03; n=5) and was positively related to plasma volume expansion (r

03; n=5) and was positively related to plasma volume expansion (r=0.65; P=0.05), which tended to be larger in DEH (CI: -1 to 10%; P=0.06; n=9). In HSTs, resting forearm perfusion increased more in DEH (by 5.9 ml 100 tissue ml(-1) min(-1): -11.5

to -1.0; P=0.04) and end-exercise cardiac frequency fell to a greater extent (by 11 b min(-1): -1 to 22; P=0.05). Hydration-related effects on other endocrine, cardiovascular, and psychophysical responses to HSTs were unclear. Rectal temperature was unchanged at rest but was 0.3 degrees C lower at end exercise (P smaller than 0.01; interaction: P=0.52). Conclusions: Short-term (5-day) heat acclimation induced effective adaptations, some of which were more pronounced after fluid-regulatory strain from permissive dehydration, and not attributable to dehydration effects on Dactolisib body temperature. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 26:311-320, 2014. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Griseofulvin, an antifungal drug, has been shown in recent years to have anti-proliferative Selleck BI 2536 activities. We report here the synthesis of new analogs of griseofulvin, substituted in 2′ by a sulfonyl group or in 3′ by a sulfinyl or sulfonyl group. These compounds exhibit good anti-proliferative activities against SCC114 cells, an oral squamous carcinoma cell line showing pronounced centrosome amplification, and unexpected cytotoxic activities

on HCC1937 cells, a triple negative breast cancer cell line resistant to microtubule inhibitors. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

rights reserved.”
“PURPOSE. We evaluated repeatability and reproducibility of measurements of the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), optic nerve head (ONH), and macular inner retinal layer (MIRL) by RTVue spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in normal Rhesus monkeys.\n\nMETHODS. The experimental study included 15 adult Rhesus macaque monkeys. RNFLT, ONH parameters (area of disc, cup, and rim; volume of cup and rim; and cup-to-disc ratios), and MK-8931 purchase MIRL thickness were imaged at three separate examinations within one month. Each eye was imaged three times at the first examination, and once at each of the two following examinations. We determined the intra-session and inter-session (inter-visit) within-subject SD (Sw), precision (1.96 X Sw), coefficient of variation (CVw, 100 X Sw/overall mean), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).\n\nRESULTS. For the intra-session repeatability, ICC values ranged between 0.97 and 1.00 for all ONH parameters, and between 0.80 and 0.98 for all regional RNFLT parameters, with a value of 0.97 for the average RNFLT. For the inter-session (inter-visit) reproducibility, ICC values ranged from 0.93-1.00 for the ONH measurements and from 0.63-0.97 for regional RNFLT parameters, with a value of 0.96 for the average RNFLT. Again, the ICC values were lowest in the temporal inferior and temporal superior regions.

Liver showed the highest level of expression compared to other ti

Liver showed the highest level of expression compared to other tissues, even though each R-ras gene showed different expression patterns in tissues. Interestingly, in secondary male (ovary atresia stage), expression

levels of three R-ras genes was lower compared to hermaphrodites. see more At different developmental stages, R-ras;2 gene showed most pronounced expression at early embryogenesis but at stage 5 (hatchling stage) and juvenile stage, R-ras3 gene showed the highest expression. After the juvenile stage, R-ras1 gene was upregulated compared to other R-ras genes, which showed the highest expression at the hermaphroditic stage. When fish were exposed to 17-beta-estradiol (E2), a natural estrogen and tamoxifen, a nonsteroidal estrogen antagonist and three EDCs viz., 4-n-nonylphenol (NP), bisphenol A (BPA), and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP),

all the three R-ras genes were induced, except in the fish exposed to tamoxifen. These results suggest that EDCs modulate the expression of R-ras genes and thus affect subsequent signal transduction and tumor development. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“A new series of 16 6-chloro-1,1-dioxo-7-4-[(4-R(1)-phenyl)imino]-4H-3,1-benzoxazin-2-yl-3-(substituted amino)-1,4,2-benzodithiazines 7-22 was prepared in order to evaluate the cytotoxic activity against six human cancer cell lines. The structures of the new compounds were confirmed by IR, (1)H-, and (13)C-NMR, elemental analysis CP-456773 price and in the cases of 11 and 31 by X-ray crystal structure analysis. This analysis showed

that contrary EPZ5676 cell line to our earlier report the structures contain a benzoxazine ring instead of the proposed quinazolinone ring. The bioassay indicated that the benzodithiazine derivatives 7-22 possess cancer cell growth-inhibitory properties. Some compounds showed a high level of selectivity for certain cell lines. The most active compounds 11, 12, 16, 19, 21, and 22 exhibited potency higher or comparable to cisplatin. The compounds were particularly effective in LCLC-103H and MCF-7 cell lines with IC(50) values of 0.49-1.60 mu M. Quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) revealed that a chloro substituent R(1) in the phenyl ring as well as the shape of the substituted amino group at R(2) (e. g., unsaturation is beneficial) are important for potency.”
“BACKGROUND: Few inquiries into periconceptional nutrition, other than folate, and risk of heart defects exist. We investigated the observed association between conotruncal heart defects and periconceptional vitamin use, as well as potential associations with other dietary nutrients. METHODS: Data derived from a population-based, case-control study of fetuses and liveborn infants among California births between July 1999 and June 2004; 76% of eligible case mothers and 77% of eligible control mothers were interviewed.

These results suggest that these putative immigrant females and t

These results suggest that these putative immigrant females and their offspring were probably actually long-term residents of Sonso whose identifications were delayed by their peripheral or unhabituated status. These results are consistent with other genetic and behavioral evidence showing

that male between-community gene flow is exceedingly rare in east African chimpanzees. Am. J. Primatol. 76:640-648, 2014. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“INTRODUCTION The mechanism of falling has been proposed as the exclusive explanation for hip fracture pattern. Evidence exists that other genetic factors also influence proximal femoral fracture configuration. The ABO blood group serotype has been associated with other pathologies but any role in hip fracture has yet to be

definitively SB202190 research buy characterised. METHODS Our National Hip Fracture Database was interrogated over a four-year period. All patients had their blood group retrieved, and this was compared with hip fracture pattern and mortality rates. Confounding factors were accounted for using logistic regression and the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS A total of 2,987 consecutive patients presented to our institution. Those with blood group A were significantly more likely to www.selleckchem.com/products/Gefitinib.html sustain intracapsular fractures than ‘non-A’ individuals (p=0.009). The blood group distribution of patients with intracapsular fractures was identical to that of the national population of England. However, blood group A was less common in patients with intertrochanteric fractures than in the general population (p=0.0002). Even after correction for age and sex, blood group A was associated with a decrease in the odds of suffering an intertrochanteric fracture to 80% (p=0.002). Blood group A had inferior survivorship correcting for age, sex and hip fracture pattern (hazard ratio: 1.14, p=0.035). This may be due to associated increased prevalence of co-morbid disease in this cohort. CONCLUSIONS Blood group is an independent predictor of hip fracture pattern, with group A patients more likely to sustain

an intracapsular fracture and non-A individuals more likely to sustain an intertrochanteric fracture. The determinants of fracture pattern are likely to be related to complex interactions at a AZD7762 cell line molecular level based on genetic susceptibility. The mechanism of fall may not be the only aetiological determinant of proximal femoral fracture configuration.”
“We previously reported that mouse parotid acinar cells display anion conductance (I(ATPCl)) when stimulated by external ATP in Na(+)-free extracellular solutions. It has been suggested that the P2X(7) receptor channel (P2X(7)R) might underlie I(ATPCl). In this work we show that I(ATPCl) can be activated by ATP, ADP, AMP-PNP, ATP gamma S and CTP. This is consistent with the nucleotide sensitivity of P2X(7)R. Accordingly, acinar cells isolated from P2X(7)R(-/-) mice lacked I(ATPCl).

In summary, proteases were produced by J mexicana cell cultures

In summary, proteases were produced by J. mexicana cell cultures in

a stirred tank under conditions of high shear rate and intensive microturbulence, which are similar to those which occur in industrial stirred tanks. These results encourage continuation of the process development for large scale production of these proteases by this technology.”
“We examined the onset of the cloud point in dilute aqueous solutions of gradient copolymers of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and transmittance measurements both indicate that the copolymer solution cloud point decreases with increasing copolymer gradient strength, defined as the largest difference in the instantaneous composition along the copolymer. While transmittance measurements suggest that macroscopic clouding does find more buy GM6001 not set in until 30% of the polymer chain becomes insoluble, DLS experiments, which are more sensitive to the onset of aggregation, indicate that the onset of aggregation occurs at the point where the least soluble polymer chain end becomes insoluble. Collectively, our data indicate that the macroscopic cloud point transition is highly sensitive

to co-monomer sequence distribution of the copolymers, with its onset and transition breadth tunable through copolymer gradient strength. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background Several studies investigating the prognostic utility of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in patients Elafibranor with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have provided conflicting findings. The aim of the study was to assess the existing evidence regarding association between serum IL-10 levels and adverse events. Methods Literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Trials Register databases from their inception to September 30, 2012. In addition, reference lists of the included articles and their related citations in PubMed were

also reviewed for additional pertinent studies. Results A total of 12 eligible studies comprising a total of 5882 patients were identified. The pooled relative risks for both studies reporting the risk estimates by IL-10 categories and studies reporting the risk estimates by unit IL-10 indicated an association between high IL-10 levels and adverse events. Sensitivity and subgroup analysis indicated that the results obtained in IL-10 categories were not stable. Conclusions Data from our meta-analysis supported the existence of a relationship between high serum IL-10 levels and adverse events in patients with ACS. Large study with longer follow-up is needed to confirm the findings.”
“Objectives-The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of triplet pregnancies in women with asymptomatic cervical shortening with and without a cervical cerclage.

Therapeutic data were obtained from treatment optimization tr

\n\nTherapeutic data were obtained from treatment optimization trials. We included 618 childhood cancer survivors (384 women) who reported information allowing us to classify their current fertility status as ‘fertile/probably fertile’ or ‘probably infertile’. Thirty-one percent of 83 female and 29 % of 117 male survivors reported infertility based on previous

fertility tests. ‘Probably Birinapant inhibitor infertile’ adult survivors were more likely to have received pelvic radiotherapy (women: adjusted OR 20.24, 95 % CI 4.69-87.29; men: 12.22; 1.18-126.70) than those who were ‘fertile/probably fertile’. Etoposide, particularly a parts per thousand yen5,000 mg/m(2) in women, and carboplatin and/or cisplatin in both sexes seemed to have independent risk potential for infertility. Similarly, cancer treatment during or post-puberty compared to treatment before puberty showed a trend

toward increased infertility, particularly in male survivors.\n\nPatients and families need to be informed about fertility-preserving measures prior to and also after chemotherapy and radiotherapy.”
“Previous studies have reported associations of depressive www.selleckchem.com/products/sch-900776.html symptoms with pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially with interleukin-6 (IL-6) in noncancer subjects and cancer patients. Meanwhile, symptoms such as tiredness and appetite loss may be vegetative symptoms of depression when associated with other diagnostic criteria of depression. Such vegetative-type symptoms worsen during the last 6 months of life in cancer patients and may not be associated with affective depressive symptoms such as sadness and nervousness. This study explored associations between

depressive symptoms and plasma IL-6 in terminally ill cancer patients whose survival period was confirmed to be less than 6 months by follow-up, with attention to differences in vegetative and affective depressive symptoms.\n\nData from 112 consecutively recruited terminally ill cancer patients who registered at a palliative care unit without any active anticancer treatment were used. Plasma IL-6 levels were measured using an electrochemiluminescence assay. Depressive symptoms included in the DSM-IV and Cavanaugh criteria were assessed by structured interviews and were categorized into affective symptoms and vegetative symptoms. Affective symptoms were also measured with the depression selleck inhibitor subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, which does not include vegetative symptoms.\n\nVegetative symptoms, such as appetite loss, insomnia, and fatigue, were significantly associated with IL-6 levels. However, neither of the affective symptoms nor their severity was associated with IL-6 levels.\n\nIL-6 was associated with vegetative depressive symptoms in terminally ill cancer patients but not with affective depressive symptoms, suggesting possible differences in the pathophysiological mechanisms between these sets of symptoms.

The AN group showed significantly impaired set shifting in

The AN group showed significantly impaired set shifting in

the WCST, both total errors, and perseverative errors. In the AN group, there were no correlations between serum glutamine concentrations BVD-523 chemical structure and set shifting.\n\nConclusions: Serum concentrations of glutamine may be a biomarker of illness severity in people with AN. It does not appear to be directly associated with changes in executive function.”
“It was previously demonstrated that microbial communities of pig manure were composed of both bacteria and archaea. Recent studies have shown that bacteria are aerosolized from pig manure, but none have ever focused on the airborne archaeal burden. We sought here to develop and apply molecular ecology approaches to thoroughly characterize airborne archaea from swine confinement buildings (SCBs). Eight swine operations were visited, twice in winter and once during summer. Institute of Occupational Medicine cassettes loaded with 25-mm gelatin filters were used to capture the inhalable microbial biomass. The total genomic DNA was extracted and used as a template for PCR amplification of the

archaeal 16S rRNA gene. High concentrations of archaea were found in SCB bioaerosols, being as high as 10(8) 16S rRNA gene copies per cubic meter of air. Construction and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed that all sequences were closely related to methanogenic archaea, such as Methanosphaera stadtmanae (94.7% of the archaeal biodiversity). PP2 datasheet Archaeal community profiles were compared by 16S rRNA gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. This analysis showed similar fingerprints in each SCB and confirmed the predominance of methanogenic archaea in the bioaerosols. This study sheds new light on the nature of bioaerosols in SCBs and suggests that archaea are also aerosolized from pig manure.”
“Noninvasive imaging of lysosomes will be useful 1) to elucidate the role of lysosomal parameters in cancer, 2) to diagnose malignant lesions, and 3) to evaluate future lysosome-targeted anticancer therapies. Lysosome-specific

labeling of glucosamine-bound near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes, IR-1 and IR-2, but not control probe IR-15 without the glucosamine moiety, was observed by fluorescence microscopy in human breast epithelial cell lines. Lysosome labeling and tumor specificity Selleckchem PD-1 inhibitor of these NIR probes were investigated by dynamic optical imaging and immunofluorescence staining in human breast tumor xenografts. IR-1 and IR- 2 demonstrated faster lysosome labeling rates in highly aggressive MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 cells compared with less aggressive MCF-7 and nontumorigenic MCF-12A cells. IR- 1 and IR- 2, but not IR- 15, accumulated in human MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB435, and MCF-7 breast tumor xenografts in vivo. IR- 2 demonstrated the highest maximum fluorescence and tumor/normal tissue ratios in all tumor models.

Receptive language appears to play a key role in social functioni

Receptive language appears to play a key role in social functioning in this population. Functional assessments are informative for treatment planning and identifying specific areas to target intervention. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Crystal structure analysis was carried out on two novel, urea-urethane developers for high-performance then-no-sensitive paper. Crystals of the compounds displayed a multiple hydrogen-bonded network between the urea and urethane moieties, which stabilized the fluoran QNZ dyes, thereby imparting

high fastness to printed images. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: This study was to detect the expression of Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B19-kDa-interacting protein 3 in apoptosis induced by nutrition deprivation in nucleus pulposus cells, so as to further understand the mechanism of apoptosis in nucleus pulposus cells.\n\nMethods: Cells isolated from rat caudal disc were cultured under two different oxygen, glucose and serum concentrations for up to 3 days. Interactions between two different concentrations

were examined by cell vitality assay mitochondrial CBL0137 membrane potential (Delta psi m) test and apoptosis detect. The expression and location of Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B19-kDa-interacting protein 3 were tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining.\n\nResult: Cell vitality and mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta psi m) were significantly reduced in absence of oxygen, glucose Stem Cell Compound Library and serum while the cell apoptosis percent was significantly increased, as compared with the cells in normal oxygen, glucose and serum concentration. The expression of Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa-interacting protein 3 showed a significant increase in absence of oxygen, glucose and serum, especially in 72 h. Furthermore, the protein was found to translocate to mitochondria.\n\nConclusion:

Upregulation of Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa-interacting protein 3 and translocation to mitochondria may be involved in apoptosis of nucleus pulposus cells in nutrition deprivation. (C) 2011 Societe francaise de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Genes with recurrent codon-specific somatic mutations are likely drivers of tumorigenesis and potential therapeutic targets. Hypermutable cancers may represent a sensitive system for generation and selection of oncogenic mutations. Methods: We utilised exome-sequencing data on 25 sporadic microsatellite-instable (MSI) colorectal cancers (CRCs) and searched for base-specific somatic mutation hotspots. Results: We identified novel mutation hotspots in 33 genes. Fourteen genes displayed mutations in the validation set of 254 MSI CRCs: ANTXR1, MORC2, CEP135, CRYBB1, GALNT9, KRT82, PI15, SLC36A1, CNTF, GLDC, MBTPS1, OR9Q2, R3HDM1 and TTPAL. A database search found examples of the hotspot mutations in multiple cancer types.

Information on shapes, textures, intensities, and localizations i

Information on shapes, textures, intensities, and localizations is then used to create unique representations, or ‘phenotypic signatures,’ of each cell. These signatures quantify physiologic or diseased states, for example, dendritic arborization, drug response, or cell coping strategies. Live-cell imaging in HCS adds the ability to correlate cellular events at different points in time, thereby allowing sensitivities and observations not possible with fixed endpoint selleck products analysis. HCS with live-cell imaging therefore provides an unprecedented capability to detect spatiotemporal changes in cells and is particularly suited

for time-dependent, stochastic processes such as neurodegenerative disorders.”
“This review presents recommendations for fluid needs and hydration assessment for recreational activity. Fluid needs are based on sweat losses, dependent on intensity TH-302 and duration of the activity, and will vary among individuals. Prolonged aerobic activity is adversely influenced by dehydration, and heat exposure will magnify this effect. Fluid needs predicted for running 542 km at recreational paces show that fluid losses are <2% body

mass; thus, aggressive fluid replacement may not be necessary. Competitive paces result in greater fluid losses and greater fluid needs. Fluid needs for recreational activity may be low; however, carbohydrate consumption (sport drinks, gels, bars) can benefit high-intensity (<= 1 h) and less-intense, long-duration activity (>= 1 h). Spot measures of urine color or urine-specific gravity to

assess hydration status have limitations. First morning urine concentration and body mass with gross thirst perception AZD0530 can be simple ways to assess hydration status. (C) 2012 International Life Sciences Institute”
“Plants in their natural environment frequently face various abiotic stresses, such as drought, high salinity, and chilling. Plant mitochondria contain an alternative oxidase (AOX), which is encoded by a small family of nuclear genes. AOX genes have been shown to be highly responsive to abiotic stresses. Using transgenic plants with varying levels of AOX expression, it has been confirmed that AOX genes are important for abiotic stress tolerance. Although the roles of AOX under abiotic stresses have been extensively studied and there are several excellent reviews on this topic, the differential expression patterns of the AOX gene family members and the signal regulation of AOX gene(s) under abiotic stresses have not been extensively summarized. Here, we review and discuss the current progress of these two important issues.”
“The most valuable lean cuts from Iberian pigs are the hams, forelegs, and loins, which yield high quality cured meat products.

CONCLUSIONS: We showed that SP cells existed in bone sarcoma

\n\nCONCLUSIONS: We showed that SP cells existed in bone sarcoma cell lines. SP cells of MFH2003 had cancer-initiating ability in vitro and in vivo. The gene profiles of SP cells could serve as candidate markers for CSCs in bone sarcomas. British Journal of Cancer (2009) 101, 1425-1432. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6605330 www.bjcancer.com Published online 29 September 2009 (C) 2009 Cancer Research UK”
“The present study sought to evaluate the effect of a newly synthesized selenium

compound, dicholesteroyl diselenide (DCDS) and diphenyl diselenide (DPDS) on the activities of delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase and Na+/K+-ATPase in the rat brain. The glutathione peroxidase mimetic activity of the two compounds as well as their ability to oxidize mono- and di- thiols were also evaluated. click here The antioxidant effects were tested by measuring the ability of the compounds to inhibit the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive species small molecule library screening and also their ability to inhibit the formation of protein carbonyls. The results show that DPDS exhibited a higher glutathione peroxidase mimetic activity as well as increased ability to oxidize di-thiols than DCDS. In addition, while DPDS inhibited the formation of thiobarbituric

acid reactive species and protein carbonyls, DCDS exhibited a prooxidant effect in all the concentration range (20-167 mu M) tested. Also the activities of cerebral delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase and Na+/K+ ATPase were significantly inhibited by DPDS but not by DCDS. In addition, the present results suggested that the inhibition of Napabucasin Na+/K+ ATPase by organodiselenides, possibly involves the modification of the thiol group at the ATP binding site of the enzyme. In conclusion, the results of the present investigation indicated that the non-selenium moiety of the organochalcogens can have a profound effect on their antioxidant activity and also in their reactivity towards SH groups from low-molecular weight molecules and from brain proteins.”
“Renal oncocytosis is a very rare entity. Although it

has been described in pathology and surgery literature, the imaging findings of renal oncocytosis have not yet been described in the radiology literature. We present three cases of renal oncocytosis. The imaging features and clinical considerations are discussed.”
“A sesquiterpene, zederone (1), was isolated from the crude ethanolic extract of the rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith. It is the first time report of isolation of this compound from the genus Zingiber. Its structure was established by a series of spectral data including high-field NMR (both 1D and 2D) and MS. The antibacterial activity of this compound was determined against a number of multi-drug resistant and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (SA1199B, ATCC25923, XU212, RN4220 and EMRSA15) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were found to be in the range of 64-128 mu g/ml.

mTOR is

mTOR is LY294002 ic50 frequently activated in malignant cells and is associated with resistance to anticancer drugs. Furthermore, metformin can induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and can reduce growth factor signalling. This review discusses the role of diabetes mellitus type 2 and insulin resistance in carcinogenesis, the preclinical rationale and potential mechanisms of metformin’s anti-cancer effect and the current and future clinical developments of metformin as a novel anti-cancer drug. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Maximum engraftment of transplanted islets is essential for the clinical application of a subcutaneous site. Significant barriers to the

current approaches are associated with their low effectiveness, complexity and unproven biosafety. Here, we evaluated and optimized a fibrin-islet composite for effective glycemic control in a subcutaneous this website site whose

environment is highly hypoxic due to low vascularization potential. In the setting of xenogeneic porcine islet transplantation into the subcutaneous space of a diabetic mouse, the in vivo islet functions were greatly affected by the concentrations of fibrinogen and thrombin. The optimized hydrogel-type fibrin remarkably reduced the marginal islet mass to approximately one tenth that of islets without fibrin. This marginal islet mass was comparable to that in the setting of the subcapsular space of the kidney, which is a highly vascularized organ. Highly vascularized structures were generated inside and on the outer surface of the grafts. A hydrogel-type fibrin-islet composite established early diabetic

control within an average of 3.4 days after the transplantation. In the mechanistic studies, fibrin promoted local Dactolisib in vivo angiogenesis, enhanced islet viability and prevented fragmentation of islets into single cells. In conclusion, in situ application of hydrogel-type fibrin-islet composite may be a promising modality in the clinical success of subcutaneous islet transplantation. (C) 2012 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.”
“Studies performed in different experimental and clinical settings have shown that Docetaxel (Doc) is effective in a wide range of tumors and that it exerts its activity through multiple mechanisms of action. However, the sequence of events induced by Doc which leads to cell death is still not fully understood. Moreover, it is not completely clear how Doc induces mitotic catastrophe and whether this process is in end event or followed by apoptosis or necrosis. We investigated the mechanisms by which Doc triggers cell death in hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells by analyzing cell cycle perturbations. apoptosis-related marker expression, and morphologic cell alterations. Doc induced a transient increase in G2/M phase followed by the appearance of G0/1 hypo- and hyperdiploid cells and increased p21 expression.