In 10 2% of patients under study, a laparoscopic or laparotomy gu

In 10.2% of patients under study, a laparoscopic or laparotomy guided technique was preferred to the percutaneous approach. Overall and tumor-free survivals were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method. For the multi-variate analysis, the hazard ratios and their 95 percent confidence intervals were computed by Cox model regression analysis.\n\nResults: No treatment-related

deaths and a severe complication rate of 3.2% were recorded. Primary complete ablation was obtained in 83.7% of nodules (87.1% of patients), and in a significantly higher rate for nodules up to 2cm (91.3%; p<0.013). Acceptability Combretastatin A4 was 100%, and eligibility was very high (156 out of 160 cases).\n\nLocal recurrence rate at 1 and 3 years was 10% and 25% respectively. The overall 3- and 5-year survival rates after treatment were 69.3% and 34.6%. Higher survival rates were obtained in the Child A cirrhosis subgroup (p<0.03) after complete response (p<0.001) and in the absence of new lesions (p<0.023).\n\nConclusions: Radiofrequency ablation has great acceptability and applicability, and is a safe and effective treatment to be used after sonographic screening for small hepatocellular carcinomas.”
“Aims:\n\nDetailed knowledge about the enzymes responsible for conversion of C-3 and C-4 compounds will be helpful to ACY-1215 purchase establish the bacterial strain Ralstonia eutropha as platform for the production of biotechnologically interesting compounds.

Although various studies about these enzymes were accomplished in the past, some

contradicting information about the enzyme pattern in this bacterium still exists. To resolve these discrepancies, the C-3/C-4 metabolism was reinvestigated after the genome sequence of this bacterium became available.\n\nMethods and Results:\n\nIn silico analysis of genome sequence revealed putative genes coding for NAD(P)+-dependent malic enzymes (Mae), phoshoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (Ppc), phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (Pps) and pyruvate carboxylase (Pyc). Reverse transcription PCR revealed constitutive expression of mae and pck genes, whereas no transcripts of pyc and ppc were found. Expression of active NADP+-dependent CYT387 solubility dmso MaeB and Pck and absence of Pyc and Ppc was confirmed by spectrophotometric enzyme assays.\n\nConclusions:\n\nThe data reported in this study suggest that two enzymes, (i) MaeB and (ii) Pck, mediate between the C-3 and C-4 intermediates in R. eutropha H16. The enzymatic conversion of pyruvate into phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is catalysed by Pps, and an NADH+-dependent Mdh mediates the reversible conversion of malate and oxaloacetate.\n\nSignificance and Impact of the Study:\n\nAn increased knowledge of the enzymes mediating between C-3 and C-4 intermediates in R. eutropha will facilitate metabolic engineering.”
“Therapeutic vaccination against cancer is an important modality complementing current standard therapies and may lead to long-term control of cancer.

This adds additional evidence that trends in the diagnosis and tr

This adds additional evidence that trends in the diagnosis and treatment for ADHD Apoptosis inhibitor in children move in the exact opposite direction from those who are at highest risk for meeting criteria, for experiencing impairment, for and

downstream socioeconomic sequelae. Contributing factors, such as marginal diagnoses (such as when parent and teacher symptom reports diverge), inadequate insurance coverage, limited time, and lack of familiarity and comfort with diagnostic and prescribing guidelines, may leave the door open to misdiagnosis and treatment. In some cases, this may take the form of over-diagnosis and over-treatment, in the form of false-positive diagnoses with ADHD, and treatments for it, or may alternatively take the form of false-negative diagnoses. If the social and epidemiological data are any indication, it is furthermore likely that such false-positive or false-negative outcomes may break along socioeconomic lines. Increased use of formal screening tools, increased

curricular time for mental health in primary care residencies, buy Emricasan support for physicians in the field in the form of referral options and remote consultation and support, may all serve to improve quality of care for individual patients, and may also serve to regularize treatment across socioeconomic and sociodemographic lines, hence reducing disparities. Further research is needed to study the root causes and dynamics that create such disparities, but the steps outlined above may help in the near term. (Int’l. J. Psychiatry in Medicine 2010;40:383-389)”
“Intestinal samples from 156 small Indian mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus) collected island-wide in Grenada from

April 2011 to March A-1155463 chemical structure 2013 were examined for the presence of Salmonella enterica spp. Nineteen (12%) mongooses were culture-positive for S. enterica spp. of which five serotypes were identified. Salmonella javiana and S. Montevideo were the most commonly isolated serotypes. The other serotypes isolated were S. Rubislaw, S. Panama and S. Arechavaleta. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, imipenem and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. One isolate (S. Montevideo) showed resistance to tetracycline and intermediate resistance to streptomycin. The five isolated Salmonella serotypes are potential human pathogens suggesting that the mongoose may play a role in the epidemiology of human salmonellosis in Grenada. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“HIV-1 infection cannot be cured due to reservoirs formed early after infection.

92%) and D-limonene (15 78%), beta-pinene (4 91%) and transpinoca

92%) and D-limonene (15.78%), beta-pinene (4.91%) and transpinocarveol (4.76%), while

the oil extracted by SPME showed alpha-pinene (41.59%), D-limonene MK-0518 in vivo (17.8%), beta-caryophllene (11.02%) and beta-pinene (7.54%) as the principal components. SPME extracts indicated that alpha-pinene and beta-caryophllene were in greater concentration in the head space vapours than in the oil. The antioxidant activity of the oils from P. armandii was evaluated using the DPPH. This is the first report describing the essential oil composition and antioxidant activity of this species.”
“Extraesophageal reflux disease, commonly called laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD), continues to be an entity with more questions than answers. Although the role of LPRD has been implicated in various pediatric diseases, it has been inadequately studied in others. LPRD is believed to contribute to failure to thrive, laryngomalacia, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, chronic cough, hoarseness, esophagitis, and aspiration among other pathologies. Thus, LPRD should be considered as a chronic disease with a variety of presentations. High clinical

suspicion along with consultation with Selleck Bindarit an otolaryngologist, who can evaluate for laryngeal findings, is necessary to accurately diagnose LPRD.”
“Background Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is an immune-mediated disorder that is characterized by slowly progressive and asymmetrical weakness, but its pathophysiological mechanism is uncertain. The hypothesis that MMN is an immunological disease has been supported by the proven therapeutic effects of intravenous immunoglobulin and

the detection of antiganglioside antibodies in MMN patients. The coexistence of MMN with other immune diseases has been rarely reported.\n\nCase Report A 37-year-old woman visited our hospital complaining Selleckchem SC79 of weakness in both hands. The clinical manifestations coincided well with MMN: predominantly distal upper-limb weakness, asymmetric involvement, a progressive course, absence of sensory symptoms, absence of pyramidal signs, and sparing of the cranial muscles. The electrophysiological findings also supported a diagnosis of MMN, with motor nerve conduction block in the median, ulnar, and radial nerves, without sensory nerve involvement. The patient was simultaneously diagnosed as having Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, which is a well-known immune-mediated disease.\n\nConclusions The concurrence of MMN and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis in our patient is significant for understanding the immunological characteristics of the two diseases. J Clin Neurol 2011;7:168-172″
“Group 2 allergens (Der p2) have been reported to be a major cause of the human immune response to dust mite allergens. In this study, we have demonstrated for the first time the effective differentiation between haplotype mutation and normal genes in the MD-2 gene promoter using a nanostructured biosensor.

(C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“The aim of thi

(C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between size at birth and mental health problems at 11 years of age in the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Newborns were

weighed and measured, and anthropometric indices were calculated. At 11 years of age, mental health problems were assessed using the Strengths selleck and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Prevalence of mental health problems was 32% (95% CI: 31-33). After adjusting for potential con-founders, newborns with weight and body mass index (BMI) for age z-scores < -2 SD were at 27% (95% CI: 7-49) and 29% (95% CI: 10-51) greater risk, respectively, of developing mental health problems at age 11 years than those born with normal scores. Newborns with BMI and head circumference for age z-scores > +2 SD were at

34% (95% CI: 6-71) and 19% (95% CI: 1-40) greater risk, respectively, of developing mental health problems than those with normal scores. The results suggest that early factors that are reflected as size measurements at birth can cause mental health problems later in life.”
“A transient heat transfer model is formulated for a shrinking packed-bed of reacting ZnO particles exposed to GDC-0068 concentrated solar irradiation. The model combines conduction, convection, and radiation heat transfer with simultaneous sintering and reaction kinetics. Validation is accomplished in terms of temperatures and dissociation rates experimentally measured using a solar-driven thermogravimeter with ZnO packed-bed samples subjected to solar flux concentration ratios ill the range 1225-2133 suns and surface temperatures in the range 1834-2109 K. Operating conditions are typical of an ablation regime controlled I v the rate of radiative heat transfer to the first layers of ZnO undergoing endothermic dissociation. (C) 2009 American Institute

of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 55: 1659-1666, 2009″
“Toothed whales echolocating in the wild generate clicks with low repetition rates to locate prey but then produce rapid sequences of clicks, called buzzes, when attempting to capture prey. However, little is known about the factors that determine clicking rates or how prey type and behaviour influence echolocation-based foraging. Here we study Blainville’s beaked whales foraging in deep water using a multi-sensor DTAG that records both outgoing echolocation clicks and echoes returning from mesopelagic prey. We demonstrate that the clicking rate at the beginning of buzzes is related to the distance between whale and prey, supporting the presumption that whales focus on a specific prey target during the buzz.

Afferent activity from multifidus

and longissimus muscle

Afferent activity from multifidus

and longissimus muscle spindles was recorded in the L-6 dorsal root in 30 anesthetized cats. To alter movement history, a feedback-controlled motor attached to the L-6 spinous process held (conditioned for 4 s) the L-6 vertebra at an intermediate position or at positions that either lengthened find more or shortened the muscles. With the vertebra returned to the intermediate position, resting spindle discharge was measured over the next 0.5 s (static test) and then during a dynamic test consisting of ramp vertebral movement at four velocities (0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mm/s). Spindle activity during the tests was measured relative to hold-intermediate. For both tests, hold-long decreased and hold-short increased muscle spindle responsiveness. For the static test

position responsiveness was not different among the velocity protocols for either hold-long or hold-short (P = 0.42 and 0.24, respectively). During the dynamic test, hold-long conditioning significantly decreased [F-(3,F-119) = 7.99, P < 0.001] spindle responsiveness to increasing velocity. Mean velocity sensitivity was 4.44, 3.39, and 1.41 (impulses/s)/(mm/s) for the hold-short, hold-intermediate, and hold-long protocols, respectively. The nearly 2.5-fold decrease in velocity sensitivity following hold-long was significantly less than that for either hold-intermediate (P = 0.005) or hold-short conditioning (P < 0.001). Hold-short

conditioning had little effect on velocity responses during the dynamic test [F-(3,F-119) = 0.23, P = 0.87]. In conclusion, only movement histories that GSI-IX supplier stretch but not shorten muscle spindles alter their velocity sensitivity. In the low back, forward flexion and lateral bending postures would likely be the most provocative.”
“Purpose: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are highly aggressive pediatric malignancies characterized by biallelic inactivation of the SMARCB1 tumor suppressor gene. We searched for novel genomic aberrations by investigating the copy number and expression alterations of let-7a3/let-76 microRNA (miRNA) and correlated these with expression of high-mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) oncoprotein, a target of let-7 miRNA family, in 18 AT/RT samples to elucidate potential roles Selleck Ro 61-8048 of HMGA2 in the pathogenesis of AT/RT.\n\nExperimental Design: Genomic aberrations, let-7a3/let-7b miRNA and HMGA2 expression in AT/RT tissues were identified using quantitative PCR, reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry. The impact of let-76 iniRNA on HMGA2 expression and the malignant potential of human rhabdoid tumor cell G401 (SMARCB1(-/-)) were investigated by antisense inhibition and ectopic overexpression studies.\n\nResults: The copy number of let-7a3/let-76 miRNA was substantially decreased in 4 of 11 AT/RT samples.

“The discovery of fullerenes in 1985 opened a new chapter

“The discovery of fullerenes in 1985 opened a new chapter in the chemistry of highly symmetric molecules. Fullerene-like

metal dusters, characterized by (multi)shell-like structures, are one rapidly developing class of molecules that share this shape. In addition to creating aesthetically pleasing molecular Structures, the ordered arrangement of metal atoms within such frameworks provides the opportunity to develop materials with properties not readily achieved in corresponding mononuclear or lower-nuclearity complexes.\n\nIn this Account, we survey the great variety of fullerene-like AC220 order metal-containing clusters with an emphasis on their synthetic and structural chemistry, a first step in the discussion of this fascinating field of cluster chemistry. We group the compounds of interest into three categories based on the atomic composition of the cluster core: those with formal metal-metal bonding, those characterized by ligand participation, and those supported by polyoxometalate building blocks. The number of clusters in the first group, containing metal-metal

bonds, is relatively small. However, because of the unique and complex bonding scenarios observed for some of these species, these metalloid clusters present a number of research questions with significant ramifications. Because these cores contain molecular clusters of selleckchem precious metals at the nanoscale, they offer an opportunity to study chemical properties at size ranges from the molecular to nanoscale and to gain insights into the electronic structures and properties of nanomaterials of similar chemical compositions.\n\nClusters of the second type, whose core structures are facilitated by ligand participation, could aid in the development of functional materials. Of particular interest are the magnetic clusters containing both transition and lanthanide elements. A series of such heterometallic clusters that we prepared demonstrates diverse

magnetic properties including antiferromagnetism, ferrimagnetism, and ferromagnetism. Considering the diversity of their composition, their distinct electronic structures, and the disparate coordination behaviors of the different metal elements, these materials suggest abundant opportunities for designing multifunctional materials with Acalabrutinib molecular weight varied structures.\n\nThe third type of dusters that we discuss are based on polyoxometalates, in particular those containing pentagonal units. However, unlike in fullerene chemistry, which does not allow the use of discrete pentagonal building blocks, the metal oxide-based pentagonal units can be used as fundamental building blocks for constructing various Keplerate structures. These structures also have a variety of functions, including intriguing magnetic properties in some cases. Coupled with different linking groups, such pentagonal units can be used for the assembly of a large number of spherical molecules whose properties can be tuned and optimized.

05), and IL-1RA treatment initiated at 24 hr postinjury resulted

05), and IL-1RA treatment initiated at 24 hr postinjury resulted in weaker but still significant neuroprotection. IL-1RA treatment also reduced the number of microglial cells significantly when initiated within 36 hr postinjury (P < 0.05). In conclusion, IL-1RA exhibits significant neuroprotective effects in this in vitro model of excitotoxic injury even after delayed application. (C) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“It has been previously reported that overweight and obese individuals perceive exercise as more difficult than their lean counterparts, and this difference may not be solely attributed

to physiological differences. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that individual differences in the perception of exercise difficulty during exercise, independent of concurrently measured physiological markers of exertion, are predictive of weight regain, after completion of a weight loss program. A total of 113 formerly overweight women who had AZD1208 in vivo previously completed a weight-loss program to achieve a normal body weight (BMI <25 kg/m(2)) underwent a submaximal aerobic exercise task while MCC950 datasheet measures of physiological and perceived exertion (rating of perceived exertion (RPE)) were recorded. Weight gain was assessed following a subsequent 1-year free-living

period. Average weight regain 1 year following the intervention was 5.46 +/- 3.95 kg. In regression modeling, RPE (beta = 0.21, P = 0.01), but not physiological exertion (beta = 0.02, P = 0.81), during the submaximal exercise task was positively associated with 1-year weight regain following weight loss in premenopausal women, independent of measured confounding variables. The association between RPE and weight regain suggests that perception of exercise difficulty is an important predictor of weight

Epacadostat manufacturer regain following a weight-loss intervention.”
“There is growing interest regarding the role of the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG) during a particular form of executive control referred to as response inhibition. However, tasks used to examine neural activity at the point of response inhibition have rarely controlled for the potentially confounding effects of attentional demand. In particular, it is unclear whether the RIFG is specifically involved in inhibitory control, or is involved more generally in the detection of salient or task relevant cues. The current fMRI study sought to clarify the role of the RIFG in executive control by holding the stimulus conditions of one of the most popular response inhibition tasks-the Stop Signal Task-constant, whilst varying the response that was required on reception of the stop signal cue. Our results reveal that the RIFG is recruited when important cues are detected, regardless of whether that detection is followed by the inhibition of a motor response, the generation of a motor response, or no external response at all. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

The analysis of the impact of illiteracy on neuropsychological te

The analysis of the impact of illiteracy on neuropsychological test performance represents a crucial approach to understanding human cognition and its brain organization under normal and abnormal conditions.”
“Three cores were collected in the lagoon of Ghar El Melh (Northern Tunisia) and the sediments were analysed for trace and

major elements, sulfides acid volatile sulfides (AVS) and pyrite and total organic Cediranib ic50 carbon (TOC). The sediments are composed of black-mud in the upper layer (0-10 cm depth) and grey-mud underneath. Based on the lagoon history, it was believed that the black-mud is endogenic, while the grey-mud is exogenic (derived from old contributions of the Selleck Cyclosporin A Mejerda River before its diversion). The concentrations of TOC and AVS decrease with depth, while the redox potential (Eh) is negative in the black-mud and positive in the grey-mud. The Eh measurements thus

revealed the singularity of the sedimentation mode in this lagoon. The North American Composite Shale (NASC) normalisation indicated that Cd, Zn and Pb were enriched through the entire profiles, indicating that this sediment was contaminated for a long time by mining activities and human pollution. Trace metal profiles of Fe, Cd, and Cu approximated that of TOC, while the profiles of Mn, Co, Pb, Ni and Zn followed the Eh. These results, confirmed by the principal component analysis (PCA), suggested that some metals can accumulate

in the reduced sediment, while others accumulate in the sub-oxic sediment. Such inference is supported by the metal chemical speciation, which showed these metal sediment component 5-Fluoracil datasheet associations: Mn, Co, Ni, Pb and Zn to the Mn-oxi-hydroxide fraction, Fe to the residual and organic sulfide-fractions, Cu to the organic sulfide fraction and Cd to carbonates and sulfides.”
“Kong, C., Lee, J. H. and Adeola, O. 2011. Supplementation of beta-mannanase to starter and grower diets for broilers. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 91: 389-397. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the efficacy of P-mannanase on ileal nutrient digestibility, total tract utilization of dry matter (DM), N, energy, and apparent metabolizable energy (AME, exp. 1), and growth performance (exp. 2) of birds fed practical corn-soybean meal (SBM)-based diets. In each experiment, 192 male broilers were assigned to four diets arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial of energy level [corn-SBM-based diet that met or exceeded NRC nutrient requirements (AE) or low energy (LE) diet containing 100 kcal of ME kg(-1) less than the AE diet] and enzyme supplementation (with or without beta-mannanase) for 21 d. Supplementing the diet with P-mannanase increased the birds’ apparent ileal DM digestibility of the experimental diets (P<0.05), whereas there was no effect of energy level.

However, evaluating their performance is unfeasible unless a ‘gol

However, evaluating their performance is unfeasible unless a ‘gold standard’ is available to measure how close the reconstructed

network is to the ground truth. One measure of this is the stability of these predictions to data resampling approaches. We introduce NetSI, a family of Network Stability Indicators, to assess quantitatively the stability of a reconstructed network in terms of inference variability selleck screening library due to data subsampling. In order to evaluate network stability, the main NetSI methods use a global/local network metric in combination with a resampling (bootstrap or cross-validation) procedure. In addition, we provide two normalized variability scores over data resampling to measure edge weight stability and node degree stability, and then introduce a stability ranking for edges and nodes. A complete implementation of the NetSI indicators, including the Hamming-Ipsen-Mikhailov (HIM) network distance adopted in this paper is available with the R package

nettools. We demonstrate the use of the NetSI family by measuring network stability on four datasets against alternative network reconstruction methods. First, the effect of sample size on stability of inferred networks is studied in a gold standard framework on yeast-like data from the Gene Net Weaver simulator. We also consider the impact of varying Cell Cycle inhibitor modularity on a set of structurally different networks (50 nodes,

from 2 to 10 modules), and then of complex feature covariance structure, showing the different behaviours of standard reconstruction methods based on Pearson correlation, Maximum Information Coefficient (MIC) and False Discovery Rate (FDR) Selleckchem Dorsomorphin strategy. Finally, we demonstrate a strong combined effect of different reconstruction methods and phenotype subgroups on a hepatocellular carcinoma miRNA microarray dataset (240 subjects), and we validate the analysis on a second dataset (166 subjects) with good reproducibility.”
“The pro-apoptotic effects of hydrogen peroxide and the purported anti-apoptotic effects of Vitamin C on chicken embryonic fibroblasts were investigated. Hydrogen peroxide induced morphological changes in a dose dependent manner, and a myriad of autophagosomes were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Doxorubicin elicited alterations were not inhibited by co-incubation with Vitamin C except that mitochondrial structure was slightly improved. TUNEL assay, cytotoxicity analysis and flow cytometry revealed that the cytotoxicity, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic rates were dose dependent upon treatment with hydrogen peroxide. Calcium homeostasis was disrupted in a dose dependent manner, and cell cycle was blocked at G(2)/M checkpoint at low concentration and S/G(2) checkpoint at high concentration respectively upon treatment with hydrogen peroxide.

Large amounts of thiols, including H(2)S, are secreted upon cysti

Large amounts of thiols, including H(2)S, are secreted upon cystine uptake by selleck the CyuC transporter. A cystathionine gamma-lyase (cgl) gene is cotranscribed with the cyu genes in several L. reuteri strains and was hypothesized to participate in cystine-mediated oxidative defense by producing reducing equivalents. This hypothesis was tested with L. reuteri BR11 by constructing a cgl mutant (PNG901) and comparing it to a similarly constructed cyuC mutant (PNG902). Although Cgl was required for H2S production from cystine, it was not crucial

for oxidative defense in de Mann-Rogosa-Sharpe medium, in contrast to CyuC, whose inactivation resulted in lag-phase arrest in aerated cultures. The importance of Cgl in oxidative defense was seen only in the presence of hemin, which poses severe oxidative

stress. The growth defects in aerated cultures of both mutants were alleviated by supplementation with cysteine ( and cystine in the cgl mutant) but not methionine, with the cyuC mutant showing a much higher concentration requirement. We conclude that L. reuteri BR11 requires a high concentration of exogenous cysteine/cystine to grow optimally under aerobic conditions. This requirement is fulfilled by the abundant CyuC transporter, which has probably arisen due to the broad substrate specificity of Cgl, resulting in a futile pathway which degrades cystine taken up by the CyuC transporter to H2S. Cgl plays a secondary role in oxidative defense by its well-documented function of cysteine biosynthesis.”
“BACKGROUND: Selleck HIF inhibitor Ablation is increasingly used to treat primary

and secondary liver cancer. Ablation near portal pedicles and hepatic veins is challenging. Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a new ablation technique that does not rely on heat and, in animals, appears to be safe and effective when applied near hepatic veins and portal pedicles. This study evaluated the safety and short-term outcomes of IRE to ablate perivascular malignant liver tumors.\n\nSTUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review Caspase inhibitor of patients treated with IRE between January 1, 2011 and November 2, 2011 was performed. Patients were selected for IRE when resection or thermal ablation was not indicated due to tumor location. Treatment outcomes were classified by local, regional, and systemic recurrence and complications. Local failure was defined as abnormal enhancement at the periphery of an ablation defect on post-procedure contrast imaging.\n\nRESULTS: Twenty-eight patients had 65 tumors treated. Twenty-two patients (79%) were treated via an open approach and 6 (21%) were treated percutaneously. Median tumor size was 1 cm (range 0.5 to 5 cm). Twenty-five tumors were <1 cm from a major hepatic vein; 16 were <1 cm from a major portal pedicle. Complications included 1 intraoperative arrhythmia and 1 postoperative portal vein thrombosis.