For each material six wells (7 mm diameter, 5 mm deep) were made

For each material six wells (7 mm diameter, 5 mm deep) were made with a cork borer. Each well was then filled with freshly prepared cements. The results were obtained by measuring the bacterial growth inhibition zone after 1, 2, 3 and 7 days.

Results: Fuji Triage cement inhibited the growth of all bacterial strains. Fuji IX cement demonstrated the most potent antibacterial activity against S. sanguis. Ketac Molar showed antibacterial activity against S. sanguis and S. salivarius, whereas Ketac Silver was efficient against S. mutans as well. Neither of the Ketac cements

inhibited growth of the standard L. casei strain.

Discussion: PDGFR inhibitor Antibacterial activity of glass ionomer cements has attracted the interest of scientists in recent years. Most authors, including us, carried out experiments using the agar diffusion method and demonstrated antibacterial activity of glass ionomer cements. Different antibacterial activity of glass ionomer cements, observed in our study and studies of other authors, depended on the evaluated cement, bacterial strain and period of evaluation.”
“Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease often presenting with extra-intestinal

manifestations. However, pulmonary involvement is quite rare. We report a case of Crohn’s disease with pulmonary extra-intestinal manifestation (bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia-like changes) NVP-AUY922 nmr treated with infliximab. Furthermore, we present an overview of cases of inflammatory bowel disease with lung involvement, treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists. In this case, when infliximab was given, a significant resolution of the pulmonary changes was achieved.

(c) 2009 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether continuous oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) will result in more pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea patients than cyclic OCPs, which induce withdrawal bleeding with associated pain and symptoms.

METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial comparing continuous to a cyclic 21-7 OCP www.selleckchem.com/products/Gefitinib.html regimen (gestodene 0.075 mg and ethinyl estradiol 20 microgram) for 6 months in 38 primary dysmenorrhea patients. The primary outcome was the difference in subjective perception of pain as measured by the visual analog scale over a period of 6 months.

RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients completed the study. In both groups, pain reduction measured by visual analog scale declined over time and was significant at 6 months compared with baseline, with no difference between groups. Continuous regimen was superior to cyclic regimen after 1 month (mean difference -27.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] -40.5 to -14.2; P<.001) and 3 months (mean difference -17.8, 95% CI -33.4 to -2.1; P=.03) of treatment. Secondary outcomes noted no difference between groups in terms of menstrual distress as measured by the Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire.

05) The pressure response in the

affected anterior compa

05). The pressure response in the

affected anterior compartments was similar in the fractured and in the non-fractured limb. Adjacent compartment pressures did not increase noticeably even at high pressure levels.

Elevated pressure simulation after closed fracture of the lower limb does not substantially affect the adjacent compartments compared with that of the non-fractured limb. The measurement of all compartments may be indicated to accurately assess indications of fasciotomy.”
“BACKGROUND: Increased P5091 insulin requirements in pregnancy can hinder attainment of glycemic control in diabetic patients. U-500 insulin is a concentrated form of regular insulin that can be a valuable tool in the treatment of patients with severe insulin resistance.

CASE: A 24-year-old woman with pregestational diabetes mellitus experienced increasing insulin requirements during pregnancy, peaking at 650 units daily. The frequent, large-volume injections of standard-concentration insulin were poorly tolerated by the patient and resulted in nonadherence. She subsequently achieved glycemic control on thrice-daily U-500 insulin.

CONCLUSION: Pregnancy exacerbates insulin resistance in diabetic PF-477736 patients, and these patients may require high doses of insulin. U-500 insulin is

an effective alternative for patients with severe insulin resistance and should be considered for pregnant women with difficulty achieving glycemic control. (Obstet Gynecol 2012;120:439-42) DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31824fd27d”
“Objective.

Women represent the largest percentage of new HIV infections globally. Yet, no large-scale studies have examined the experience of pain and its treatment in women living with HIV.

Design.

This study used structural equation modeling to examine sex differences in pain and the use and misuse of prescription analgesics in a representative sample of HIV+ persons in the United Stated within a prospective, longitudinal design.

Outcome Measures.

Bodily pain subscale of the Short-Form 36 and Modified Short Form of the World

Health Organization’s Composite International Diagnostic Interview (opioid misuse).

Results.

Women reported more pain than men over a roughly Epigenetic Reader Do inhibitor 6-month period regardless of mode of HIV transmission or prior drug use history. Men acknowledged more misuse of prescription analgesics over an approximate 1-year period compared with women, after taking into account pain, use of analgesics specifically for pain, and drug use history. Weaker associations between pain and use of analgesics specifically for pain that persisted over time were found among women compared with men. For both men and women, pain was stable over time. Problem drug use history exerted significant direct and indirect effects on pain, opioid misuse, and pain-specific analgesic use across sex.

Conclusion.

Although often seen in the genitourinary tract, it can also be se

Although often seen in the genitourinary tract, it can also be seen in colon, stomach, lung, liver, bone, uterus, and skin. In this case report, we present prostatic malakoplakia diagnosed by elevated prostate-specific antigen level and transrectal prostate biopsy. Copyright (C) 2011, Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.”
“An efficient and operationally simple method is developed for chemical decontamination of simulant

of VX. A new chlorine bearing reagent N,N-dichloro poly(styrene-co-divinyl benzene) sulfonamide was developed to deactivate the simulant of VX in aqueous medium. This click here decontamination reaction was monitored by gas chromatography (GC), and the products were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This reagent has advantage over earlier reported reagents in terms of effectiveness, stability, nontoxicity, cost, ease of synthesis, recyclablity (collected after filtration, rechlorinated, and used for further reaction), and decontamination of simulant of VX to give

single nontoxic product at room temperature. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 2250-2256, 2011″
“Purpose: To assess the long-term temporomandibular joint (TMJ) manifestations of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), as depicted at computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, in 47 adult patients.

Materials OICR-9429 in vivo and Methods: The study was approved by a regional committee for medical research ethics, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Forty-seven patients with JIA (32 women, 15

men; mean age, 35 years) were examined, on average, 30 years after the initial diagnosis. The findings of TMJ imaging, including CT and MR imaging, were evaluated by three observers. Bone and disk abnormalities, joint effusion, bone marrow abnormalities, and contrast enhancement were analyzed.

Results: The TMJs were involved in 33 (70%) of the 47 patients with JIA, with bilateral involvement in 29 patients. Slight to moderate contrast enhancement was observed on the images obtained in 14 (42%) of the 33 patients with TMJ JIA abnormalities. All main joint components were abnormal in 28 of the 33 patients, mainly showing flat deformed condyles, wide flat fossae, and thin Entrectinib purchase or perforated disks in the normal position, or absent disks. Condylar concavity or bifidity, and secondary osteoarthritis were found in approximately half of the abnormal joints.

Conclusion: Long-term JIA manifestations in the TMJs, as demonstrated at CT and MR imaging, were frequent, usually bilateral, and characterized by mandibular condyle and temporal bone deformities, abnormal disk morphology, and, rather frequently, osteoarthritis and mild synovitis. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“P>A high accumulation of silicon (Si) is required for overcoming abiotic and biotic stresses, but the molecular mechanisms of Si uptake, especially in dicotyledonous species, is poorly understood.

(C) Versita Sp z o o”
“The purpose of this study was to eva

(C) Versita Sp. z o.o”
“The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser irradiation and conventional dental bur cavity preparation on in vitro microleakage of class V cavities restored with different adhesive restorative materials and two types of self-etching adhesives in primary teeth. Standard class V cavities were prepared on 80 extracted primary, and the teeth were randomly divided into eight subgroups prepared either by dental bur or Er:YAG laser irradiation and then restored with self-cured glass ionomer (GI), resin-modified

glass ionomer (RMGI), RSL 3 resin composite and Clearfil SE Bond (two-step self-etching adhesive), and resin composite and Clearfil S3 Bond (one-step self-etching adhesive). Restorations were finished and stored in distilled water at 37 A degrees C for 24 h and then subjected to thermocycling. All the teeth were sealed with nail varnish, placed in a silver nitrate

solution, and then vertically cut in a buccolingually direction. Subsequently, the specimens were evaluated for gingival and occlusal microleakage using a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Mann-Whitney test. Wilcoxon test was used for comparing occlusal microleakage with gingival microleakage at p < 0.05. A higher degree of occlusal and gingival microleakage values for the teeth restored with buy Sotrastaurin GI or RMGI was obtained by both preparation methods compared with that of resin composites and

the two self-etching primers. Er:YAG laser irradiation resulted in a significantly higher degree of microleakage only at the gingival margins for teeth restored with GI or RMGI, or composite and Clearfil S3 Bond compared with the selleckchem bur preparation. The Er:YAG laser-prepared teeth restored with composite and Clearfil SE Bond demonstrated a better marginal seal on occlusal and gingival margins compared with that of bur-prepared cavities. The degree of microleakage in class V cavities was affected by the type of adhesive restorative materials, type of self-etching adhesive, cavity margin location, and tooth preparation method either by Er:YAG laser or dental bur.”
“The management of patients with isolated congenital complete atrioventricular block (CCAVB) has changed during the last decades. The current policy is to pace the majority of patients based on a variety of criteria, among which is limited exercise capacity. Data regarding exercise capacity in this population stems from previous publications reporting small case series of unpaced patients. Therefore, we have investigated the exercise capacity of a group of contemporary children with CCAVB. Sixteen children (mean age 11.5 +/- A 4; seven boys, nine girls) with CCAVB were tested. In 13 patients, a median number of three pacemakers were implanted, whereas in three patients no pacemaker was given. All patients had an echocardiogram and completed a cardiopulmonary cycle exercise test.

Herein, we investigated the plant-derived isoquinoline alkaloid b

Herein, we investigated the plant-derived isoquinoline alkaloid berberine, which has been reported to have anticancer activity, and synthetic 13-arylalkyl derivatives thereof for their effects

on Wnt/-catenin signaling. Berberine did not show major effects on viability of HEK-293 embryonic kidney and HCT116 colon carcinoma cells and was not toxic in concentrations up to 20 mu M. Berberine inhibited -catenin transcriptional activity and attenuated anchorage-independent growth. As a result of berberine treatment, cellular levels of active -catenin were reduced concomitant with an increase in the expression of E-cadherin. However, in unstimulated cells, the effects on -catenin levels were low. A screen of synthetic 13-arylalkyl berberine derivatives identified compounds exhibiting activities superior selleck products to those of the naturally occurring parent substance with more BAY 80-6946 chemical structure than 100-fold lower EC50 values for Wnt-repression. Thus, berberine and its synthetic derivatives represent potential therapeutic agents to inhibit Wnt/-catenin signaling in tumorigenesis. (c) 2013 BioFactors, 39(6):652-662, 2013″
“Here, we investigated the prevalence of headache among adults in Jordan. The study was conducted from January 2007 to November 2008. A sample of 4,836 participants were permitted to complete a self-conducted screening questionnaire. As much as 82.3% of participants complained from headache at least once per year. 36.1%

were tension-type headache and 59% of the participants had other family members who suffered from headache. Headaches affected everyday activities in 51.6% of the participants; 82.7% of participants did not seek medical attention for their headaches. Among those who used analgesics (75.6%), acetaminophen was the most common (91.43%). In conclusion, headache and overuse selleck chemicals llc of analgesics were prevalent in a significant part of the society. Thus, there is a need to educate the public to ensure safe practices and to make the use and selling of analgesics more stringent.”
“The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of compounded capsules

of different drugs for chronic diseases. It were assessed two samples, from two different pharmacies, for each of the following drugs: ranitidine 150 mg, methyldopa 250 mg, enalapril maleate 20 mg, fluoxetine hydrochloride 20 mg, propranolol hydrochloride 40 mg, and furosemide 40 mg. The assays of mean weight, content determination, content uniformity and dissolution were performed according to Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. All samples were approved in the assay of mean weight, and the samples M1 and Flu1 had failed in the assay of content determination. In the test of uniformity of dosage units the samples M1, Flu1, E1, E2 and Flu2 had failed. Only the samples M2, P1, P2, F1 and F2 were accepted in all pharmacopoeial tests, evidencing that the others did not achieve the minimum requirements to ensure safety, quality and efficacy of the drugs.

Statistical analyses of release data performed by the

ana

Statistical analyses of release data performed by the

analysis of variance (ANOVA) method indicated significant differences within experimental measurements. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 119: 1268-1274, 2011″
“Objective. Thalassemic patients present with multiple immune abnormalities that may predispose them to oral Candida, however this has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess oral candidal colonization in a group of patients with beta-thalassemia major both qualitatively and quantitatively.

Study design. The oral mycologic flora of Selleck Prexasertib 50 beta-thalassemia major patients and 50 age- and sex-matched control subjects was assessed using the concentrated oral rinse technique. Candida species Ulixertinib research buy were identified using the germ tube test and the Vitek yeast identification

system.

Results. Oral Candida was isolated from 37 patients (74%) and 28 healthy subjects (56%; P = .04). The mean candidal count was significantly higher in thalassemic patients compared with the healthy group ( P < .05) and in patients who had surgical splenectomy compared with nonsplenectomized patients ( P = .04).

Conclusion. Oral Candida colonization and candidal counts are significantly higher in beta-thalseemia major patients than in healthy subjects. Surgical splenectomy may increase the quantity of colonizing oral candidal organisms in thalassemic patients. ( Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 109: 252-256)”
“The enhancement of current density in inverted organic light emitting diodes is achieved by thermal annealing after device process. The current-voltage characteristics of annealed devices are improved as compared to that of nonannealed devices. The current improvement is attributed to the increase in electron injection efficiency from the inverted cathodes. X-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy

were also carried out to investigate the origins of the enhancement. The result shows that the activation of doping effect of the inverted Alq(3) trilayers occurs after thermal annealing. However, the current density is still not compatible to that of normal devices with Alq3 trilayers as the cathode on the top. MCC950 purchase The reason is found to be related to the oxidation of aluminum cathodes, which are deposited first in the inverted devices. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3512911]“
“In this study, a systematic investigation on the nonisothermal crystallization kinetics of conversional polypropylene (PP) containing various amounts of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) was reported, and the effects of UHMWPE on crystallization behavior of these PP materials and their foaming properties were also presented. The kinetic studies revealed that the incorporation of UHMWPE into PP led to an increase in the crystallization temperature and temperature range during the crystallization process as well as the relative crystallinity.


“Clinical manifestations of flavivirus infection may be va


“Clinical manifestations of flavivirus infection may be various, from unapparent to severe meningoencephalitis. Our patient, 2 weeks after returning home from a holiday at Elba Island, developed biphasic fever, later associated with nausea and vomiting and followed by incoming seizures responsive to thiopental sodium only. Brain MRI showed bilateral hyperintensity (T2) in amygdale, hippocampus, left insular and temporal inferior cortex. Standard and microbiological CSF examination was normal, but microbiological serum analysis showed seroconversion for flavivirus. The patient came to our observation

6 months after disease onset and at that time he was affected by frequent seizures and severe cognitive impairment with behavioural disturbances; the patient also showed distal weakness with footstepping. EEG Selonsertib price showed bitemporal epileptic foci. During the following months, seizures greatly decreased and cognitive status improved in response to a complex antiepileptic therapy. Flavivirus encephalitis should selleckchem be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of encephalitis selectively involving temporal lobes.”
“Background: Humoral immune responses play a key role in the

development of immunity to malaria, but the host genetic factors that contribute to the naturally occurring immune responses to malarial antigens are not completely understood. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether, in subjects exposed to malaria,

GM and KM allotypes-genetic markers of immunoglobulin gamma and kappa-type light chains, respectively-contribute to the magnitude of natural antibody responses to target antigens that are leading vaccine candidates for protection against Plasmodium vivax.

Methods: Sera from 210 adults, who had been exposed to malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon endemic area, were allotyped for several GM and KM determinants by a standard hemagglutination-inhibition method. IgG subclass antibodies to P. vivax apical membrane antigen 1 (PvAMA-1) and merozoite surface protein 1 (PvMSP1-19) were determined by an enzyme-linked GF120918 immunosorbent assay. Multiple linear regression models and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test were used for data analyses.

Results: IgG1 antibody levels to both PvMSP1-19 and PvAMA-1 antigens were significantly higher (P = 0.004, P = 0.002, respectively) in subjects with the GM 3 23 5,13,14 phenotype than in those who lacked this phenotype.

Conclusions: Results presented here show that immunoglobulin GM allotypes contribute to the natural antibody responses to P. vivax malaria antigens. These findings have important implications for the effectiveness of vaccines containing PvAMA-1 or PvMSP1-19 antigens. They also shed light on the possible role of malaria as one of the evolutionary selective forces that may have contributed to the maintenance of the extensive polymorphism at the GM loci.

Following prochemerin secretion, protease-mediated generation of

Following prochemerin secretion, protease-mediated generation of chemerin isoforms with a range of biological

activities is a key regulatory mechanism controlling local, context-specific chemerin bioactivity. Together, experimental and clinical data indicate that localized and/or circulating chemerin expression and activation are elevated in numerous metabolic and inflammatory diseases including psoriasis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. These elevations are positively correlated with deleterious changes in glucose, lipid, and cytokine homeostasis, and may serve as a link between obesity, inflammation and other metabolic disorders. This review highlights the current state

of knowledge regarding chemerin expression, processing, PXD101 biological function and NCT-501 chemical structure relevance to human disease, particularly with respect to adipose tissue development, inflammation, glucose homeostasis and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it discusses study variability, deficiencies in current measurement, and questions concerning chemerin function in disease, with a special emphasis on techniques and tools used to properly assess chemerin biology. An integration of basic and clinical research is key to understanding how chemerin influences disease pathobiology, and whether modulation of chemerin levels and/or activity may serve as a potential method to prevent and treat metabolic diseases.”
“Background: Coagulopathy is present in 25% to 38% of trauma patients on arrival to the hospital, and these patients are four times more likely to die than https://www.selleckchem.com/products/poziotinib-hm781-36b.html trauma patients without coagulopathy. Recently, a high ratio of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) to packed red blood cells (PRBCs) has been shown to decrease mortality in massively transfused trauma patients. Therefore, we hypothesized that patients with elevated International Normalized Ratio (INR) on arrival to the hospital may benefit more from transfusion

with a high ratio of FFP:PRBC than those with a lower INR.

Methods: Retrospective multicenter cohort study of 437 massively transfused trauma patients was conducted to determine whether the effect of the ratio of FFP:PRBC on death at 24 hours is modified by a patient’s admission INR on arrival to the hospital. Contingency tables and logistic regression were used.

Results: Trauma patients who arrived to the hospital with an elevated INR had a greater risk of death than those with a lower INR. However, as the ratio of FFP:PRBC transfused increased, mortality decreased similarly between the INR quartiles.

Conclusions: The mortality benefit from a high FFP:PRBC ratio is similar for all massively transfused trauma patients. This is contrary to the current belief that only coagulopathic trauma patients benefit from a high FFP:PRBC ratio.

Participants completed three questionnaires (SF-12 (R) Health Sur

Participants completed three questionnaires (SF-12 (R) Health Survey, Brief Symptom Inventory and the Impact of Events Scale) before prophylactic surgery and again 1?year after surgery. Measures of health-related quality of life, of general psychological distress and of ovarian cancer worry before and after surgery were compared. Results Few women who underwent salpingo-oophorectomy experienced a worsening in physical or mental health functioning after salpingo-oophorectomy. On average, women experienced less ovarian cancer-specific worry after surgery; 34.3% experienced moderate to severe

ovarian cancer-specific distress before surgery, compared with 18.6% after surgery. Conclusions PHA-739358 solubility dmso For most women, physical and mental health-related quality of life did not deteriorate after prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy, and they were less worried about ovarian cancer. A subset of women continued to experience moderate to severe cancer-specific distress. Identification of these women is important PF-04929113 clinical trial in order to provide continued counseling and support. Copyright (c) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Study Design. Biomechanical study of vertebroplasty in cadaver motion segments.

Objectives. To determine how the volume of injected cement influences: (a) stress distributions on fractured and adjacent vertebral bodies, (b) load-sharing between the vertebral bodies and neural arch, and (c) cement leakage.

Summary

of Background Data. Vertebroplasty is increasingly used to treat vertebral fractures, but there are problems concerning adjacent level fracture and cement leakage, both of which may depend on the volume of injected cement.

Methods. Nineteen thoracolumbar motion segments from 13 cadavers (42-91 years) were loaded to induce fracture. Fractured vertebrae received 2 sequential injections (VP1 and

VP2) of selleck inhibitor 3.5 cm(3) of polymethylmethacrylate cement. Before and after each intervention, motion segment stiffness was measured in compression and in bending, and “”stress profilometry”" was used to quantify the distribution of compressive stress in the intervertebral disc (which presses equally on fractured and adjacent vertebrae). Stress profiles were obtained by pulling a pressure transducer through the disc while the motion segment was compressed in flexed and extended postures. Stress profiles yielded the intradiscal pressure (IDP), the magnitude of stress peaks in the anterior and posterior (SP(P)) anulus, and the percentage of the applied compressive force resisted by the neural arch (F(N)). Cement leakage and vertebral body volume were quantified using water-immersion, and the percentage cement fill was estimated.

Results. Bending and compressive stiffness fell by 37% and 50% respectively following fracture, and were restored only after VP2. Depending on posture, IDP fell by 59-85% after fracture whereas SP(P) increased by 107-362%.

001) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (P = 0 014) Only the dif

001) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (P = 0.014). Only the differences in scores on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire subscales Emotional Neglect (P = 0.013) and Emotional Abuse (P = 0.014) reached statistical significance.

Dissociative phenomena and a reported history of childhood trauma are more common in patients with PNESD than in those with TLE. However, only emotional neglect and abuse were associated with PNESD in this study. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Up Entrectinib mw to 50% of persons with HIV and a diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in Thailand die during TB treatment. In a prospective observational study, a team of physicians ascribed the cause of death after reviewing verbal autopsies (interviews of family members about events preceding death), laboratory data, and medical records. Of 849 HIV-infected TB patients enrolled, 142 (17%) died. The cause of death was TB for 38 (27%), including 6 with multidrug-resistant NSC-2260804 TB and 20 with disseminated TB; an HIV-associated condition other than TB for 50 (35%); and a condition unrelated to TB or HIV for 22 (15%). Twenty-three patients (16%) were judged not to have had TB at all. Death from all causes except those unrelated to TB or HIV

was less common in persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). In addition to increasing the use of ART, death rates may be reduced through expanded use of modern TB diagnostic techniques.”
“Background: Real-time PCR is a sensitive and specific method for

the analysis of Plasmodium DNA. However, Omipalisib prior purification of genomic DNA from blood is necessary since PCR inhibitors and quenching of fluorophores from blood prevent efficient amplification and detection of PCR products.

Methods: Reagents designed to specifically overcome PCR inhibition and quenching of fluorescence were evaluated for real-time PCR amplification of Plasmodium DNA directly from blood. Whole blood from clinical samples and dried blood spots collected in the field in Colombia were tested.

Results: Amplification and fluorescence detection by real-time PCR were optimal with 40x SYBR (R) Green dye and 5% blood volume in the PCR reaction. Plasmodium DNA was detected directly from both whole blood and dried blood spots from clinical samples. The sensitivity and specificity ranged from 93-100% compared with PCR performed on purified Plasmodium DNA.

Conclusions: The methodology described facilitates high-throughput testing of blood samples collected in the field by fluorescence-based real-time PCR. This method can be applied to a broad range of clinical studies with the advantages of immediate sample testing, lower experimental costs and time-savings.”
“We describe 17 children with nocturnal or early-morning seizures who were switched to a proportionally higher evening dose of antiepileptic drugs and were retrospectively reviewed for seizure outcome and side effects.