We did not check for platelet contamination in PBMC preparations, which may alter mtDNA quantification . However, the aim of this study was to determine whether measurement of mtDNA or mtRNA from PBMC preparations was predictive for LA and SHL, and our data demonstrate that it is not. Unfortunately, data were not available on the ethnicity of the subjects. There are ongoing concerns about the high rates of LA/SHL in African patients [9,25]. A study of a similar-sized cohort Erlotinib manufacturer to that in INITIO of 891 predominantly Black patients in Durban reported 14 cases of LA over an 18-month period, giving a rate of 19 cases per 1000
patient years . Similar rates have been observed in other centres in South Africa [11,25]. This
could be attributable to ethnic susceptibility to LA/SHL, or difficulties accessing patient care and diagnostics in resource-limited settings, and is worthy of further study. In summary, in a large, prospective, randomized, controlled trial of ddI and d4T in treatment-naïve individuals, only an elevated BMI at baseline was predictive of LA/SHL. PBMC mtDNA or mtRNA was not predictive of LA/SHL and cannot be recommended as a routine monitoring tool. These findings should help guide further research into monitoring for LA/SHL with a particular focus on resource-limited settings. This study was supported by funding from Molecular Medicine Ireland (ERF sponsored under the HEA Clinical Scientist Fellowship Programme; PRTLI4) and Science Foundation Ireland (09/RFP/BMT2461). Author contributions: ERF and CC Selleck GSK 3 inhibitor contributed equally to the manuscript. Appendix S1. INITIO Trial International Co-ordinating Committee. Please note: Wiley-Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting materials supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase material) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. “
“Noninvasive tests are increasingly being
used for the assessment of liver fibrosis. We aimed to develop a serum index for the identification of advanced fibrosis (F≥3) in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients. We carried out a cross-sectional study on a group of 195 patients comprised of an estimation group (EG; n=127) and a validation group (VG; n=68) who all underwent liver biopsy and had not received previous interferon therapy. Liver fibrosis was estimated using the METAVIR score. We developed a new serum index (HGM-3) dependent on levels of platelets, alkaline phosphatase, hepatic growth factor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and hyaluronic acid. In the EG, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) of HGM-3 for identification of F≥3 was 0.939 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.899, 0.