniformly smaller in size, longer in sustained proliferation, shorter in clone doubling time, higher in S-phase cells percentage, and lower in levels of differentiation markers such as K10 along with higher levels of stem-cell-associated markers such as p63, K15, and ABCG2 than those cultured in the conventional medium. Collectively, these results indicate that the p38 MAPK pathways inhibitor SB203580 can be used as a culture medium additive that helps to achieve more effective ex vivo expansion of skin epithelial progenitor cells.”
“Five new triterpenes (1-5) and one new lignan (6) were isolated from the aerial parts of Maytenus apurimacensis. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic studies, including homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments (COSY, ROESY, HSQC, and HMBC).