These results suggest that, in Aplysia, noxious stimuli may produ

These results suggest that, in Aplysia, noxious stimuli may produce concurrent changes in neural circuits controlling both defensive and nondefensive behaviors.”
“Betel nut is one of the

mostly widely used substances in the world, particularly across Asia. Arecoline, a partial muscarinic find more agonist, has been hypothesized to have beneficial effects on both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. This study aims to further explore associations between betel use and symptoms or schizophrenia in a 4-month longitudinal study in Nepal. Sixty Nepali patients with schizophrenia were recruited from regional outpatient clinics. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale were used to assess symptoms and social functioning in regular betel users and non-users. No significant group differences or dose-response relationships were noted on either initial or follow-up assessments. Stratifying by sex also failed to reveal an association between symptoms and betel use, which stands in contrast with previously reported data from

Micronesia. There were no differences seen in social functioning other than a significantly higher proportion of betel users holding jobs. It was also noted PF-6463922 that significantly fewer betel chewers were taking anti-cholinergic medication, which may tentatively indicate a potentially therapeutic role in the future for partial muscarinic agonists in the Dolutegravir manufacturer treatment of medication-induced movement disorders. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Recent studies focusing on the memory for temporal order have reported that CA1 plays a critical role in the memory for the sequences of events, in addition to its well-described role in spatial navigation. In contrast, CA3 was found to principally contribute to the memory for the association of items with spatial or contextual information in tasks focusing on spatial memory. Other studies have shown that NMDA signaling in the hippocampus

is critical to memory performance in studies that have investigated spatial and temporal order memory independently. However, the role of NMDA signaling separately in CA1 and CA3 in memory that combines both spatial and temporal processing demands ( episodic memory) has not been examined. Here we investigated the effect of the deletion of the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor in CA1 or CA3 on the spatial and the temporal aspects of episodic memory, using a behavioral task that allows for these two aspects of memory to be evaluated distinctly within the same task. Under these conditions, NMDA signaling in CA1 specifically contributes to the spatial aspect of memory function and is not required to support the memory for temporal order of events.”
“It has been proposed that psychophysiological abnormalities in schizophrenia, such as decreased amplitude of the evoked potential component P300, may be genetically influenced.

They are identified on global chemical inventories with unique Ch

They are identified on global chemical inventories with unique Chemical Abstract Services (CAS) numbers and names. The chemical complexity

of most petroleum substances presents challenges when evaluating their hazards and can result in differing evaluations due to the varying level of hazardous constituents and differences in national chemical control regulations. Global efforts to harmonize the identification of chemical hazards are aimed at promoting the use of consistent hazard evaluation criteria. This paper discusses a systematic approach for the health hazard selleck evaluation of petroleum substances using chemical categories and the United Nations (UN) Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of classification and labeling. Also described are historical efforts to characterize the hazard of these substances and how they led to the development of categories, the identification of potentially hazardous constituents which should be considered, and a summary of the toxicology of the major petroleum

product groups. The use of these categories can increase the utility of existing data, provide better informed hazard evaluations, and reduce the amount of animal testing required. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The biological basis for investigating dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exposure and breast cancer risk stems from in vitro and animal studies indicating selleck chemicals llc that DDT has estrogenic properties. The objective of this study was to update a meta-analysis from 2004 which found no association between dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene

(DDE) and breast cancer. We searched PubMed and Web of Science for studies published through June 2012 assessing DDT/DDE exposure and breast cancer. Summary Odds Ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for the prevalence of breast cancer in the highest versus the lowest exposed groups for DDT and DDE. Difference SDHB of means of exposure for cases versus controls was analyzed for DDT and DDE. From the 500 studies screened, 46 were included in the meta-analysis. Slightly elevated, but not statistically significant summary ORs were found for DDE (1.05; 95% CI: 0.93-1.18) and DDT (1.02; 95% CI: 0.92-1.13). Lipid adjusted difference of means analysis found a significantly higher DDE concentration in cases versus controls (11.30 ng/g lipid; p = 0.01). No other difference of means analysis found significant relationships. The existing information does not support the hypothesis that exposure to DDT/DDE increases the risk of breast cancer in humans. Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“Cardiovascular disease may be induced or worsened by mitochondrion-toxic agents.

Moreover, most of these studies have focused on the mRNA and, sur

Moreover, most of these studies have focused on the mRNA and, surprisingly, relatively little is known about how learning can affect Arc protein expression levels. Here we used taste recognition memory and examined Arc protein expression in the insular cortex of rats at distinct times during taste memory formation. Interestingly, we found that more Arc protein was induced by a familiar rather than by a buy JQ1 novel taste. Moreover, this increase was inhibited by post-trial intrahippocampal anisomycin injections, a treatment

known to inhibit safe-taste memory consolidation. In addition, confocal microscopy analysis of immunofluorescence stained tissue revealed that the proportion of IC neurons expressing Arc was the same in animals exposed selleck to novel and familiar taste, but Arc immunoreactivity in dendrites was dramatically higher in rats exposed to the familiar taste. These results provide novel insights on how experience

affects cortical plasticity.”
“The psychological refractory period (PRP) is a basic but important form of dual-task information processing. Existing serial or parallel processing models of PRP have successfully accounted for a variety of PRP phenomena; however, each also encounters at least I experimental counterexample to its predictions or modeling mechanisms. This article describes a queuing network-based mathematical model of PRP that is able to model various experimental findings in PRP with closed-form equations including all of the major counterexamples encountered by the

existing models with fewer or equal numbers of free parameters. This modeling work also offers an alternative theoretical account for PRP and demonstrates the importance of the theoretical Roflumilast concepts of “”queuing”" and “”hybrid cognitive networks”" in understanding cognitive architecture and multitask performance.”
“The medial lemniscus (ML) and its thalamocortical pathway is responsible for proprioception, in contrast, the spinothalamic tract (ST) and its thalamocortical pathway is the neural tract for pain and body temperature. Therefore, the ML pathway plays a crucial role in skillful movements and may be more linked to motor function than the ST pathway. We investigated the differences in the distribution of the primary motor cortex (M1) and the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) between the ML and ST pathways. Adults (mean age: 40.4 years, range: 21-61 years) were recruited for this study. The seed masks for the ML and ST pathways were given on the color map of the medulla according to the known anatomy and waypoint masks were placed on the ventro-postero-lateral nucleus of the thalamus. The volume of ML pathway did not show any difference between the M1 (10.94) and S1 (13.02) (p > 0.05). By contrast, the mean voxel number of the ST pathway in the M1 (18.25) and S1 (27.38) showed significant difference between the M1 and S1 (p < 0.05).

Maryland We measured the association of highest attained educati

Maryland. We measured the association of highest attained education RAD001 in vivo level with preclinical mobility disability (PCD) over an 11-year period. PCD is defined as self-reported modification in any of four tasks without reporting difficulty in those tasks. The tasks were walking 1/2 mile, climbing up steps, doing heavy housework, and getting

in/out of bed or chair.

Results. Participants with less than 9 years of education were more likely to acquire incident PCD (hazard ratio: 3.1, 95% confidence interval = 1.2-7.7) than their counterparts with more education after adjusting for income, marital status, number of diseases, and high self-efficacy.

Conclusions. Lower education level is an independent predictor of incident preclinical mobility disability. This association has important implications for primary and secondary prevention and can be easily assessed in clinical encounters.”
“Recent research suggests that adaptations elicited by drugs of abuse share common features with traditional learning models, and that drugs of abuse cause long-term changes in behavior

by altering synaptic function and plasticity. In this study, endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling in the dorsolateral striatum, a brain region vital for habit formation, was evaluated selleckchem in acutely isolated brain slices from ethanol (EtOH)-consuming rats and control rats. EtOH-consuming rats had free access to a 20% EtOH solution for three 24 hour sessions a week during seven weeks and consumed an average of 3.4 g/kg per session. eCB-mediated long-lasting disinhibition (DLL) of population spike (PS) amplitude induced by moderate Eltrombopag frequency stimulation was impaired in EtOH-consuming rats, and was not restored by the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine (10 mu M). The lack of DLL could be linked to a reduced GABA(A) receptor tone, since bicuculline-mediated disinhibition of striatal output was significantly reduced in slices

from EtOH-consuming rats. However, eCB signaling induced by high frequency stimulation (HFS) was also impaired in slices from EtOH-consuming rats and isolated control rats. Activation of presynaptic cannabinoid 1 receptors (CB1R) with WIN55,212-2 (250 nM, 1 mu M) significantly modulated PS amplitude in slices from age-matched control rats while slices from EtOH-consuming rats remained unaffected, indicating that eCB signaling is inhibited at a level that is downstream from CB1R activation. Intermittent alcohol intake for seven weeks might thus be sufficient to modulate a presynaptic mechanism that needs to be synergized with CB1R activation for induction of long-term depression (LTD). In conclusion, alcohol consumption inhibits striatal eCB signaling in a way that could be of importance for understanding the neurological underpinnings of addictive behavior.

A comprehensive understanding of the spindle behavior is paramoun

A comprehensive understanding of the spindle behavior is paramount for the effective manipulation of oocytes in an assisted reproductive setting.”
“The study was designed to investigate the associations of polymorphisms Ile462Val and 3801T>C of the cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) gene with idiopathic male infertility (IMI) and to assess the impact of smoking status on the relationship between the polymorphisms and the susceptibility

to the disease. DNA samples from 203 patients with IMI and 227 fertile men were genotyped for the polymorphisms by a polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. We found for the first time that the increased risk of IMI in carriers of genotype 462Ile/Val of the CYP1A1 gene occurred only in smoker men (odds ratio [OR] = 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-3.59), whereas nonsmoker men GSK J4 solubility dmso did not have the risk of infertility (OR = 1.58; 95% CI 0.66-3.76). The results of our study demonstrate that the analysis of gene-environment interactions is necessary to explain conflicting results of genetic studies of IMI and to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of the disease.”
“Fenvalerate (Fen), a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, has been shown to have adverse effects on male reproductive system.

Thus, the aim of the present study was to elucidate whether these adverse effects are passed from exposed male mice to their offspring. Adult male mice received Fen (10 mg/kg) daily for 30 days and mated

with untreated females to produce offspring. check details Fenvalerate significantly changed the methylation status of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (Ace), forkhead box O3 (Foxo3a), huntingtin-associated protein 1 (Hap1), nuclear receptor subfamily 3 (Nr3c2), promyelocytic leukemia (Pml), and Prostaglandin F2 receptor negative regulator (Ptgfrn) genes in paternal mice sperm genomic DNA. Further, Fen significantly increased sperm abnormalities; serum testosterone and estradiol-17 ss level in adult male (F0) and their male offspring (F1). Further, paternal Fen treatment Acetophenone significantly increased the length of estrous cycle, serum estradiol-17 ss concentration in estrus, and progesterone levels in diestrus in female offspring (F1). These findings suggest that adverse effects of paternal Fen exposure on reproductive functions can be seen not only in treated males (F0) but also in their offsprings.”
“Background: Currently, morphological criteria are used to select embryos for transfer in in vitro fertilization (IVF)-embryo transfer. However, the implantation rate is only about 30%, indicating a need for a more efficient method of selecting high-quality embryos. This study investigated the relationship between medium ammonium concentration and IVF implantation rates and evaluated the possibility of using ammonium concentration to provide an objective, noninvasive, and simple means of assessment of embryo viability.

63% vs 66 67%, p = 0 0154) The rate of post-lithotripsy secondar

63% vs 66.67%, p = 0.0154). The rate of post-lithotripsy secondary procedures was equivalent (p = 0.2079). The difference was insignificant for harder stones (p = 0.2988).

Conclusions: Shock wave lithotripsy is equally effective using Medstone STS and Modulith SLX for different stone sizes and most stone sites. Shock wave lithotripsy is more successful for lower ureteral stones using the Medstone STS. To our knowledge this is the first study comparing these 2 commonly used lithotripters.”
“Short-term memory binding of visual features which are processed across

different dimensions (shape-colour) is impaired in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease, familial Alzheimer’s disease, and in Z-IETD-FMK in vivo asymptomatic carriers of familial Alzheimer’s disease. This study investigated whether Alzheimer’s disease also impacts on within-dimension binding processes. The study specifically explored whether visual short-term memory binding of features of the same type (colour-colour) is sensitive to Alzheimer’s disease. We used a neuropsychological battery and a short-term memory binding task to assess patients with sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (Experiment 1), familial Alzheimer’s disease (Experiment 2) due to the mutation E280A of the Presenilin-1 gene and asymptomatic carriers of the mutation. The binding task assessed change detection

Pitavastatin molecular weight within arrays of unicoloured objects (Colour Only) or bicoloured objects the colours of which had to be remembered separately (Unbound Colours) or together (Bound Colours). Performance on the Bound Colours condition (1) explained the largest proportion of variance between patients (sporadic and familial Alzheimer’s disease), (2) combined more sensitivity and specificity for the disease than other more traditional neuropsychological tasks, (3) identified asymptomatic carriers of the mutation even when traditional neuropsychological measures and other measures of short-term memory did not and, (4) contrary to shape-colour binding, Celastrol correlated with measures of hippocampal functions. Colour-colour binding and shape-colour binding both appear to be sensitive to AD even though they seem to rely on different

brain mechanisms. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Increasing trial evidence suggests that a course of medical expulsive therapy is warranted for patients with ureteral stones who are amenable to conservative treatment, and that this efficacious process of care is underused. To better understand the barriers to the dissemination of medical expulsive therapy we analyzed health care claims of working age adults with urinary stone disease.

Materials and Methods: Using MarketScan (R) data (2002 to 2006) we identified patients with urinary stone disease who were treated in the emergency department. We characterized differences between patients who were prescribed medical expulsive therapy and those who were not.

We found that host heat shock proteins Hsp70 and Hsp90 are requir

We found that host heat shock proteins Hsp70 and Hsp90 are required for RCNMV RNA replication and that they interact with p27, a virus-encoded component

of the 480-kDa replicase complex, on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Using a cell-free viral translation/replication system in combination with specific inhibitors of Hsp70 and Hsp90, we found that inhibition of p27-Hsp70 interaction inhibits the formation of the 480-kDa complex but instead induces the accumulation of large complexes that are nonfunctional in viral RNA synthesis. In BIBW2992 datasheet contrast, inhibition of p27-Hsp90 interaction did not induce such large complexes but rendered p27 incapable of binding to a specific viral RNA element, which is a critical step for the assembly of the 480-kDa replicase complex and viral RNA replication. Together, our results suggest that Hsp70 and Hsp90 regulate different steps in the assembly of the RCNMV replicase complex.”
“The h5-HT7 receptor is subject to inactivation by risperidone and 9-OH-risperidone, apparently through a pseudo-irreversible complex

formed between these drugs and the receptor. Although risperidone and 9-OH-risperidone (“”inactivating antagonists”") completely inactivate the receptor, only 50% of the receptors form a pseudo-irreversible complex with these drugs.

This study aims to more fully determine the mechanism(s) responsible for the novel effects of risperidone and 9-OH-risperidone and to determine if the inactivation can be reversed (reactivation).

The ability of non-inactivating drugs (competitive antagonists) to dissociate wash-resistant [H-3]risperidone cAMP activator inhibitor binding from h5-HT7 receptors was investigated. Leukotriene-A4 hydrolase Also, the ability of non-inactivating drugs to reactivate inactivated h5-HT7 receptors was investigated, using cAMP accumulation as a functional endpoint.

The competitive (non-inactivating) antagonists clozapine and mesulergine released the wash-resistant [H-3]risperidone binding to the h5-HT7 receptor. The competitive antagonists clozapine, SB269970, mianserin, cyproheptadine, mesulergine, and ICI169369 reactivated the risperidone-inactivated h5-HT7 receptors in a concentration-dependent

manner. The potencies for reactivation closely match the affinities of these drugs for the h5-HT7 receptor (r (2) = 0.95), indicating that the reactivating antagonists are binding to and producing their effects through the orthosteric binding site of the h5-HT7 receptor. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer analyses indicate that the h5-HT7 receptor forms homodimers.

The ability of the non-inactivating drugs to bind h5-HT7 orthosteric sites and reverse the wash-resistant effects of risperidone or 9-OH-risperidone, also bound to h5-HT7 orthosteric sites, is evidence for protomer-protomer interactions between h5-HT7 homodimers. This is the first demonstration of a non-mutated G-protein-coupled receptor homodimer engaging in protomer-protomer interactions in an intact cell preparation.

However, a growing body of evidence indicates that, besides the u

However, a growing body of evidence indicates that, besides the unquestionable benefit from its thrombolytic activity, tPA also has a deleterious effect on the ischemic brain including cytotoxicity and increased permeability of the neurovascular unit with the development of cerebral edema. Because an increasing number of acute stroke patients are treated with tPA, it is important to know the mechanisms of harmful effects of tPA on the ischemic brain. Here, the best studied pathways of tPA neurotoxicity are discussed along with future directions for a safer use of tPA as a

thrombolytic agent in the setting of acute ischemic stroke.”
“Men and women exhibit differences in sexual behavior. This indicates that neural circuits within the central nervous system (CNS) that control sexual Selleckchem Dinaciclib behavior differ between ICG-001 concentration the sexes, although differences in behavior are also influenced by sociocultural and hormonal factors. Sexual differentiation of the body and brain occurs during the embryonic and neonatal periods in humans and persists into adulthood with relatively low plasticity. Male sexual behavior is complex and depends on intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including olfactory,

somatosensory and visceral cues. Many advances in our understanding of sexually dimorphic neural circuits have been achieved in animal models, but major issues are yet to be resolved. This review summarizes the sexually dimorphic nuclei controlling male

sexual function in the rodent CNS and focuses on the interactions of the brain-spinal cord neural networks controlling male sexual behavior. old Possible factors that relate findings from animal studies to human behavior are also discussed. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.”
“The increasing prevalence, variable pathogenesis, progressive natural history, and complications of type 2 diabetes emphasise the urgent need for new treatment strategies. Longacting (eg, once weekly) agonists of the glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor are advanced in development, and they improve prandial insulin secretion, reduce excess glucagon production, and promote satiety. Trials of inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase 4, which enhance the effect of endogenous incretin hormones, are also nearing completion. Novel approaches to glycaemic regulation include use of inhibitors of the sodium glucose cotransporter 2, which increase renal glucose elimination, and inhibitors of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, which reduce the glucocorticoid effects in liver and fat. Insulin-releasing glucokinase activators and pancreatic-G-protein-coupled fatty-acid-receptor agonists, glucagon-receptor antagonists, and metabolic inhibitors of hepatic glucose output are being assessed. Early proof of principle has been shown for compounds that enhance and partly mimic insulin action and replicate some effects of bariatric surgery.

(J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010; 140: 203-8)”
“MicroRNAs (miR

(J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010; 140: 203-8)”
“MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNA molecules functioning to modulate gene expression at the post-transcnptional level, and playing an important role in many developmental and physiological processes Ten thousand miRNAs have been discovered in various organisms Although considerable progress CP-690550 nmr has been made in computational methodology to identify miRNA targets, most predicted miRNA targets may be false positive Due to the lack of effective tools to identify miRNA targets, the study of miRNAs is seriously retarded In recent years, some molecular cloning strategies of miRNA targets have been developed, including RT-PCR using miRNAs as endogenous primers, labeled miRNA

pull-down assay (LAMP) and RNA ligase-mediated amplification of cDNA end (RLM-RACE) The identified miRNA targets should be further validated via effects of miRNA alteration on the target protein levels and bioactivity This review summarizes advances in

strategies to identify miRNA targets and methods by which miRNA targets are validated”
“In cellulose-to-ethanol Palbociclib manufacturer processes a physico-chemical pretreatment of the lignocellulosic feedstock is a crucial prerequisite for increasing the amenability of the cellulose to enzymatic attack Currently published pretreatment strategies span over a wide range of reaction conditions involving different pH values, temperatures, types of catalysts and holding times The consequences of the pretreatment on lignocellulosic biomass are described with special emphasis on the chemical alterations of the biomass during pretreatment, especially highlighting the significance of the pretreatment pH We present a new illustration of the pretreatment effects encompassing the differential responses to the pH and temperature A detailed evaluation of the use of severity factor calculations for pretreatment comparisons Celecoxib signifies that the multiple effects of different pretreatment factors on the subsequent monosaccharide yields after enzymatic hydrolysis cannot be reliably compared by a one-dimensional

severity factor, even within the same type of pretreatment strategy However, a quantitative comparison of published data for wheat straw pretreatment illustrates that there is some correlation between the hydrolysis yields (glucose and xylose) and the pretreatment pH, but no correlation with the pretreatment temperature (90-200 degrees C) A better recognition and understanding of the factors affecting biomatrix opening, and use of more standardized evaluation protocols, will allow for the identification of new pretreatment strategies that improve biomass utilization and permit rational enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose”
“Objective: Epidermal growth factor-loaded gelatin microspheres were tested for potential to accelerate tracheal allograft reepithelialization.

Methods: Epidermal growth factor-loaded gelatin microspheres were prepared by optimal double-phase emulsified condensation polymerization.

Based on the analyses classified by best-stimulus categories, the

Based on the analyses classified by best-stimulus categories, the number of NaCl-best neurons decreased from 68% to 45% following dietary sodium deprivation, and the responses of the NaCl-best neurons to 0.03-1.0 M NaCl were significantly inhibited. Multidimensional scaling illustrated that sodium deprivation increased the similarity of the response profiles of the NaCl-best neurons. These findings suggest that dietary sodium

deprivation might modulate sodium intake via increasing aversive threshold for salt rather enhancing salt discrimination. (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.”
“The protein encoded by the UL14 gene of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 is expressed late in infection and is a minor component of the virion tegument. An UL14-deficient HSV-1 see more mutant (UL14D) forms small plaques and exhibits an extended growth cycle LEE011 mouse at

low multiplicities of infection (MOI) compared to wild-type virus. Although UL14 is likely to be involved in the process of viral maturation and egress, its precise role in viral replication is still enigmatic. In this study, we found that immediate-early viral mRNA expression was decreased in UL14D-infected cells. Transient coexpression of UL14 and VP16 in the absence of infection stimulated the nuclear accumulation of both proteins. We intended to visualize the fate of VP16 released from the infected virion and constructed UL14-null (14D-VP16G) and rescued (14R-VP16G) viruses that expressed a VP16-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein. Synchronous high-multiplicity infection of the viruses was performed at 4 degrees C in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. We found that the presence of UL14 in the virion had an enhancing effect on the nuclear accumulation of VP16-GFP. The lack of UL14 did not significantly alter virus internalization but affected incoming capsid transport to the nuclear pore. These observations suggested that UL14 (i) enhanced VIP16 nuclear localization at the immediately early phase, thus indirectly regulating the expression of immediate-early genes, and (ii) was associated with efficient nuclear targeting of capsids.

The next tegument protein UL14 could be part of the machinery that regulates HSV-1 replication.”
“The present study tested the hypothesis that the hypoxia in utero results in decreased protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity in cytosolic and membrane fractions and increased expression of PTPs (PTP-1B, PTP-SH1 and PTP-SH2) in the cytosol and the membrane fraction of the cerebral cortex of guinea pig fetus. In addition, we hypothesize that the increased expression is mediated by nitric oxide (NO). To test this hypothesis, PTP activity in cytosol and cell membrane, and expression in the cytosol and membrane fraction were measured in the cerebral cortex of normoxic, hypoxic and L-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), pretreated hypoxic (L-NAME + Hx) guinea pig fetuses.