Uptake of [14C]-Neu5Ac was not stimulated by Na+ for cells expres

Uptake of [14C]-Neu5Ac was not stimulated by Na+ for cells expressing NanT and in fact was inhibited slightly (Fig. 4a). In contrast, uptake in the absence of Na+ was minimal for cells FDA-approved Drug Library chemical structure expressing the STM1128 and SiaPQM transporters, but was stimulated by the addition of Na+ (Fig. 4b and c), demonstrating

Na+ dependence for these two transporters. For both the SSS and TRAP transporters, the specificity for Na+ was demonstrated by observing that neither Li+ nor K+ could restore Neu5Ac uptake (not shown). However, the presence of added Li+ or K+ had the same effect on NanT-mediated transport as that observed for Na+, suggesting that the increased ionic strength is the most probable cause of the apparent inhibitory effect of Na+. We were able to demonstrate the obligate Na+ requirement of the SSS and TRAP transporters by comparing cultures on solid minimal see more medium containing Neu5Ac and either sodium or potassium salts (Fig. 4d). Secondary carriers are driven by gradients and hence are, by definition, reversible. One frequently observed phenomenon of uptake via secondary carriers is that cells can be

forced to exchange a preinternalized substrate upon addition of excess extracellular substrate (Poolman & Konings, 1993). Examination of this phenomenon, the so-called ‘cold chase’ experiment, revealed Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) that preinternalized [14C]-Neu5Ac was removed from

SEVY1 pES41 (STM1128+) cells by addition of 1 mM exogenous Neu5Ac, but not by a similar addition of water (Fig. 5). This is consistent with the behaviour of a secondary carrier such as NanT and differs from the SBP-dependent secondary carrier SiaPQM (Mulligan et al., 2009). Bacterial genome sequencing has revealed the presence of sialic acid utilization genes in a wide range of bacteria from human pathogens to marine bacteria. In this study, we have used a ΔnanT strain of E. coli to characterize two known and one putative sialic acid transporter genes from bacterial genomes, providing for the first time experimental evidence that a member of the SSS family of transporters, the STM1128 protein, can transport Neu5Ac. The STM1128 transporter appears to be a typical member of the SSS (TC 2.A.21) family of secondary carriers in that its activity is dependent on Na+ and it is a reversible transporter. Although we have not investigated the exact specificity of this particular SSS transporter in detail, the observations that homologous SSS transporters are predicted to be the only route for sialic acid acquisition in some bacteria (Fig.

coli TOP10 The recombinant E coli TOP10 lysates


coli TOP10. The recombinant E. coli TOP10 lysates

showed opacification activity in the fish serum. Figure 3 shows the results obtained by Western blotting using the His antibody and serum agar overlay method for purified rSOF-OFD. An immune-stained band at c. 70 kDa was observed. HTS assay Meanwhile, the serum overlay agar with a native PAGE gel showed an opaque band at c. 150 kDa. When an SDS-PAGE gel was used on agarose containing fish serum, the opaque band was not observed. To discriminate between the mammalian and fish isolates, a primer set for PCR targeting the sof-FD gene was determined. Although bands of c. 400 bp were observed in the 16 fish isolates with different genotypes, no bands were observed in the mammalian isolates (Fig. 4). One of the two fish isolates

lacking SOF activity was PCR-positive. This could be due to a putative insertion sequence into the sof-FD gene (data Opaganib mouse not shown). However, another SOF-negative strain did not harbour the sof-FD gene when other primers targeting other regions of the sof-FD gene were used. Beall et al. (2000) and Goodfellow et al. (2000) reported that about half of clinical isolates of S. pyogenes possessed the sof gene and opacification activity. In the present study, almost all of the fish isolates showed serum opacification activity in both culture supernatants and SDS extracts. Moreover, the PCR assay targeting the sof-FD gene showed high sequence identity. This study also determined sequences of the entire sof-FD gene from fish isolates with varying degrees of opacification activity (OD660 = 0.1–0.6). The determined sequences included entire SOF-FD amino acid sequences with 100% identity to each other. These results suggested the clonal expansion and homogeneity of S. dysgalactiae isolated from farmed fish in Japan (Nishiki et al., 2010). Further studies are in progress to

reveal the mechanism of variations in the SOF activity in fish GCSD isolates. Recently, GCSD was isolated (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate from blood culture of a patient who had handled raw fish, and the characteristics of the GCSD were the same as those of isolates from farmed fish in Japan (Koh et al., 2008). To discriminate between fish and mammalian isolates is important to protect the public from the potential threat of zoonosis. The primer set targeting the sof-FD gene discriminated between mammalian and fish isolates. However, at least one PCR-negative strain was determined in this study and such PCR-negative strains could increase in future. A previous study demonstrated that PCR targeting the sodA gene was able to discriminate between mammalian and fish isolates (Nomoto et al., 2008). Because there were only a few nucleotide differences in the sodA gene between mammalian and fish isolates, the PCR assay could be used to discriminate between fish and mammalian isolates under strict annealing conditions. Therefore, it is possible that nonspecific reactions occurred.

The DNA-binding site of HutR located in front of the hutR gene is

The DNA-binding site of HutR located in front of the hutR gene is very close to the −35 promoter region (Fig. 4b), presumably indicating a mode of autorepression. In Gram-negative bacteria, the expression of histidine catabolic enzymes is controlled by both specific repression mediated by a local regulator interacting with histidine or urocanate and general induction mediated by global regulatory proteins that sense the physiological signals of the cell, for instance cAMP (Nieuwkoop et al., 1984). The global activators of hut gene expression can differ depending upon whether histidine is a source of carbon or nitrogen

(Janes et al., 2003). The corresponding global control in C. resistens might be assumed by the corynebacterial cAMP-sensing regulator GlxR (Kohl & Tauch, 2009; Schröder & Tauch, 2010), probably interacting with predicted DNA-binding sites Everolimus concentration selleck products in front of hutHUI and hutG (Fig. 4a and b). “
“SalmonellaDakar and SalmonellaTelaviv bacteria belong to serogroup O:28, which represents 107 serovars and possesses only the epitope O28. SalmonellaTelaviv has the subfactors O281 and O282, whereas S. Dakar has O281 and O283. So far, only limited serological and immunological information for this serogroup is available in the literature. Knowledge of the structures of their O-polysaccharides

and the immunochemical investigations performed in this work allowed to reveal the nature of subfactor O281 as attributed to the presence of 3-linked (or 3,4-disubstituted) α-d-GalpNAc in the main chains

of S. Dakar and S. Telaviv O-polysaccharides. An explanation for the cross-reactions between Salmonella entericaO28 O-antigens and other SalmonellaO-polysaccharides and their structural similarity to Escherichia coliO-serogroups is also given. The genus Salmonella contains over 2570 serotypes (Grimont & Weill, Celecoxib 2007), all potentially pathogenic to humans (Tauxe & Pavia, 1998). Specifically, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica figures predominantly as one of the leading causes of bacterial food-borne disease as a result of the contamination of food products (Finlay & Falkow, 1989; D’Aoust, 1994; Swaminathan et al., 2006). The Salmonella serotyping is based on serological methods (Lüderitz et al., 1966; Lindberg & Le Minor, 1984). One of the major antigens of the Salmonella spp. is O-somatic antigen (O-antigen; the O-polysaccharide, OPS), which together with the core region builds up the saccharide fragment of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (Caroff & Karibian, 2003). O-antigenic determinants are expressed only in smooth-type Gram-negative bacteria. O-Antigens are extremely variable, and the variation is caused by the nature, order, conformation and the linkage of the different sugar residues within the polysaccharide chain (Samuel & Reeves, 2003).


Substance find more use, especially in the context of sexual activity, should be taken into account when developing new prevention and intervention programmes aimed at reducing sexual risk behaviour in HIV-infected MSM currently in specialized care. The prevalence and incidence of HIV infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) are persistently high in some Western countries. Therefore, it is of importance to identify determinants of risky sexual behaviour in this group. Sexual risk behaviour, defined as unprotected receptive or insertive anal

intercourse among HIV-positive MSM, was investigated in several studies. A meta-analysis of 30 studies on sexual risk behaviour among HIV-positive MSM found a prevalence of 43% for any unprotected anal intercourse. Prevalence was 30% for unprotected anal intercourse with seroconcordant sexual partners, 16% with partners of unknown HIV serostatus, and 13% with serodiscordant partners (multiple answers were permitted) [1]. HIV-positive MSM report significantly more unprotected sexual intercourse

[2] and more receptive anal intercourse than HIV-negative MSM [3]. Sexual risk behaviour increased after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the middle of the 1990s [4, 5] for casual, but not for steady partners [5, 6]. The consumption of psychoactive substances has been suggested to be an important factor influencing sexual risk behaviour [7, 8]. buy Seliciclib Compared with the general population, MSM are a group with an increased prevalence of substance use and substance-related disorders. A meta-analytic review of studies on psychiatric disorders among MSM showed that MSM had a 1.51-fold higher risk for the 12-month

prevalence of alcohol abuse and a 2.4-fold higher risk for illicit drug abuse, according to the criteria of the DSM-IV (fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association), than heterosexual people [9]. Population-based surveys also showed that MSM consumed illicit drugs more often than heterosexual men [10-12]. Several studies showed significant differences between MSM and heterosexual men regarding the consumption of illicit drugs [12-14], but Loperamide no or small differences for alcohol use [15-18]. In particular, there is a high lifetime prevalence of recreational club drug use in the gay community, especially in the context of parties. Cocaine, methamphetamine and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-n-methylamphetamin, ‘Ecstasy’) were found to be most commonly used, followed by ketamine and γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) [19-21]. In addition, consumption of alcohol is associated with sexual risk behaviour in MSM. In a cohort study, heavy alcohol use and alcohol in the context of sexual activities were independent predictors of HIV seroconversion. People who drank heavily were significantly more likely [odds ratio (OR) 1.97] to become infected [8].

The MtP method was used as the gold standard in these calculation

The MtP method was used as the gold standard in these calculations.

The PCR technique was performed for icaAD and aap genes in all the 146 staphylococcal strains. As shown in Table 1, the majority of tested isolates (106/146; 72.6%) were ica negative, among which ica−aap+ was the dominant genotype (76/106; 71.7%). Among the ica-positive isolates (40/146, 27.4%), the ica+aap+ genotype was the most common (34/40; 85.0%). Out of the total 146 S. epidermidis nasopharyngeal isolates, 52 (35.62%) were biofilm positive by the MtP method, while 86 (58.9%) isolates exhibited a slime-positive phenotype by the CRA test (Table 1). The prevalence of the selleck screening library icaAD and the aap genes in relation to biofilm-positive (by the MtP Daporinad nmr method) and slime-positive (by the CRA test) phenotypes of nasopharyngeal S. epidermidis isolates was analyzed (Table 1). Thirty-one (59.6%) of 52 biofilm-positive isolates by the

MtP method were positive for icaAD and aap genes, whereas six (11.5%) strains were ica positive and aap negative. However, among the biofilm-negative isolates by the MtP method, three isolates with the ica+aap+ genotype were found. Most of the ica-positive isolates were found to be strong biofilm producers. Most of the ica-negative strains (91/106; 85.8%) did not produce a detectable amount of biofilm in vitro, including 68 isolates harboring the aap gene. Fifteen (28.8%) isolates PD184352 (CI-1040) produced an ica-independent biofilm, including eight (15.4%) aap-positive and seven (13.5%) aap-negative strains. Interestingly, two out of ica−aap− isolates were strong biofilm producers. Among 40 of the ica-positive strains, 39 were classified as slime producers by the CRA test (Table 1). However, out of 106 ica-negative isolates, 47 were slime positive. The concordance between the occurrence of icaAD genes and the ability of biofilm formation determined by the MtP method as well as slime

production examined by the CRA test was statistically significant (P<0.0001). There was no relationship between aap occurrence and biofilm formation (P=1) or slime production (P=0.56) (Table 1). The data obtained using the CRA and MtP methods among ica-positive and ica-negative staphylococci are presented in Table 2. The strains that yielded matching results using both the CRA and the MtP methods were 84 (57.5%) of all the strains screened. For all the strains tested, the sensitivity of the CRA test evaluated using the MtP method as a gold standard of biofilm production was 73.1%. The differentiation of the sensitivity of the CRA test was observed when ica-positive and ica-negative staphylococcal strains were analyzed separately (97.3% and 13.3%, respectively). In our study, the ability of biofilm formation in vitro by 146 nasopharyngeal S. epidermidis isolates was assessed using two variations of medium: TSB (standard conditions) and TSB supplemented with 0.

Intra-village comparison of the mean BPb and TPb levels showed si

Intra-village comparison of the mean BPb and TPb levels showed significant differences (P < 0.05) between the two in the case of Villages 1 and 4, and highly significant differences (P < 0.001)

in the remaining three villages, with the TPb levels being much higher than the BPb levels in all the villages (Table 1). Highly significant differences (P < 0.001) were observed in BPb levels between the five villages, wheareas differences in TPb levels were found to bear no significance statistically (P > 0.05) (Table 2). An inter-village comparison of Doxorubicin chemical structure BPb levels revealed that differences in BPb between Village 1 and the other villages were highly significant statistically (P < 0.001), with the exception of Village 5 where the difference was only significant (P < 0.05). A comparison of BPb levels in Villages

3 and 5 also revealed a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) (Table 3). When mean BPb and TPb levels in boys were compared to those in girls, no significant differences were observed between the sexes in either of the parameters Y-27632 price studied. However, the BPb–TPb differences within both gender groups were of high statistical significance (P < 0.001) (Table 4). Of the tooth types studied, although the primary canines had the highest concentrations of lead, followed by the incisors and the molars, the differences were not of statistical significance. When these TPb levels were compared with the BPb levels of the children from whom the individual tooth types were obtained, highly significant differences were Resveratrol observed (P < 0.001) (Table 5). In the three age groups studied, no significant

differences were found between the groups either in BPb levels or in TPb levels. However, the BPb–TPb differences within each age group were of high statistical significance (P < 0.001) (Table 6). Debate continues over the nature, magnitude, and persistence of the adverse effects on human health of low-level exposure to environmental lead. Generally, lead poisoning occurs slowly from the gradual accumulation of lead in bone and tissues after repeated exposure. Left untreated, lead poisoning can damage many internal organs including the kidney and nervous system1–4. Owing to the possibility of permanent impairment, lead poisoning is particularly dangerous during the critical development periods of infants and young children. In India, lead has been used in industry and as a gasoline additive for many decades. Case reports and case series of lead poisoning have been published, as have surveys of BPb and TPb levels in hospital and clinic populations. Epidemiologic studies of elevated BPb levels in specific occupational groups such as jewellery workers, traffic police, and papier-mâché workers have also been reported9.

6% (IQR 130-310) Remarkably, 16 of 23 patients (70%) harboured

6% (IQR 13.0-31.0). Remarkably, 16 of 23 patients (70%) harboured one or more etravirine-associated resistance mutations. The backbone regimen included at least two fully active drugs in 91% of patients. After etravirine-based therapy, 20 patients (87%) achieved HIV-1 RNA<400 copies/mL and 18 of 23 (78%) achieved HIV-1 RNA<50 copies/mL: three (13%) within the first month, seven (30%) within the first 4 months, and six (26%) between

the 5th and 8th months. CD4 T-cell recovery was observed in 19 patients (83%). The median follow-up time was 48.4 weeks (IQR 35.7–63.4 weeks); four patients (17%) were exposed to etravirine for >120 weeks. Three mild/short-term and two moderate skin rashes were observed in the adolescents. Laboratory abnormalities included hypercholesterolaemia (11 of 23 patients), Inhibitor Library research buy hypertriglyceridaemia (eight of 23 patients), and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (10 of 23 patients). Adherence was complete in seven patients (30%). No patients showed complete resistance to etravirine after follow-up. However, three of 21 patients (14%) who initially showed intermediate resistance interrupted etravirine treatment because of virological failure. We observed a sustained antiviral response

and improved immunological parameters in multidrug-resistant paediatric patients, most of whom had received etravirine as part of salvage regimens with at least two fully www.selleckchem.com/products/cx-4945-silmitasertib.html active drugs. The extraordinary success of highly active antiretroviral therapy has transformed HIV infection in resource-rich countries from a fatal to

a chronic disease. To date, 17 antiretroviral drugs have been licensed to treat HIV infection in paediatric patients [1]. However, the emergence of HIV quasispecies resistant to these drugs compromises current treatment options, thus creating the need to develop new antiretrovirals for children and adolescents infected with multiresistant strains of HIV. Etravirine (Intelence®, Tibotec, Beerse, Belgium), a second-generation nonnucleoside PRKACG reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), has produced promising results in the DUET-1 and DUET-2 trials in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected adults with documented resistance to efavirenz and nevirapine [2–4]. However, the results of clinical trials in adults may not be representative of children and adolescents, because of the special features of these populations. Two clinical trials investigating the efficacies of etravirine, TMC125-TiDP35-C213 [5] and TMC125-TiDP35-C239 [6], in Phases II and III, respectively, are currently recruiting paediatric participants. Our aim was to assess the virological, immunological and clinical responses to etravirine-based therapy in 23 antiretroviral-experienced HIV-1-infected children and adolescents.

This may be attributable to increasing rates of MRSA, and future

This may be attributable to increasing rates of MRSA, and future studies will need to examine the impact of MRSA bacteraemia in this population. Bacteraemia can cause serious morbidity and result in prolonged and costly in-patient hospitalizations, particularly among patients with HIV infection [9]. Programmes designed to decrease bacteraemia risk factors, both for individuals and for populations of patients in health care facilities, need further investigation, as they may improve mortality and decrease health care costs. Alameda County Medical Center, Oakland, CA (Howard Edelstein, MD); Children’s

Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (Richard Rutstein, MD); Community Health Network, Rochester, NY (Roberto Corales, DO); Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (Sara Allen, CRNP and Jeffery Jacobson, MD); Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (Kelly Gebo, MD, Richard Moore, MD and Allison Agwu, MD); Montefiore selleck screening library Selleckchem PD0332991 Medical Group, Bronx, NY (Robert Beil, MD); Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (Lawrence Hanau, MD); Nemechek Health Renewal, Kansas City, MO (Patrick Nemechek, DO); Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (P.

Todd Korthuis, MD); Parkland Health and Hospital System, Dallas, TX (Laura Armas-Kolostroubis, MD); St Jude’s Children’s Hospital and University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (Aditya Gaur, MD); St Luke’s Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY (Victoria Sharp, MD); Tampa General Health Care, Tampa, FL (Charurut Somboonwit, MD); University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (Stephen Spector, MD); University of California, filipin San Diego, CA (W. Christopher Mathews, MD); Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (Jonathan Cohn, MD). Johns Hopkins University (Richard Moore, MD, Jeanne Keruly, CRNP, Kelly Gebo, MD, Cindy Voss, MS and Bonnie Cameron, MS). The study was supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (290-01-0012) and the National Institutes on Drug Abuse (K23-DA00523) and Aging (R01 AG026250). KAG also received support from the Johns Hopkins University Richard S. Ross Clinician Scientist

Award. TTG received support from the Woodrow Wilson Research Fellowship Program from Johns Hopkins University School of Arts and Sciences. Sponsoring agencies: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD (Fred Hellinger, PhD, John Fleishman, PhD and Irene Fraser, PhD); Health Resources and Services Administration, Rockville, MD (Alice Kroliczak, PhD and Robert Mills, PhD). Conflicts of interest: The authors do not have an association that might pose a conflict of interest. Disclaimer: The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors. No official endorsement by DHHS, the National Institutes of Health, or the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality is intended or should be inferred.

This information was also recorded on a data recorder (RT-145T; T

This information was also recorded on a data recorder (RT-145T; TEAC, Tokyo). this website The digitized neuronal activities were isolated into single units by their waveform components using the Offline Sorter program (Plexon). Superimposed waveforms of the isolated units were drawn to assess variability throughout the recording sessions and transferred to the NeuroExplorer program (Nex Technologies, MA, USA) for further analysis.

If the monkey exhibited signs of fatigue, such as closing the eyes for several seconds or moving the eyes or hands slowly, the experimental session was immediately terminated. In most cases, the unit recording experiment was terminated within 2–3 h. After responses to the 49 visual stimuli were recorded, the scrambled images were then presented to the monkeys if single unit activity was still observed. Spike sorting was performed with the offline sorter program

for cluster analysis (Off-line sorter, Plexon). Each cluster was checked manually to ensure that the cluster boundaries were well separated and the waveform shapes were consistent with the action potentials. For each isolated cluster, an autocorrelogram was constructed and only units with refractory periods > 1.2 ms were used for further analyses. Finally, superimposed waveforms of the isolated units were drawn to check the consistency of the waveforms. Figure 3A and B shows examples of superimposed waveforms of a pulvinar neuron PtdIns(3,4)P2 and its autocorrelogram, respectively. This autocorrelogram AZD2281 mouse indicates that the refractory period of the neuron was 2–3 ms throughout the recording sessions, which suggests that these spikes were recorded from a single neuron. We analysed single neuronal activity during 500 ms after (‘post’) the onset of stimulus presentation in the sample phase, but did not analyse single neuronal activity in the target phase. Only stimuli that were presented more than five times in the sample phase were analysed. The baseline firing rate was defined as the mean firing rate during the 100-ms ‘pre’ period. Significant excitatory

or inhibitory responses to each stimulus were defined by a Wilcoxon signed rank (WSR) test (P < 0.05 for statistical significance) of neuronal activity between the 100-ms pre and the 500-ms post periods. Furthermore, to investigate temporal changes in neuronal responses, the 500-ms post period was divided into ten 50-ms epochs. The mean neuronal firing rate was calculated for each of these epochs. Response magnitude was defined as follows – mean firing rate in each epoch minus the mean firing rate during the 100-ms pre period. Figure 3C and D shows a peri-event summed histogram of responses from the same neuron shown in Fig. 3A and B to a facial photo (Fig. 3C) and response magnitudes in the 10 epochs converted from this histogram (Fig. 3D).

The alignment was verified with macclade 4033 PCC software (Sina

The alignment was verified with macclade 4.033 PCC software (Sinauer Associates Inc., Sunderland, MA) and phylogenetic analysis were run with paup*

4.0b10 (Swofford, 2002). Maximum-likelihood (ML) reconstruction considered the Akaike Information Criterion as a model of nucleotidic evolution after a model test analysis (Posada & Crandall, 1998). NSC 683864 order The model with the best fit was GTR+I+G, where I=0.3894 (proportion of invariable sites) and G=0.5246 (gamma distribution). Topologies were also inferred with neighbor-joining (NJ) (Kimura 2 Parameters) and maximum parsimony (MP). Bootstrap considered 500 (ML, NJ) and 1000 (MP) replicates, respectively. Crocosphaera watsonii, a unicellular nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, was included as the outgroup. Molecular clock estimates were inferred from a MAP topology calculated from a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis with mrbayes v3.1.2 (Huelsenbeck & Ronquist 2001) using the model with best fit to the data set.

Bayesian analysis consisted of two independent Markov Chain Monte Carlo runs, performed by four differentially heated chains of 5 × 106 generations. Phylograms with a topology identical to the MAP topology were recovered with paup* 4.0b10 and 100 were chosen to conduct age estimates. The timing of phylogenetic divergence was calculated with r8s v1.71 (Sanderson, 2006) with penalized likelihood (Sanderson, 2002). The node defining Cyanobacteria was fixed at 2700 MYA and a minimum age for the heterocystous cyanobacteria was defined at 1618 MYA (Falcón et al., 2010). The outgroup was

BVD-523 below Chloroflexus aurantiacus, a green nonsulfur bacterium. Sequences generated in this study are deposited in the NCBI database with accession numbers: FJ660972–FJ661026. Sequences FJ660972–FJ660992 correspond to isolates from microbialites in Pozas Azules I, a desert pond in Cuatro Ciénegas, México; FJ660993 and FJ660994 are from a microbial mat on a beach rock in Heron Island at the Great Barrier Reef, Australia; FJ660995–FJ661005 and FJ66101–FJ661021 are from separate isolates obtained from type cultures of Tolypothrix sp. PCC 7504 and Calothrix sp. PCC 7103 maintained in culture at the Department of Botany at Stockholm University, Sweden; and FJ661006–FJ661009 correspond to isolates from the shore line of a rocky islet outside the Stockholm University Marine Research Station at Askö in the Baltic Sea, Sweden. Phylogenetic differentiation was well sustained, suggesting three natural groups pertaining to Calothrix from Askö (Sweden), also including the strain PCC 7103, Rivularia from strains in Pozas Azules I (Mexico) and Tolypothrix including the strain PCC 7504 (Fig. 1). These genera were earlier defined based on molecular identities (Rajaniemi et al., 2005; Taton et al., 2006; Sihvonen et al., 2007).