Here we show that the cancelling feedback not only suppresses the predictable signal but also actively enhances the response to the unpredictable communication signal. A transient mismatch between the predictive feedback and incoming sensory input causes both to be positive: the soma is suddenly depolarized by the unpredictable input, whereas the neuron’s apical dendrites remain depolarized by the lagging cancelling feedback. The apical dendrites Elacridar cost allow the backpropagation of somatic spikes. We
show that backpropagation is enhanced when the dendrites are depolarized, causing the unpredictable excitatory input to evoke spike bursts. As a consequence, the feedback driven by a predictable low-frequency signal not only suppresses the response to a redundant stimulus but also induces a bursting response triggered by unpredictable communication signals.”
“Triterpene saponins are throught to be potential anti-tumour agents in many cell types. This study aims to evaluate the cytotoxic activity and mechanism of a triterpene saponin,
macranthoside B (MB), isolated from Lonicera macranthoides Hand.-Mazz. (Caprifoliaceae). A cell viability assay showed that MB inhibited cell growth of a panel of six cancer cell lines, especially in human acute promyelocytic leukaemia HL-60 cells, with an IC(50) value of 3.8 mu mol. A hypodiploid cells assay and an annexin-V-FITC/PI double staining assay showed check details a significant increase of apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner on HL-60 cells both 24 and 48 h after MB treatment. MB-induced EVP4593 purchase apoptosis was through the caspase-mediated pathway, by activation of caspase-3. Furthermore, a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release test suggested that an MB-cholesterol
interaction led to the rearrangement of the lipid bilayer and to subsequent cell membrane impairment. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that MB may exhibit cytotoxic activity against HL-60 cells by inducing apoptosis via caspase-dependent pathways and also membrane permeabilisation.”
“A Carvalhal, J-G Baril, F Crouzat, et al. Recognizing cognitive and psychiatric changes in the post-highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2012;23(4):209-215. Amid numerous complications that plague the health and quality of life of people living with HIV, neurocognitive and psychiatric illnesses pose unique challenges. While there remains uncertainty with respect to the pathophysiology surrounding these disorders, their adverse implications are increasingly recognized. Left undetected, they have the potential to significantly impact patient well being, adherence to antiretroviral treatment and overall health outcomes. As such, early identification of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and psychiatric illnesses will be paramount in the proactive management of affected patients.
Current use of cholesterol-lowering drugs for five or more years was not associated with overall cancer incidence (RR 0.97, 95% CI = 0.92-1.03), or incidence of
prostate, breast, colorectal, lung, bladder, renal cell, or pancreatic cancer but was associated with lower risk of melanoma (RR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.66-0.96), endometrial cancer (RR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.45-0.94), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL; RR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.62-0.89). These results suggest that long-term use of statins is unlikely to substantially increase or decrease overall cancer risk. However, associations between long- term statin use and risk of endometrial cancer, melanoma, and NHL deserve further investigation. Cancer Res; 71(5); 1763-71. (c) 2011 AACR.”
“Metformin is reported to ameliorate inflammation in diabetic patients. The effect of metformin this website on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production was studied by using RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. The action of GSK1210151A inhibitor metformin was analyzed by dividing lipopolysaccharide signaling into the MyD88-dependent and -independent pathways. Metformin significantly reduced the expression of an inducible type of nitric oxide synthase and inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production. On the other hand, metformin did not inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. The expression levels of interferon-beta protein
and mRNA, which is a key molecule in MyD88-independent pathway, were significantly inhibited by metformin. Compound C, a specific AMP-activated protein kinase inhibitor, did not affect the inhibitory action of metformin. Metformin was suggested to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production via inhibition
of interferon-beta production in MyD88-independent pathway. Metformin might exhibit an anti-inflammatory www.selleckchem.com/products/Adrucil(Fluorouracil).html action on diabetic complications as well as the antidiabetic action.”
“Phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase (PPAT) catalyses the penultimate step in coenzyme A biosynthesis in bacteria and is therefore a candidate target for antibacterial drug development. We randomly mutated the residues in the Helicobacter pylori PPAT sequence to identify those that govern protein folding and ligand binding, and we describe the crystal structure of one of these mutants (I4V/N76Y) that contains the mutations I4 -> V and N76 -> Y. Unlike other PPATs, which are homohexamers, I4V/N76Y is a domain-swapped homotetramer. The protomer structure of this mutant is an open conformation in which the 65 C-terminal residues are intertwined with those of a neighbouring protomer. Despite structural differences between wild-type PPAT and IV4/N76Y, they had similar ligand-binding properties. ATP binding to these two proteins was enthalpically driven, whereas that for Escherichia coli PPAT is entropically driven. The structural packing of the subunits may affect the thermal denaturation of wild-type PPAT and I4V/N76Y.
This highlights the potential of combined carbon and nitrogen isotopes analysis to trace sources and degradation of glyphosate.”
“Most antibacterial peptides exhibit low therapeutic indices in vivo.
Peptide A3-APO was shown to exhibit high potency against Escherichia coli bacteremia when added intraperitoneally. To extend the studies to systemic infections against multidrug-resistant organisms, we studied the efficacy of A3-APO in mouse models of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection. When administered either intravenously at 2.5 mg/kg or intramuscularly (im) at 5 mg/kg twice or three times to mice infected with a carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strain, peptide A3-APO reduced the bacterial counts by at least two log(10) units and increased the survival rate compared with untreated animals or mice treated with 40 mg/kg imipenem. Unlike after intraperitoneal MDV3100 in vivo or intravenous administration, A3-APO did not show toxic effects at 60 mg/kg dose im. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 96: 126-129, 2011.”
“We reported previously that concentric
or eccentric exercise can lead to errors in human limb MI-503 datasheet position sense. Our data led us to conclude that the errors, post-exercise, were not due to an altered responsiveness of the proprioceptive afferents, and we proposed that they resulted from central changes in the processing of the afferent input. However, it remained uncertain what was responsible ARS-1620 Cell Cycle inhibitor for triggering those changes, the volume of afferent traffic during the exercise or the developing fatigue. The afferent traffic hypothesis was tested by subjects carrying out a series of 250 lightly loaded concentric contractions of elbow flexors that produced little fatigue (6 %). This did not lead to significant position errors. In a second experiment, a series of fatiguing isometric contractions, which kept movements of the muscle to a minimum, led to
a 24 % fall in force and significant position errors (3A degrees, direction of extension). In the third experiment, at 24 h after eccentric exercise, when the short-term effects of fatigue and accumulated metabolites were gone, but force was still 28 % below control values, this was accompanied by significant position errors in the direction of extension, 3.2A degrees in the relaxed arm and 3.3A degrees in the self-supported arm. It is concluded that it is the fall in force accompanying exercise which is responsible for disturbing limb position sense. It is suggested that the exercise effects are generated in the brain, perhaps as a result of an alteration of the body map, triggered by the fall in force.”
“Adolescents drink largely in social situations, likely in an attempt to facilitate social interactions. This study sought to examine alterations in the incentive salience of a social stimulus following repeated stress exposure and acute ethanol administration in adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats.
There was limited high-quality evidence and findings were inconclusive regarding the utility of behaviour-change techniques for improving walking in people with intermittent claudication. Rigorous, fully powered trials are required that control for exercise dosage and supervision in order to isolate the effect of behaviour-change
techniques alongside exercise GSK1838705A order therapy. (C) 2013 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The function of a given brain region is often defined by the coding properties of its individual neurons, yet how this information is combined at the ensemble level is an equally important consideration. We recorded multiple neurons from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the dorsal striatum (DS) simultaneously as rats performed different sequences of the same three actions. Sequence and lever decoding was markedly similar on a per-neuron basis in the two regions. At the ensemble level, sequence-specific representations in the DS appeared synchronously, but transiently, along with the representation of lever location, whereas these two streams of information appeared independently and asynchronously in the ACC. As a result, the ACC achieved superior ensemble decoding accuracy overall. Thus, the manner in which information was combined across neurons in an ensemble
PR-171 price determined the functional separation of the ACC and DS on this task.”
“Athletic performance is associated to an optimal morphology of the athlete. Paddle-tennis is a sport with a large number of followers needing more information about the players who practice it. this website The aim of this study was to describe the anthropometric somatotype of 48 high-level paddle-tennis players. ANOVA was applied to find differences between categories of the
game and a T-Student test for those based on sex and athletic performance (winners and losers). The variables of weight, height and BMI are similar between players of different categories, except between males and females. Dominant somatotype of players was Meso-Endomorphic (3.6 – 6.9 – 1.9 and 4.1 – 5.4 – 3.0; in males and females, respectively). The somatotype dispersion distances show significant differences with other sports such as squash, badminton and tennis. The results provide important information to determine the ideal morphology of paddle-tennis players, so far unknown.”
“The DATTPIXE software package, which full extent version become operational in 1992, has been largely used both in academic research and for standard analysis. Developments of a new PIXE setup, having an X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (XMS) EDS high resolution detection system and a CdTe detector, raised the need for a deep revision of the software used to fit PIXE spectra and interpret data. First steps taken in 2007 essentially comprised a new fitting code based on a proven Bayesian inference routine.
Objective: We hypothesize that their human variant, HLA-E restricted CD8(+) T cells, fulfills a similar regulatory role in man and that these cells are of importance in MS. Methods: A large cohort of MS patients and healthy controls was genotyped for the two known HLA-E polymorphisms. Flow cytometry was used to determine HLA-E expression kinetics and to phenotype HLA-E restricted CD8(+) T cells. lmmunohistochemistry was performed to investigate HLA-E expression in the central nervous system (CNS) of MS patients.
Results: HLA-E is upregulated on immune cells upon in vitro activation and this upregulation CHIR98014 is polymorphism-dependent for T and B cells. T and B cells in lesions of MS patients show enhanced HLA-E expression. Furthermore, NKG2C(+)CD8(+) T cells of MS patients have a significantly lower Foxp3 expression, while NKG2A(+)CD8(+) T cells of MS patients produce higher
levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to those of healthy individuals. Conclusion: Our study indicates that the HLA-E system is altered in MS and could play a regulatory role in disease.”
“The antibiotic elansolid B1 was prepared by a convergent strategy that relied on a highly diastereoselective, biomimetic intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition (IMDA) that furnished the tetrahydroindane unit. Other key features are a double Sonogashira cross-coupling and a substrate-controlled AZD1480 supplier Yamamoto aldol reaction.”
“Current therapies used to treat dermatophytoses such as onychomycosis are effective but display room for improvement in efficacy, safety, and convenience of dosing. We report BAY 73-4506 price here that the investigational agent VT-1161 displays potent in vitro antifungal
activity against dermatophytes, with MIC values in the range of smaller than = 0.016 to 0.5 mu g/ml. In pharmacokinetic studies supporting testing in a guinea pig model of dermatophytosis, VT-1161 plasma concentrations following single oral doses were dose proportional and persisted at or above the MIC values for at least 48 h, indicating potential in vivo efficacy with once-daily and possibly once-weekly dosing. Subsequently, in a guinea pig dermatophytosis model utilizing Trichophyton mentagrophytes and at oral doses of 5, 10, or 25 mg/kg of body weight once daily or 70 mg/kg once weekly, VT-1161 was statistically superior to untreated controls in fungal burden reduction (P smaller than 0.001) and improvement in clinical scores (P smaller than 0.001). The efficacy profile of VT-1161 was equivalent to those for doses and regimens of itraconazole and terbinafine except that VT-1161 was superior to itraconazole when each drug was dosed once weekly (P smaller than 0.05). VT-1161 was distributed into skin and hair, with plasma and tissue concentrations in all treatment and regimen groups ranging from 0.8 to 40 mu g/ml (or mu g/g), at or above the MIC against the isolate used in the model (0.5 mu g/ml).
The shabbouts were divided into four different groups and fed by different feeds (Control, Group A with MOS, Group B with vitamin
MK-5108 B-12, Group C with the combination of MOS + vitamin B-12). The effects of feeding through MOS and vitamin B-12 in different proportions on growth in view of live weight and total length, survival rate, feed conversion, condition factor and protein efficacy were studied. The best growth in view of live weight of 4.51+/-0.16 g and length of 7.71+/-0.08 cm was maintained through vitamin B-12 in Group B. As a consequence, the growth parameters of the shabbout fries fed through commercial feeds with the addition of MOS and vitamin B-12 in different doses under empirical conditions showed affirmative effects on the survival rate, feed assessment, condition factor and protein efficacy.”
“Diarrheal diseases remain a leading cause of morbidity
and mortality for children in developing countries, while representing an important cause of morbidity worldwide. The World Health Organization recommended that low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions plus zinc save lives in patients with acute diarrhea, but there are no approved, safe drugs that have been shown to be effective against most causes of acute 3-Methyladenine inhibitor diarrhea. Identification of abnormalities in electrolyte handling by the intestine in diarrhea, including increased intestinal anion secretion and reduced Na+ absorption, suggest a number of potential drug targets. This is based on the view that successful drug therapy for diarrhea will result from correcting the abnormalities in electrolyte transport that are pathophysiologic for diarrhea. We review the molecular mechanisms of physiologic regulation of intestinal ion transport and changes that occur in diarrhea and the status of drugs being developed to correct the transport abnormalities
in Na+ absorption that occur in diarrhea. Mechanisms of Cl- cretion and approaches to anti-Cl- secretory Liproxstatin-1 price therapies of diarrhea are discussed in a companion review.”
“The present work illustrates the synthesis of 4-sulfophenyl activated carbon based solid acid catalyst (ACPhSO(3)H), obtained from activated carbon (AC) by arylation with 4-sulfobenzenediazonium chloride. The variation of reaction conditions, such as, reaction temperature (20-85 degrees C) and weight ratio of sulfanilic acid (precursor of 4-sulfobenzenediazonium chloride) to AC (0.1411-14.00/1) provided ACPhSO(3)H with relatively high density of acid sites. The ACPhSO(3)H with the highest PhSO3H density (0.72 mmol H+/g) was obtained using weight ratio of sulfanilic acid to AC (7.00/1) at 70 degrees C after 10min. The catalyst was characterized by means of nitrogen adsorption analysis (average pore diameter 10.1 nm, specific surface area 114 m(2)/g, pore volume 0.29 cm(3)/g), FT-IR, TG, XRD, FE-SEM and S elemental analysis. The spent catalyst can be easily regenerated recovering its initial density of acid sites.
Psychological theory building, which addresses mental processes underlying other-regarding behavior, is rare. Based on Relational Models
Theory (RMT, ) and Relationship Regulation Theory (RRT, ) it is proposed that moral motives influence individuals’ decision behavior in interpersonal situations via conscious and unconscious (automatic) processes. To test our propositions we STI571 ic50 developed the ‘Dyadic Solidarity Game’ and its solitary equivalent, the ‘Self-Insurance Game’. Four experiments, in which the moral motives “Unity” and “Proportionality” were manipulated, support the propositions made. First, it was shown that consciously activated moral motives (via framing of the overall goal of the experiment) and unconsciously activated moral motives (via subliminal priming) influence other-regarding behavior. Second, this influence was only found in interpersonal, not in solitary situations. Third, by combining the analyses of the two experimental games the extent to which participants apply the Golden Rule (“treat others how you wish to be treated”) could be established. Individuals with a “Unity” motive treated others like themselves, whereas individuals with a Ricolinostat “Proportionality” motive gave others less then they gave themselves. The four experiments not only support the assumption
that morals matter in economic games, they also deliver new insights in how morals matter in economic decision making.”
“We report our experience in two cases of subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head with a history of internal fixation of the femoral neck fracture. Both cases were young females LY2157299 datasheet (26 and 43 years old, respectively). Their hip pain occurred more than 2 years and 1 year after
the primary surgical treatment, respectively. MRI revealed bone marrow edema pattern, as well as a low-intensity band on the T1-weighted images, which are commonly observed in osteonecrosis. However, the low-intensity bands were parallel to the subchondral bone end-plate, which are characteristic findings of subchondral insufficiency fracture. Both patients were administered anti-inflammatory drugs and/or bisphosphonate. One patient underwent a transtrochanteric curved varus osteotomy 1 year and 9 months after the onset, and the other healed without collapse of the femoral head. Our cases indicate that subchondral insufficiency fractures may need to be considered as one of the possible conditions after the internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture, in addition to posttraumatic osteonecrosis.”
“Nitrous Oxide (N2O), an ozone depleting greenhouse gas, is an observed intermediate in aqueous nitrate/nitrite reduction mediated by both natural microbial and synthetic laboratory catalysts. Because of our interest in catalytic nitrate/nitrite remediation, we have endeavored to develop a detailed concordant experimental/theoretical picture of N2O reduction with H-2 over a Pd catalyst in an aqueous environment.
To cover/discuss all these reports is out of the scope of this article. The aim of the present report is to draw attention to the following points: i) How should the synthetic organic chemists and analytical chemists take care of the unexpected separation of enantiomers from nonracemic mixtures in a totally achiral environment? ii) What are the technical terms used in recent literature? iii) The requirement of revisiting definitions/terms (introduced in recent years, in particular) to describe such separations of enantiomers in light of prevalent scientific/chemical terminology used in the ‘language of chemistry’, the text
book concept, and IUPAC background. iv) To selective HDAC inhibitors propose logical scientific terminology or phrases for explaining the possible mechanism of separation under these conditions. v) To discuss briefly the concept/possibile phenomenon responsible for these enantioselective effects. It is also attempted to explain the effect of change of physical parameters influencing the separation from nonracemic mixture in achiral-phase chromatography.”
“Extra-levator abdominoperineal Anti-infection inhibitor excision for rectal cancer includes resection of the levator ani muscle and therefore makes pelvic reconstruction advisable. The aim of our study was to evaluate morphologic and functional long-term
results of pelvic floor augmentation with porcine dermal collagen mesh by dynamic magnetic resonance imaging and clinical examination. Twenty consecutive patients underwent perineal reconstruction with porcine dermal collagen mesh following extra-levator abdominoperineal excision for primary rectal adenocarcinoma with curative intent between 2009 and 2012. Patient perioperative and postoperative data were collected prospectively. There were one cancer-related and two noncancer-related deaths in the follow-up period,
and another three patients refused the dynamic magnetic resonance imaging. Fourteen patients were included in the study. The median time period from surgery to dynamic magnetic resonance imaging and clinical examination was 31 months (range 19-56). Wound infections were observed CB-839 in 43 % (6 of 14) of these patients in the postoperative period, but no mesh had to be removed. No focal mesh defect, no damage on the suture line, and no perineal hernia were detected on dynamic magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical examination revealed no pathological findings in any patient. The implantation of a porcine dermal collagen mesh is an effective and reliable option for pelvic floor reconstruction after extra-levator abdominoperineal excision. Despite a high incidence of primary wound infections, the healing rate was satisfactory, no mesh had to be removed, and long-term stability could be achieved.”
“The benefits of impact exercise and dietary calcium on bone development are controversial.
in line with previous results, the GapC and Rpb2 BAY 80-6946 nmr genes showed strikingly different patterns of nucleotide polymorphism. Neutrality tests and comparison of population differentiation based on the GapC and Rpb2 genes with neutrally evolving microsatellites using coalescent simulations supported non-neutral evolution in GapC, but neutral evolution in the Rpb2 gene. These observations and the positions of the replacement mutations in the GAPDH enzyme (coded by GapC) indicate a significant
impact of replacement mutations on enzyme function. Furthermore, the geographic distribution of alternate GapC alleles and/or linked genomic regions suggests that they have had differential success in the recolonization of Europe following the Last Gilteritinib Glacial Maximum. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the
effect of cortisol on growth-related genes in the ovine placenta.\n\nStudy design: Ewes carrying singleton pregnancies were operated on between 112 and 116 days of gestation (115 +/- 0.4, term = 147 days) and randomly assigned into three groups: six control animals, five ewes that were administered cortisol by continuous intravenous infusion (1 mg/kg/day, high cortisol), and five ewes that were adrenalectomized and replaced with 0.5-0.6 mg cortisol/kg/day and 3 mu g aldosterone/kg/day to produce cortisol
concentrations equivalent to pre-pregnancy values (low cortisol). At necropsy (130 +/- 0.2 days of gestation), placental tissue was frozen and stored at -80 degrees C for mRNA analysis.\n\nMain outcome measures: To assess potential molecular mechanisms by which cortisol alters placental structure and function and fetal growth.\n\nResults: Cortisol levels did not significantly affect 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 enzymes, glucocorticoid receptor, mineralocorticoid receptor and angiotensin II receptor, type 1 (AT1R) expression levels. GANT61 mw Gene expression levels of AT2R were increased in the high cortisol group for type B placentomes. There was little effect of cortisol on the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis. There was significantly more IGF-I mRNA in B versus A type and more IGFBP-2 mRNA in B and C type versus A type placentomes regardless of treatment (p < 0.05).\n\nConclusions: These data suggest that cortisol increases placental AT2R expression at high concentrations whereas it has little effect on the placental IGF axis. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A database containing 800 datasets on the incidence of specific tumor types from 262 radiation carcinogenicity experiments identified in a comprehensive literature search through September 2000 was analyzed for evidence of hormesis.
Fifteen percent of
patients meeting GANT61 manufacturer previous ATS guidelines failed to meet revised criteria due to a lack of honeycombing on high-resolution computed tomography and the absence of a surgical lung biopsy. Patients failing to meet previous and revised diagnostic criteria for IPF were younger. CONCLUSION: The revised guidelines for the diagnosis of IPF classify a substantial proportion of patients differently than the previous guidelines.”
“Aim: Obesity has been implicated in the aetiology of myelogenous leukaemia and myelodysplasia (MDS). We hypothesised that altered secretion of adiponectin and resistin may underlie this association. We thus investigated the role of both total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and resistin in MDS.\n\nMethods: In a case-control study, we studied 101 cases with incident, histologically confirmed primary MDS and 101 controls matched on gender and age between 2004 and 2007. Total and HMW adiponectin, resistin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and
insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP-3) were determined.\n\nResults: Lower serum total or HMW adiponectin and/or resistin levels were independently associated with higher risk of MDS controlling for age, gender, BMI and serum levels of leptin, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 (p < 0.002). Although total and HMW adiponectin were both significantly inversely associated with MDS when Selleckchem Nutlin-3 modelled either in quartiles or continuously, HMW did not offer any substantial additional predictive value over total adiponectin (Odds ratio (OR) = 0.91 versus 0.93 for a 1 mu g/ml GM6001 Proteases inhibitor change, respectively). IGF-I was positively associated with MDS by bivariate analysis and both IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were higher in advanced MDS and higher risk stages, but were not significantly and independently associated with MDS.\n\nConclusion: Total and HMW adiponectin may have a protective role in MDS, whereas resistin levels may be decreased via a compensatory mechanism. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Gordon NM, Rudroff T, Enoka JA, Enoka RM. Handedness but not
dominance influences variability in endurance time for sustained, submaximal contractions. J Neurophysiol 108: 1501-1510, 2012. First published June 13, 2012; doi:10.1152/jn.01144.2011.-The purpose of this study was to compare endurance time and accompanying neuromuscular adjustments when left- and right-handed subjects used the dominant and nondominant arms to sustain submaximal contractions that required either force or position control. Ten left-handed and 10 right-handed healthy adults (21 +/- 5 yr) participated in the study. Each subject exerted a similar net torque about the elbow joint during the force and position tasks to achieve a target force of 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force (56 +/- 18 N). MVC force declined to a similar level immediately after task failure for left-and right-handed subjects (27 +/- 13 vs. 25 +/- 15%, P = 0.9).