The salmon effluent failed the acute lethality test using rainbow

The salmon effluent failed the acute lethality test using rainbow trout while the flatfish effluent showed acute toxicity in the Microtox (TM) test with a 50% inhibiting concentration (IC(50)) of

38.84%. Subsequent treatment by DAF of the flatfish and salmon effluents increased IC(50) values by 20% and 26% respectively. The findings of this study DMH1 clinical trial indicate that all of the processing effluents sampled showed characteristics that could potentially degrade effluent receiving waters and acute toxicity was demonstrated in the two raw finfish effluents. Application of DAF treatment was successful in significantly increasing Microtox (TM) IC(50) values, thereby reducing acute toxicity, but failed to entirely remove acute toxicity. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 25: 137-146, 2010.”
“We examined lumbar transpedicular instrumented posterolateral fusion patients operated on between 1992 and 1997 presenting: degenerative spondylolisthesis with spinal stenosis; adult isthmic spondylolisthesis; failed back syndrome after one to five discectomies; and failed back syndrome after one to three laminectomy operations

(Groups 1-4, respectively).

They were examined by an independent orthopedic surgeon, completed the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaires and their outcome was evaluated.

The overall patient satisfaction at follow-up (mean 11.7 years) was 82.1 %. The reoperation rate was 15.1 % (7.5 % due to adjacent segment disease).

Group 1 showed the greatest improvements in ODI and VAS values, Group 2 the lowest and Group 3 the highest preoperative values, and Staurosporine research buy Group 4 the second highest improvements. Patient satisfaction see more scores were 90.3, 69.7, 63.6 and 80.0 %, respectively, and unplanned reoperation rates were 6.5, 9.1, 31.8 and 20.0 %. Thus, long-term outcomes of lumbar instrumented posterolateral fusion (rarely previously studied) were satisfactory for > 80 % of patients, but varied among groups.”

and molinate are selective herbicides recommended for integrated weed management in rice. Their toxicity on growth and some biochemical and physiological parameters of Nostoc muscorum, an abundant cyanobacterium in Portuguese rice fields, was evaluated under laboratory conditions during time- and concentration-dependent exposure for 72 h. Results showed that toxic concentrations (0.75-2 mM) of both herbicides have pleiotropic effects on the cyanobacterium. Molinate was more toxic than bentazon to growth, respiration, chlorophyll-a, carotenoids, and phycobiliproteins contents. Protein content was increased by both herbicides although the effect was particularly evident with higher concentrations of molinate (1.5-2 mM). The herbicides had contrasting effects on carbohydrates content: molinate increased this organic fraction whereas bentazon decreased it. Photosynthesis and respiration were inhibited by both herbicides. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Therefore, inhibition of tTG activity might be a promising novel

Therefore, inhibition of tTG activity might be a promising novel therapeutic target to counteract CAA. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Background: 5-Fluoracil molecular weight Nonoperative management for selective patients with solid organ injuries from blunt trauma has gained wide acceptance. However, for trauma surgeons, it is often difficult to estimate a patient’s circulatory volume. Some authors have proposed that the presence of a collapsed inferior vena cava (IVC) on computed tomography (CT) scan correlates with inadequate circulatory volume. Our aim was to verify whether CT evidence of a flat IVC

(FI) is an indicator of hypovolemia in blunt trauma patients with solid organ injuries.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all blunt trauma patients with solid organ injuries admitted to our Medical Center from July 2003 to September 2006. Of the 226 patients reviewed, 29 had CT evidence of FI. We compared Injury Severity Scores, hemodynamic parameters, fluid and blood transfusion requirements, mortality rate, and hospital course between patients with (FI group) and without FI (non-FI [NFI] group).

Results: The FI group had higher rates of intensive care unit admission and mortality, in addition

to longer intensive care unit stays, when compared with the NFI group. In addition, the patients in the FI group needed larger amounts of fluid and blood transfusions and presented lower hemoglobin levels during the first week of admission; furthermore, the majority deteriorated to a state of shock in the

emergency department.

Conclusions: CT evidence selleck chemicals llc of FI is a good indicator of hypovolemia and an accurate predictor for prognosis in trauma patients with blunt solid organ injuries.”
“The clinical manifestation of renal vein thrombosis varies with the speed and degree of venous occlusion. Such patients may be asymptomatic, have minor nonspecific symptoms such as nausea or weakness, or have more specific symptoms such as upper abdominal find more pain, flank pain, or hematuria. Acute scrotal pain is a very uncommon clinical expression of renal vein thrombosis. Here, we report a case of membranous glomerulonephritis-induced renal vein thrombosis presented with the symptom of acute scrotal pain caused by thrombosis-induced varicocele. This case report suggests that renal vein thrombosis should be considered in the diagnosis of acute scrotal pain; it also emphasizes that an investigation of retroperitoneum should be performed for adult patients with the sudden onset of varicocele. Copyright (C) 2014 Elsevier Taiwan LLC and the Chinese Medical Association. All rights reserved.”
“Raw Jatropha curcas oil is a promising feedstock for biodiesel, and its quality assessment is essential. The phosphorus content, especially that of organic phospholipids is one of the important quality parameters.

2 nm) in which the magnetization was in-plane In addition, Hall

2 nm) in which the magnetization was in-plane. In addition, Hall effect measurements were carried out to observe the anomalous and planar Hall voltages and to quantify the perpendicular and in-plane components of magnetization. The sample with thicker Co layer (2.4 nm) showed an in-plane component of magnetization, whereas the sample with 0.75 nm Co showed no in-plane component. The high value of H-ex observed in 0.75 nm Co samples can have important implications in spintronics and bit patterned media.

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3658843]“
“goat milk (Primosale cheese) were studied to establish their microbiological and sensorial characteristics into package in air, under vacuum or different modified atmospheres (MAP). The combination made up of 75% CO(2) and selleck chemical 25% N(2) allowed the best preservation for Giuncata cheese, since it was able to slow down the spoilage

bacteria, without affecting the dairy microflora, more than the other entire MAP; furthermore, no negative effect on sensory quality has been reported. In contrast, no mixture was individuated to provide good microbiological and sensorial quality KPT-8602 research buy for Primosale cheese.”
“The clinical interface between psychiatry and neurology is epilepsy; the pharmacological expression of this interface is antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), as they are used to treat both epilepsy and psychiatric disorders, especially bipolar disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity and the risk of suicidal behavior/ideation/suicide are markedly increased in patients with epilepsy (PWE). Though AEDs receive initial indications for

the treatment of epilepsy, currently the majority of AEDs are used to treat pain and psychiatric disorders. Thus in selecting the appropriate AEDs for treatment of PWE, consideration should be given to which AEDs best treat the epileptic disorder and the psychiatric comorbidity. This review is an overview of 21 AEDs in which negative psychotropic properties, approved indications in psychiatry, off-label studied EPZ004777 order uses in psychiatry, and principal uses in psychiatry are presented with literature review. A total of 40 psychiatric uses have been identified. Of the 21 AEDs reviewed, only 5 have U.S. Food and Drug Administration and/or European Medicines Agency psychiatric approval for limited uses; the majority of AEDs are used off-label. Many of these off-label uses are based on case reports, open-label studies, and poorly controlled or small-sample-size studies. In some instances, off-label use persists in the face of negative pivotal trials.

25 and r = 0 17, respectively) Age at onset moderated the associ

25 and r = 0.17, respectively). Age at onset moderated the association between change in neuropsychological functioning and change in reading and writing achievement (P <= 0.006), with stronger relationships among younger children (beta=0.25-0.44). The association between change in language and change in writing achievement was moderated by caregiver anxiety (P=0.04; stronger for more anxious parents, beta=0.40), and the association between change in processing speed and change in math achievement was moderated by etiology (P=0.02;

stronger for symptomatic/cryptogenic vs idiopathic, (beta=0.29). Gender and other family variables did not have significant moderating effects.

Conclusions: Changes in neuropsychological function were associated with changes in academic achievement following onset of seizures, with risk factors being younger age at onset, lower caregiver education, GDC-0941 chemical structure high parental anxiety, and symptomatic/cryptogenic etiology. Academic performance should be closely monitored in children with early-onset seizures. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“Objective: This article systematically analyses comparative studies to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL)

versus standard PCNL. Methods: The Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Pitavastatin and DARE databases were searched from 1997 to February 2011. Comparative studies evaluating outcomes from standard versus tubeless PCNL were included. Primary outcome measures were post-operative pain scoring, analgesic requirements, duration of hospitalisation/convalescence, operation time, major/minor

complications and stone-free rates. Results: Twenty-four studies were included (11 randomised control trials and 13 retrospective selleck chemicals or prospective studies). Levels of pain recorded, analgesic requirements, duration of inpatient stay and convalescence time were all significantly reduced in the tubeless PCNL group. Cost was reduced in two studies. Morbidity was not significantly different between the groups. There was no significant difference between groups regarding stone-free status. Discussion: This systematic review has demonstrated that tubeless PCNL is a viable alternative to tubed PCNL in uncomplicated cases. Benefits are as described above. There is no evidence suggesting that patient safety is compromised by the absence of post-operative nephrostomy. The tubeless method has been reported in challenging cases such as stag-horn stones, horseshoe or ectopic kidneys. Promising outcomes have been demonstrated in elderly patients and when clinical needs demand a supracostal approach. Multi-centre randomised controlled trials are needed to fully establish the effectiveness of the tubeless method. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Photoluminescence (PL) and degenerate four-wave-mixing (DFWM) experiments were performed in a silica-niobic composite containing NaNbO(3) nanocrystals.

Survival curves were also used

RESULTS: We found a si

Survival curves were also used.

RESULTS: We found a significantly increased percentage of septal and vessel cells immunostained for the angiotensin type 1 and 2 receptors in the systemic sclerosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients

compared with the controls. A similar percentage of angiotensin 2 receptor positive vessel cells was observed in fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia. A significantly increased percentage of lymphatic vessels was present in the usual interstitial pneumonia group compared with the non-specific interstitial pneumonia and control groups. A CUDC-907 Cox regression analysis showed a high risk of death for the patients with usual interstitial pneumonia and a high percentage of vessel cells immunostained for the angiotensin 2 receptor in the lymphatic vessels.

CONCLUSION: We concluded that angiotensin II receptor expression in the lung parenchyma can potentially control organ remodeling and fibrosis, which suggests that strategies aimed at preventing high angiotensin 2 receptor expression may be used as potential therapeutic target in patients with pulmonary systemic sclerosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.”
“Two new pterosin sesquiterpenes named as 2R,3R-13-hydroxy-pterosin Mizoribine ic50 L 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 2R,3S-acetylpterosin C (2), along with a known one, 2S,3S-acetylpterosin C (3), were isolated from the whole plant of Pteris

multifida and the 1D and 2D NMR data of 3 were reported for the first time in this paper. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of mass and spectral evidence. Compounds 1-3 showed cytotoxicity against HL 60 cells (human leukemia) with the IC50 values of 14.6,

48.3 and 35.7 mu M, respectively. (C) 2012 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.”
“Given that nearly one-half of pregnancies are unintended, preconception care should be considered an integral part of primary care for women of reproductive age. Common issues in preconception care include family planning, achieving a healthy body weight, screening and treatment for infectious diseases, updating appropriate immunizations, and reviewing medications for teratogenic effects. Women who want to become pregnant should take folic acid supplements to reduce the risk of Selleckchem LB-100 neural tube defects. Control of chronic diseases is essential for optimizing pregnancy outcomes. Family physicians should work with patients to control conditions such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and seizure disorders while simultaneously offering family planning services to avoid unintended pregnancies. Bariatric surgery is increasingly common and may improve fertility in many women with previous insulin resistance. Family physicians should counsel women undergoing bariatric surgery to prevent pregnancy during rapid weight loss and provide assistance with contraception.

There were no differences with respect to percentage of nonrespon

There were no differences with respect to percentage of nonresponse items or response time, but the cost of prenotification group was HK$ 15.11 per response higher than direct mailing group.

Conclusion: Prenotification had no additional effect on the response rate and other survey quality compared with direct questionnaire mailing in a Hong Kong population.

(C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Health professionals are key actors in environmental health. Taking on this role requires a certain degree of competence. That is the reason why education in environmental health of health care professionals became a major concern at international level, notably at WHO level. However. in the European Union only the individual Member States are responsible for organizing education and no official body seems to have started outlining recommendations on how to set WH-4-023 inhibitor up this kind of training.

Objectives: We set out to draw up some propositions for training in environmental

health on the basis of the practice of educational institutions involved in training health care professionals.

Methods: A survey was conducted in 934 educational institutions involved in training health care professionals in 11 European countries and in Canada.

Results: Our data reveal that, whereas there are many establishments – nearly half of those that replied engaged in educating health care professionals in environmental health, they do so in MI-503 purchase a great variety of ways, whether in terms of objectives, content, the number of teaching hours, or their target groups. Moreover, there is only limited evaluation of this training, which makes the question of recognition a very difficult one.

Conclusions: Numerous difficulties have been raised in relation

to education in environmental health, both by trainers and trainees. Some solutions to these difficulties are suggested but the need of official guidelines keeps going. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Confusion exists about when to start toilet training, which causes stress and anxiety. Another consequence can be the actual postponement of the toilet training process, which has created extra social problems. Therefore, in this review we will focus on the proper moment to start toilet training, more specific on readiness signs. This will clarify on which topics further research is necessary. We searched databases for publications on toilet training. Next, we gathered information about the normal development of healthy children and at which age skills needed for each readiness sign are acquired. Twenty-one readiness signs were found. Our results show that there is no consensus on which or how many readiness signs to use. Depending on the readiness sign, the moment to start toilet training can vary a lot. More studies are needed to define which readiness signs are most important and how to detect them easily. Neurourol. Urodynam. 31:437440, 2012.

These results show a correspondence with the effects of the chara

These results show a correspondence with the effects of the characteristics of the nucleation agent on the nucleation of bubbles, which find more have been explored previously. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 119: 2847-2856, 2011″
“In a cohort of 450 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children followed up in Maputo, Mozambique, 22 were born to HIV-uninfected mothers and had no history of sexual abuse. A case record review of these nonvertically, nonsexually infected children as well as a case-control study strongly suggests health care as possible source of infection for many of these children. This facet

of the pediatric HIV epidemic should not be overlooked.”
“Objective: Angiogenesis occurs within atherosclerotic plaques, and thrombin has been

implicated in plaque progression by increasing smooth muscle cell proliferation and upregulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) receptor expression. This study investigated the effects of thrombin on key aspects of angiogenesis and CP-690550 in vivo expression of pro-and anti-angiogenic regulators: VEGF and Pigment Epithelial Derived Factor. Research Design and Methods: Human umbilical smooth muscle cells (HUASMC) were exposed to vehicle or thrombin at 10 U/ml. To quantify cell proliferation, methyl tetrazolium salt (MTS) solution was added after exposure to thrombin for 24, 48 and 72 hours and the absorbance at 490nm recorded using a plate reader. For Real-time RT-PCR cells were exposed to

thrombin for 24hr before analysis LCL161 price of VEGF and PEDF mRNA. A commercial Angiokit was used to construct an in vitro angiogenesis model to measure tubule formation and branching. After 12 days treatment with thrombin 10 U/ml, cells were fixed and the AngioSys 1.0 software was used to analyse tubule morphology. Results: In comparison with controls, thrombin significantly increased HUASMC proliferation (p = 0.002, n = 11) and VEGF mRNA expression by 93% (n = 4, p = 0.024). However in the HUVEC/fibroblast co-cultures it decreased the number of junctions [132(9) vs 196(18), n = 6, p = 0.017] and tubules [537 (17) vs 589 (26), n = 6, p = 0.049], and tubule length [11393 (1601) vs 12195 (1014), n = 6, p = 0.044], indicating an anti-angiogenic effect. Conclusions: Thrombin stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and VEGF expression, but attenuates endothelial cell-mediated growth of vascular tubules and branching of new vascular structures.”
“The concept of using particle structure design to prepare emulsion laminating adhesives (LAs) for improving both the peel strength and heat resistance properties has been investigated.

“An immunoassay system was established for the estimation

“An immunoassay system was established for the estimation of the quantity of an antitumor cyclohexapeptide,

deoxybouvardin (RA-V) from Bouvardia ternifolia (Cav.) Schlecht, Rubia cordifolia L., and R. akane Nakai (Rubiaceae). First, Geneticin molecular weight RA-V was converted into a protein conjugate to make it an effective antigen. In the conjugate the molecular ratio between RA-V and the carrier protein was 5.9:1. The splenocytes from the mouse immunized with the conjugate were then fused with mouse myeloma cells to produce hybridoma, secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against RA-V. Two clones were isolated, one producing MAb IgG(1) and the other MAb IgG(2)b, both having a kappa light chain. The resultant MAbs were evaluated for their sensitivity and cross-reactivity.”
“Since the introduction of Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation in 1984, the correction techniques in scoliosis surgery have changed from Harrington principles of concave distraction to segmental realignment to a variety of possibilities including the rod rotation manoeuvres, and to segmental approximation via cantilever methods. Additionally, pedicle screw

utilization in lumbar curves enhanced correction and stabilization of various deformities, and various studies have strongly supported the clinical advantages of lumbar pedicle screws versus conventional hook instrumentation. Pedicle screw constructs have become increasingly popular in the treatment of patients with spinal deformity. When applied to adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients, pedicle screw fixation has demonstrated increased corrective ability compared with traditional hook/hybrid instrumentation. NVP-BSK805 datasheet In our study, we do a retrospective review of idiopathic scoliosis patients (King 2-Lenke 1 B/C) treated with a selective thoracic posterior fusion using an all-screw construct versus a hybrid (pedicle screws and hooks) construct and, compare the percentage of correction of the scoliotic curves obtained with screws alone and screws and hooks. Special attention was given to the rod diameter and correction technique.

Our results show that the percentage of correction of idiopathic thoracic scoliosis is similar when treating buy LB-100 the scoliosis with rods and screws alone or with rods, screws and hooks; therefore, we and the majority of authors in the literature do not consider the rod section. This can be an important parameter in the evaluation of the superiority of treatment with screws only or screws and hooks. In our study, even if not of statistical significance, the better thoracic curve correction obtained with the hybrid group should be ascribed to the fact that in this group mostly 6 mm rods were used.”
“Purpose of review

The incidence of renal cell carcinoma and the detection of incidental small renal masses are rising. Urologists are faced with difficult management decisions on how to treat patients with small renal masses. Traditionally, the treatment of suspicious renal masses was radical nephrectomy.

09 with both demonstrating total pyroelectric coefficient of appr

09 with both demonstrating total pyroelectric coefficient of approximately -20×10(-4) C m(-2) K(-1) at R=0.09, which corresponds to approximately 300% increase in the coefficient. PZT5H-CPVC also showed maximum of 800% rise in the pyroelectric coefficient while figure of merit for efficiency indicated up to twentyfold increase in its electrical response output per Selleck Galunisertib given thermal stimuli when compared to that of PZT5H by itself.”
“In this study, a flavonoid malonyltransferase (OsMaT-2) was cloned from Oryza sativa, and the recombinant protein OsMaT-2

was purified via affinity chromatography. OsMaT-2 utilized a variety of flavonoid glucosides, including flavanone glucosides, flavone glucosides, flavonol glucosides, and isoflavone glucosides as substrates, but did not utilize anthocyanin. As an acyl donor, OsMaT-2 utilized only malonyl-CoA. Based on reactions with various quercetin 3-O-sugars, we identified the probable position of malonylation as the 6 ”-hydroxyl group of the sugar. Androgen Receptor Antagonist This is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, of the cloning of a flavonoid malonyltransferase from O. sativa. (C) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose We evaluated personality dimensions captured by an abbreviated 8-item questionnaire and examined associations of the personality traits

with health behaviours and subjective well-being (SWB) measures.

Methods The subjects were 11,554 participants in the Kyushu University Fukuoka Cohort Study who completed a self-administered questionnaire inquiring health behaviours, morbidity, personality, and SWB. Personality was assessed by using a questionnaire appeared to capture neuroticism and extraversion traits, and SWB-related variables were assessed with 3 single-item questions.

Results Neuroticism was negatively and extraversion was positively associated with BMI. Extraversion, but not neuroticism, was positively associated with smoking and alcohol drinking. After multivariate selleck products adjustment, neuroticism was strongly associated with each of 3 SWB measures.

The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios for the highest versus lowest quintile of neuroticism were 6.09 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.05-7.33) for perceived stress; 0.21 (95% CI, 0.18-0.25) for good health condition; and 0.26 (95% CI, 0.22-0.31) for life satisfaction. Extraversion showed no clear association with the SWB measures.

Conclusions The neuroticism and extraversion scales were associated with health behaviours and BMI differently. The neuroticism scale, but not the extraversion scale, was strongly associated with higher perception of stress, poorer perceived health, and lower satisfaction with life in a Japanese population.”
“Various geometric sizes and helical types (i.e., armchair, zigzag, and chiral) of single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are considered in molecular dynamics simulations in order to systematically examine the length-to-radius ratio and chirality effects on the buckling mechanism.

The main CTX-M enzymes identified in E coil from cattle, chicken

The main CTX-M enzymes identified in E. coil from cattle, chicken and turkeys were 14 and 15, 1 and 15, and 1 and 14 respectively. Most isolates from different animal species transferred their plasmids with similar frequencies. The plasmid replicon type I1-lambda. was most common and seen in 23%, 95% and 50% of the isolates tested from cattle, chickens and turkeys respectively, whilst types F, FIA, FIB and K were common to isolates

from cattle and turkeys only. Thirty-eight different antibiotic resistance genes were detected by micro-array including aad genes, bla(CTX-M), bla(TEM), cat genes dfrA, floR, strA, strB, sul, sul2 tetA and tetB. Thirty-nine click here different fitness and virulence genes were also detected by-micro-array, including espP, ireA, IpfA, mchF, prfB and tsh. Fisher exact test and hierarchical clustering

of the antibiotic resistance and virulence gene results showed some genes were more commonly associated with isolates from chickens or cattle. This PX-478 cost study provides a baseline of the characteristics of CTX-M E. coli isolates from animals in Great Britain and suggests that chicken and cattle CTX-M E. coli represent different populations. Crown Copyright (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) is an important water-soluble polymer. Its many applications (e.g., textile sizing, dispersants, and adhesives) greatly depend on its water solubility selleck chemicals llc and particularly on its dissolution rate in water. In this study, urea, combined with methanol, was adopted to improve the water solubility of PVA. The structures, properties, and dissolving mechanism of the modified PVA were studied with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, NMR, laser light scattering, differential scanning calorimetry,

and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. The results showed that through specific chemical reactions between PVA and Urea in methanol, isocyanate and methyl carbamate groups were generated on the lateral chains of PVA. These large side groups could effectively expand PVA macromolecular chains and hence increase their intermolecular distance, weaken the intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonds of PVA, change the aggregation structure of PVA, and decrease its lattice energy and crystallinity. In addition, the isocyanate groups on the PVA macromolecular chains strongly interacted with water. All these effects benefited the water solubility of PVA. Therefore, the dissolution rate of the modified PVA increased by 50%, versus that of the neat PVA, and the quality of the modified PVA aqueous solution was improved quite a bit. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals Inc.