4 m at the shallower, periodically inundated depth and 10 7 m at

4 m at the shallower, periodically inundated depth and 10.7 m at the deeper, continually submerged depth. These spatial GS-9973 datasheet structures suggest a strong influence of hydrology on the microbial community composition in these denitrifying biofilters. Understanding such spatial structure can also guide optimal sample collection strategies for microbial

community analyses.”
“Maraviroc (MVC) is licensed in clinical practice for patients with R5 virus and virological failure; however, in anecdotal reports, dual/mixed viruses were also inhibited. We retrospectively evaluated the evolution of HIV-1 coreceptor tropism in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of an infected adolescent with a CCR5/CXCR4 Trofile profile who experienced an important but temporary immunological and virological response during a 16-month period of MVC-based therapy. Coreceptor usage of biological viral clones isolated from PBMCs was investigated in U87.CD4 cells expressing wild-type or chimeric CCR5 and CXCR4. Plasma and PBMC-derived viral clones were sequenced to predict coreceptor tropism using the geno2pheno algorithm from the V3 envelope sequence and pol gene-resistant mutations. From start to 8.5 months of MVC treatment only R5X4 viral clones were observed, whereas at 16 months the phenotype enlarged to also include R5

and X4 clones. Chimeric receptor usage suggested the preferential usage of the Screening Library CXCR4 coreceptor by the R5X4 biological clones. According to phenotypic data, R5 viruses were susceptible, whereas R5X4 and X4 viruses were resistant to RANTES and MVC in vitro. Clones at 16 months, but not at baseline, showed an amino acidic resistance pattern in protease and reverse transcription genes, which, however, did not drive their tropisms. The geno2pheno algorithm predicted at baseline R5 viruses in plasma, and from 5.5 months throughout follow-up only CXCR4-using viruses. An extended

methodological approach is needed to unravel the complexity of the phenotype and variation of viruses resident in the different compartments of an infected individual. The accurate evaluation of the proportion of residual R5 viruses may guide selleckchem therapeutic intervention in highly experienced patients with limited therapeutic options.”
“Currently available anti-HIV-1 drugs suppress viral replication and maintain viral levels below the detection threshold of most assays but do not eliminate cellular reservoirs. As a result, very low levels of circulating virus can be detected in most people despite long-term treatment with potent anti-HIV drug combinations. Not surprisingly, viral levels rebound with discontinuation of treatment. New evidence indicates that there is a viral reservoir in bone marrow progenitor cells.

We find that the historical price advantage of a China-based fact

We find that the historical price advantage of a China-based factory relative to a U.S.-based factory is not driven by country-specific advantages, but instead

by scale and supply-chain development. Looking forward, we calculate that technology innovations may result in effectively equivalent minimum sustainable manufacturing prices for the two locations. In this long-run learn more scenario, the relative share of module shipping costs, as well as other factors, may promote regionalization of module-manufacturing operations to cost-effectively address local market demand. Our findings highlight the role of innovation, importance of manufacturing scale, and opportunity for global collaboration to increase the installed capacity of PV worldwide.”
“Objective: To provide data regarding the etiology and timing of retrograde type A aortic dissection (RTAD) after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). Methods: Details of patients who had RTAD after TEVAR were obtained from the MOTHER Registry supplemented by data from a systematic review of the literature. Univariate analysis and binary logistic regression analysis of patient or technical factors was performed. Results: In MOTHER, RTAD developed in 16 of the 1010 patients (1.6%). Binary logistic regression demonstrated that an indication of TEVARfor aortic dissection (acute P

= 0.000212; chronic P = 0.006) and device oversizing (OR 1.14 per 1% increase in oversizing above 9%, P smaller than 0.0001) were significantly more frequent in patients with RTAD. Data from the systematic review was pooled with MOTHER data and demonstrated that RTAD occurred in 1.7% (168/9894). MGCD0103 purchase Most of RTAD occurred in the immediate postoperative (58%)

period and was associated with a high mortality rate (33.6%). The odds ratio of RTAD for an acute aortic dissection was 10.0 (CI: 4.7-21.9) and 3.4 (CI: 1.3-8.8) for chronic aortic dissection. The incidence of RTAD was not significantly different for endografts with proximal bare stent (2.8%) or nonbare stent (1.9%) (P = 0.1298). Conclusions: Although RTAD after TEVAR is an uncommon complication, it has a high mortality rate. RTAD is significantly more frequent https://www.selleckchem.com/products/z-devd-fmk.html in patients treated for acute and chronic type B dissection, and when the endograft is significantly oversized. The proximal endograft configuration was not associated with any difference in the incidence of RTAD.”
“Objective: Efficacy of the conventional-versus high-dose vancomycin regimen in patients with acute bacterial meningitis was compared. Methods: In a randomized clinical trial 44 patients with acute bacterial meningitis were randomly assigned to the conventional-or high-dose vancomycin groups. Clinical and laboratory parameters were used for evaluation of response to the treatment regimens. Results: In the high-dose group, leukocytosis and fever resolved significantly faster than those in the conventional group.

95, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1 05-3 59 for PLCE1 rs2274223

95, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-3.59 for PLCE1 rs2274223 GG vs. AA]. However, there was no significant association between the C20orf54 rs13042395 genotype and esophageal cancer risk (adjusted OR ISRIB in vitro = 0.99, 95 % CI = 0.63-1.57 for C20orf54 rs13042395 TT vs. CC). Stratified analyses indicated a significantly increased risk of esophageal cancer associated with the PLCE1 rs2274223 AG genotype was more evident among females, younger patients and never drinkers, compared with the PLCE1 rs2274223 AA genotypes. Stratified analyses also

indicated a significantly increased risk of esophageal cancer associated with the PLCE1 rs2274223 GG genotype was more evident among never smokers and never drinkers compared with the PLCE1 Histone Demethylase inhibitor rs2274223 AA genotypes. These findings indicated that functional polymorphisms PLCE1 rs2274223 might contribute to esophageal cancer susceptibility.”
“Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets CD20 antigen at the surface of a lymphocytes.\n\nThe efficacy of rituximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis has been demonstrated in 3 randomized controlled trials. Rituximab is now used in a wide range of systemic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, as it is well tolerated and efficient.\n\nAdverse events are scarce, consisting

mainly in reactions during infusion and infectious complications that ore favoured by the association of rituximab therapy will? other immunosuppressants.\n\nRelapses of the disease are https://www.selleckchem.com/products/azd6738.html common around six months after rituximab infusion. The response to retreatment with rituximab is usually the some that was obtained after the first course of treatment.”
“Purpose. To evaluate the significance of molecular detection of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) M470V, intron 8 poly-T, and intron 8 TG-repeats in congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD). Methods. Eighty-nine male patients with CBAVD and 103 healthy males were included in this study. Polymerase chain reaction was performed to amplify the polymorphic regions using primers

from conserved regions. M470V was genotyped using real-time PCR by cycling probe. The exon 9 DNA sequence was determined using an automated sequencer. TG-repeats and poly-T were identified by direct sequencing analysis. Results. The 5T allele distribution was 0.32, 0.66 for 7T, and 0.02 for 9T in CBAVD males, respectively. In contrast, the 5T allele distribution was 0.03, 0.96 for 7T, and 0.01 for 9T in healthy control. Study of the polymorphisms of the upstream of exon 9 revealed a higher frequency of 5T allele in the CBAVD males. All cases with TG13T5 haplotype and TG12T5 homozygous led to CBAVD. The CFTR TG12T5-V470 variant haplotype was associated with CBAVD. Conclusion. The 5T allele of intron 8 of CFTR has clinically significant association with CBAVD.

The immunohistochemistry results showed that overexpression of EI

The immunohistochemistry results showed that overexpression of EIF-5A2 was detected in none of normal epithelial mucosa, 35.3% of colorectal adenomas, 53.2% of primary colorectal carcinomas, and 67.6% of metastases. Amplification of eIF-5A2 was detected in 15.8% (16/101) of informative colorectal carcinomas, and most of them showed overexpression of

EIF-5A2. In primary colorectal carcinomas, the frequency of EIF-5A2 overexpression was significantly higher in colorectal carcinomas with lymphovascular invasion (61.2%) than that PCI-34051 nmr in colorectal carcinomas without lymphovascular invasion (36.6%, P <.05). In addition, significant positive associations were found between find protocol EIF-5A2 overexpression and the tumors’ later pN and pM stages, as well as increased tumor cell proliferation (P <.05). These findings suggest that overexpression of EIF-5A2 in colorectal carcinomas may be important in the acquisition of a metastatic phenotype and plays an important role in colorectal carcinoma development and progression. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Faecal incontinence affects a heterogeneous population and aetiology can be multifactorial. In a subset of patients the aetiology

retrains idiopathic despite standard investigations. Anal cushions are important in normal continence, but have rarely been studied. The aim of this study was to measure the size of the anal cushions and to evaluate their role in patients with idiopathic faecal

incontinence.\n\nMethods: Women in whom idiopathic faecal incontinence was diagnosed after standard anorectal investigations underwent transvaginal ultrasonography. The area of the anal cushions was measured and a cushion: canal (C: C) ratio derived, which was compared with that in a control SNX-5422 cell line group of women without faecal incontinence.\n\nResults: Some 21 patients with incontinence (median age 60 gears) and 102 asymptomatic controls (median age 41 years) underwent scanning. The median (interquartile range) C: C ratio in the symptomatic group was significantly lower than that for controls (0.57 (0.54-0.66) versus 0.68 (0.61-0.73) respectively; P = 0.001). C:C ratio was not influenced by age (r = 0.023, P = 0821).\n\nConclusion: The C: C ratio was reduced in patients with idiopathic faecal incontinence.”
“Background: Although therapeutic angiogenesis is a most promising strategy for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI), it remains unknown if and how endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors, such as endostatin, regulate angiogenesis in MI. In the present study the role of endostatin in left ventricular (LV) remodeling and heart failure was tested in a rat MI model.\n\nMethods and Results: When exposed to hypoxia, rat cardiomyocytes showed increased expression of endostatin.

In two exhibits, the museum

shows photosynthesis in cyano

In two exhibits, the museum

shows photosynthesis in cyanobacteria and Winogradsky columns, which provide an example of living microbial ecosystems.”
“The tung tree (Vernicia fordii Hemsl.; Vf) has great potential as an industrial crop owning to its seed oil that has multiple uses. Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) catalyze the last and most committed step of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. In order to examine the physiological role of the VfDGAT2 gene in the tung tree, we characterized its expression profiles in different tung tissues/organs and seeds at different developmental stages. Oil content and alpha-eleostearic acid production during seed development were also examined. Expression studies showed Selleck Dinaciclib that VfDGAT2 was expressed in all tissues tested, with the highest expression in developing seeds where the expression was about 19-fold more than that in leaves. VfDGAT2 showed temporal-specific expression during seed development and maturation. Notably, the expression of VfDGAT2 in developing seeds was found to be consistent with tung oil accumulation and alpha-eleostearic acid production. The expression level of VfDGAT2 was lower in the early stages of oil accumulation and alpha-eleostearic acid biosynthesis, rapidly increased during the peak periods of fatty acid synthesis

in August, and then decreased during completion of the accumulation period at the end of September. When the VfDGAT2 Pinometostat manufacturer gene was transferred to the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis, its expression was detected along with fatty Vorinostat solubility dmso acid products. The results showed that VfDGAT2 was highly expressed in transgenic yeast clones, and the total fatty acid content in one of these clones, VfDGAT2-3, was 7.8-fold more than that in the control, indicating that VfDGAT2 contributed to fatty acid accumulation into TAG and might be a target gene for improving tung oil composition through genetic engineering.”
“Acute abdominal pain is a common presenting complaint to both primary and secondary care, and is a frequent cause of hospital admission among deployed personnel. Identification

of generalised peritonism on abdominal examination is a classical indicator of intra-abdominal pathology that may warrant exploratory laparotomy. Negative findings at laparotomy should serve as a diagnostic prompt to consider other non-surgical mimics of an acute abdomen.”
“Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a multifunctional supergene family and some play an important role in insecticide resistance. We have identified 23 putative cytosolic GSTs by searching the new assembly of the Bombyx mori genome sequence. Phylogenetic analyses on the amino acid sequences reveal that 21 of the B. mori GSTs fall into six classes represented in other insects, the other two being unclassified. The majority of the silkworm GSTs belong to the Delta, Epsilon, and Omega classes. Most members of each class are tandemly arranged in the genome, except for the Epsilon GSTs.

07) showed a tendency toward good response to LTG Conclusions

07) showed a tendency toward good response to LTG.\n\nConclusions -\n\nLTG should be considered SNX-5422 a drug of first choice for JME patients without GTCS. LTG as second-line treatment after VPA failure seems more appropriate for those patients whose reason for VPA failure is poor tolerability rather than lack of efficacy.”
“Carbohydrate chains in glycoconjugates play important

roles in various life phenomena, and there are numerous types of recognition system for carbohydrate chains due to carbohydrate-lectin interactions/carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions in all higher life forms. It has been proposed that macromolecular polysaccharides isolated from plants, marine organisms, or fungi cross-interact with known and unknown recognition systems in mammals to express their pharmacological activities. Therefore the elucidation of carbohydrate structures related to the activities and functions of these polysaccharide molecules will lead us to utilize the related information in the development of novel carbohydrate-based drugs and functional foods for human health care. Peyer’s patches present in the upper intestinal tract play important roles as inductive sites for both protective IgA production and immune tolerance induction in mucosal and systemic immune systems. Dysfunction of the immunocompetent cells of Peyer’s patches is thought to induce allergic/autoimmune diseases and down-regulation of

the protective AL3818 clinical trial system against infectious agents on mucosal sites. We have isolated several Peyer’s patch

cell-modulating polysaccharides from medicinal herbs used in traditional Japanese herbal remedies, and they have been assumed to comprise the responsible carbohydrate chains with oligosaccharide sizes for expression of modulating activity. Accumulation of knowledge on the structures and functions of these responsible carbohydrate chains in polysaccharide molecules is believed to be important for the development of methodology for logically factitious regulation of functions of immunocompetent cells in Peyer’s patches. This review deals with recent results of our study on the structural selleck products clarification of responsible carbohydrate chains in modulating polysaccharides against functions of immunocompetent cells in Peyer’s patches.”
“Background\n\nIn sickle cell disease, a common inherited haemoglobin disorder, abnormal haemoglobin distorts red blood cells, causing anaemia, vasoocclusion and dysfunction in most body organs. Without intervention, stroke affects around 10% of children with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS) and recurrence is likely. Chronic blood transfusion dilutes the sickled red blood cells, reducing the risk of vaso-occlusion and stroke. However, side effects can be severe.\n\nObjectives\n\nTo assess risks and benefits of chronic blood transfusion regimens in people with sickle cell disease to prevent first stroke or recurrences.

The resulting Re-point scale provided detailed descriptions of th

The resulting Re-point scale provided detailed descriptions of the lateral canthal lines (LCL), including quantitative assessment of LCL length and depth. Performance parameters, including intra- and interrater reproducibility and construct validity, were then evaluated in clinical studies. Finally,

the scale’s threshold for clinically-meaningful benefit and the ability of the scale to detect change were confirmed in two Phase 2b clinical studies involving a total of 270 subjects.\n\nResults: Content validity was established and the IGA-LCL scale showed excellent interrater reliability (weighted Kappa = 0.89) and interrater reliability (weighted Kappa = 0.77; Kendall’s coefficient of concordance = 0.89). In clinical trials, the scale was sensitive enough to detect clinically-meaningful S3I-201 ic50 one- and two-point changes in LCL severity following selleck screening library treatment with topical botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A). The authors observed statistically-significant correlations between the physician-rated IGA-LCL results and patient-reported outcomes.\n\nConclusions: The IGA-LCL scale was shown to be reliable, appropriate, and clinically meaningful for measuring LCL severity.”
“Background: Conventional medical sources recommend the use of fine needle aspiration

cytology (FNAC) for single thyroid nodules and the dominant nodule in multinodular goiter (MNG). The purpose of the present study was to analyze the utility of FNAC for multiple thyroid nodules in patients with MNG and to determine the rate of malignancy in teh nondominant nodules. Materials and Methods : Our private practice performed ultrasound-guided

FNAC on 1,606 patients between February 2001 and February 1, 2010. In the MNG cases, samples were taken from the dominant nodule and from trhee suspicious / nonsuspicious nodules larger Sapitinib manufacturer than 1 cm on ultrasound. Ninety-four cases were diagnosed as suspiciously malignant(SUS) or malignant (POS) based on FNAC. Results: The rate of an SUS / POS diagnosis was 5.7 in the dominant nodules; 2.3 of the nondominant nodules had a SUS / POS diagnosis in FNAC (p = 0.0003). Follow-up revealed malignancy in 15 (35.7) nondominant nodules and in 27 (64.2) dominant nodules, with 42 MNG cases undergoing surgery. X test showed a p-level of 0.0003 between the percentages of SUS / POS diagnosis in dominanat and nondominanat nodules. It was less than the significance level of 0.05. Therefore, the result was regarded to be statistically significant. Conclusions: Nondominant nodules could harbor malignancy. The risk of malignancy in nondominant nodules in MNG should not be underestimated. We have shown that the dominant nodule in patients with MNG was in fact about 2.5 times more likely to be malignant than a nondominant nodule. The use of FNAC for nondominant nodules could enhance the likelihood of detecting malignancy in an MNG.

The composite primary outcome of neonatal death related to HIE wi

The composite primary outcome of neonatal death related to HIE with worsening multiorgan dysfunction despite maximal treatment, and the presence of post-hypothermia brain MRI abnormalities consistent with hypoxic-ischemic brain

injury, were compared between the infants who received PB before initiation of hypothermia (PB group, n = 36) and the infants who did not receive PB before or during hypothermia selleck chemicals (No PB group, n = 32). Forward logistic regression analysis determined which of the pre-hypothermia clinical and laboratory variables predict the primary outcome.\n\nResult: The two groups were similar for severity of asphyxia as assessed by Apgar scores, initial blood pH and base deficit, early neurologic examination, and presence of an intrapartum sentinel event. The composite primary outcome was more frequent in infants from the PB group (PB 78% versus No PB 44%, P = 0.006, odds ratio 4.5, 95% confidence interval 1.6 to 12.8). Multivariate analysis identified only

the PB receipt before TH-302 Others inhibitor initiation of hypothermia (P = 0.002, odds ratio 9.5, 95% confidence interval 2.3 to 39.5), and placental abruption to be independently associated with a worse primary outcome.\n\nConclusion: PB treatment before cooling did not improve the composite outcome of neonatal death or the presence of an abnormal post-hypothermia brain MRI, but the long-term outcomes have not yet been evaluated. Journal of Perinatology (2012) 32, 15-20; doi:10.1038/jp.2011.41; published online 28 April 2011″
“BACKGROUND: Following the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO), there is an increasing β-Nicotinamide clinical trial demand for wheat grain for liquid biofuel in the UK. In order to enhance productivity of the bioethanol industry, good quality wheat must be used.\n\nBACKGROUND: Following the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO), there is an increasing demand for wheat grain for liquid biofuel in the UK. In order to enhance productivity of the bioethanol industry, good quality wheat must be used. RESULTS: A total of 84 grain samples comprising 14

varieties collected from 11 sites in two harvest years were analysed for a range of grain quality parameters and ethanol yield (EY). The grain quality parameters studied were starch and protein concentration, specific weight, grain density, packing efficiency, thousand-grain weight (TGW), grain length, width, length/width ratio and hardness index. Regression analysis was used to establish the relationships between grain quality parameters and EY. Apart from grain length and density, all grain parameters had significant relationships with EY. In the order of importance, protein concentration, TGW, packing efficiency and specific weight showed good relationships with EY. All other parameters, including starch concentration, showed a poor correlation with EY. EY and the relationship with the grain parameters were affected more by environment than by variety.

We focused on semantic encoding related to face cognition to inve

We focused on semantic encoding related to face cognition to investigate event-related potentials (ERPs) to the

subject’s https://www.selleckchem.com/products/GSK1904529A.html own face and familiar faces in children with and without PDD. Eight children with PDD (seven boys and one girl; aged 10.8 +/- 2.9 years; one left-handed) and nine age-matched typically developing children (four boys and five girls; aged 11.3 +/- 2.3 years: one left-handed) participated in this study. The stimuli consisted of three face images (self, familiar, and unfamiliar faces), one scrambled face image, and one object image (e.g., cup) with gray scale. We confirmed three major components: N170 and early posterior negativity (EPN) in the occipito-temporal regions AZD7762 (T5 and T6) and P300 in the

parietal region (Pz). An enhanced N170 was observed as a face-specific response in all subjects. However, semantic encoding of each face might be unrelated to N170 because the amplitude and latency were not significantly different among the face conditions. On the other hand, an additional component after N170, EPN which was calculated in each subtracted waveform (self vs. familiar and familiar vs. unfamiliar), indicated self-awareness and familiarity with respect to face cognition in the control adults and children. Furthermore, the P300 amplitude in (the Control adults was significantly greater in the self-face condition than in the familiar-face condition. However, no significant differences in the EPN and P300 components were observed among the self-, familiar-, and unfamiliar-face conditions

in the PDD children. The results Suggest a deficit of semantic encoding of faces in children with PDD, which may be implicated in their delay in social communication. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The stratification and differentiation of the epidermis are known to involve the precise control of multiple signaling pathways. By contrast, little is known about the development of the mouse esophagus and forestomach, Dorsomorphin order which are composed of a stratified squamous epithelium. Based on prior work in the skin, we hypothesized that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is a central player. To test this hypothesis, we first used a BMP reporter mouse line harboring a BRE-lacZ allele, along with in situ hybridization to localize transcripts for BMP signaling components, including various antagonists. We then exploited a Shh-Cre allele that drives recombination in the embryonic foregut epithelium to generate gain-or loss-of-function models for the Bmpr1a (Alk3) receptor. In gain-of-function (Shh-Cre; Rosa26(CAG-loxpstoploxp-caBmpr1a)) embryos, high levels of ectopic BMP signaling stall the transition from simple columnar to multilayered undifferentiated epithelium in the esophagus and forestomach.

cm(-2) nm(-1) (confirmed with an appropriate irradiance meter cal

cm(-2).nm(-1) (confirmed with an appropriate irradiance meter calibrated over the appropriate wavelength range); (3) illumination of maximal body surface; and (4) demonstration of a decrease in total bilirubin concentrations during the first 4 to 6 hours of exposure.\n\nRECOMMENDATIONS (SEE APPENDIX FOR GRADING DEFINITION): The intensity and spectral output of phototherapy devices is useful in predicting potential effectiveness in treating hyperbilirubinemia (group B recommendation). Clinical ABT-737 effectiveness should be evaluated before and monitored during use (group B recommendation). Blocking the light source or reducing exposed body

surface should be avoided (group B recommendation). Standardization of irradiance meters, improvements in device design, and lower-upper limits of light intensity for phototherapy units merit further study. Comparing the in vivo performance of devices is not practical, in general, and alternative procedures need to be explored. Pediatrics 2011;128:e1046-e1052″
“Understanding variations in lipoprotein cholesterol levels throughout the menstrual cycle is important because there may be clinical implications find more regarding

the appropriate timing of measurement and implications on the design and interpretation of studies in women of reproductive age. Our objective was to review the evidence comparing lipoprotein cholesterol levels throughout the menstrual cycle among premenopausal women. Overall, lipoprotein PKC412 mouse cholesterol levels were observed to vary in response to changing estrogen levels. Taken together, the evidence

suggests that total cholesterol and LDL-C tend to be highest during the follicular phase and to decline during the luteal phase, with HDL-C highest around ovulation. Based on these findings, the menstrual cycle phase should be taken into account when evaluating lipoprotein cholesterol levels among reproductive-aged women. Measuring cholesterol levels during menses is recommended for consistent comparisons as this phase can be more reliably identified than other phases, although women within National Cholesterol Education Program acceptable ranges, but near the boundaries when tested during menses, should undergo additional tests.”
“A new lab-scale microstructured reactor was used for investigations on enhancing the H-2/CO ratio in synthesis gas from biomass feedstocks via the water gas shift reaction. A model mixture of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, and hydrogen was used to reproduce the typical synthesis gas composition from dry biomass gasification. Catalyst layers were prepared and characterized; a combined incipient wetness impregnation and sol-gel technology was applied. The catalytic activities of Pt/CeO2 and Pt/CeO2/Al2O3 films were determined at temperatures of 400-600 degrees C and pressures of up to 45 bars.