g reactive oxygen species) and non-oxidative (e g various prote

g. reactive oxygen species) and non-oxidative (e.g. various proteases) mechanisms.[17] The importance of neutrophil function is evident in individuals who have defects in neutrophil chemotaxis,

phagocytic functions or who have neutropenia.[18, 19] These individuals are more prone to bacterial infections. On the other hand, microbicidal molecules released from activated and dying neutrophils can cause bystander damage see more to healthy tissue. The consequent cell injury and death can itself cause or aggravate disease. Accordingly, it is important to elucidate the factors controlling neutrophilic inflammation. In this study we describe the surprising finding that the gut flora influences the ability of animals to mount a systemic acute neutrophilic inflammatory response

in the peritoneum and characterize the underlying basis for this observation. Specific pathogen free (SPF) C57BL/6 mice and IL-1R−/− mice were purchased from The Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, ME). Germ-free C57BL/6 Navitoclax cell line mice were obtained from The National Gnotobiotic Rodent Resource Center, North Carolina State University Gnotobiotics Unit and Gnotobiotic Research Resource, Medical University of South Carolina. MyD88−/− mice were provided by Dr Shizuo Akira, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan or purchased from The Jackson Laboratories. RIP2−/− mice were provided by Dr Michelle Kelliher and RIG-I−/− and MDA5−/− mice were provided by Dr Kate Fitzgerald (University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA). NOD1−/− mice were aminophylline provided by Dr Grace Chen, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. For generating the tamoxifen-inducible deletion mutant mice of MyD88, we used a strategy similar to the one described

previously.[20] MyD88−/− mice were crossed to the whole tissue, tamoxifen-inducible Cre transgenic mice (Rosa26-Cre/ESR+/+) (provided by Dr Roger Davis, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA). The resultant offspring, MyD88+/− Rosa26-Cre/ESR+/− mice were crossed to the MyD88flox/flox mice (provided by Dr Robert Finberg, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA) to generate the MyD88−/flox Rosa26-Cre/ESR+/− (conditional knockout; cKO). Animals were housed and handled according to protocols approved by the University of Massachusetts animal care and use committee. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with 0·2 mg zymosan (Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO), 0·5 mg silica crystals (Sigma-Aldrich), 0·5 mg monosodium urate crystals or 5 ng recombinant murine MIP-2 (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN) in 0·2 ml PBS. For the thioglycollate injections, 1 ml of 3% thioglycollate (Thermoscientific, Lenexa, KS) was used. The monosodium urate crystals were prepared as described before.[21] Mice were killed by exposure to isoflourane 4–16 hr after the injection. The peritoneum was lavaged with 2 ml Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium with 2% fetal calf serum, 3 mm EDTA and 10 U/ml heparin.

In conclusion, IRE1α appears to mediate early processes in B cell

In conclusion, IRE1α appears to mediate early processes in B cell maturation, particularly in connection with VDJ rearrangement [91] [92]. To evaluate the role of IRE1α in plasma cell differentiation, Zhang and collaborators used IRE1Α dominant-negative mutants [91]. B cells

expressing RNAse- or kinase- dominant-negative mutants of IRE1α, or cells lacking the intracytoplasmic tail were unable to secrete immunoglobulins. When these cells were transduced with XBP-1s and stimulated with LPS, immunoglobulin secretion was restored in the RNAse- or kinase- dominant-negative mutants expressing cells. In contrast, the cells lacking the cytoplasmic tail of IRE1α did not restored immunoglobulin secretion when transduced with XBP-1s. Thus, IRE1α cytoplasmic AZD6738 in vitro region have another role in addition to its catalytic activity in antibody production, perhaps acting as a scaffold for other proteins [91]. XBP-1 conditional knockout mice (XBP1flox/floxCD19cre/+) were generated to answer the question of whether XBP-1 altered the formation of memory B cells. XBP-1-deficient B cells were able to differentiate into post-GC memory B cells (IgDloB220+CD138−) and preplasma memory B cells (IgDloB220loCD79b+CD138−) in vivo, but no plasma cell was encountered in these mice [93]. Interestingly, XBP1flox/floxCD19cre/+ mice were protected against systemic

lupus erythematosus [59, 93]. Murine splenic B cells and I.29 B cell lymphoma were stimulated with LPS or treated with tunicamycin, followed by chromatin precipitation. XBP-1 was found bound to the ERDJ3 promoter in association with enhanced Palbociclib mouse ERDJ3 transcription [94]. ERdj3 is a co-chaperone that associates with BiP/IgH complexes [20]. Furthermore, XBP-1 indirectly regulates IgH expression by controlling transcription of OBF1, which codes for a specific IgH transcriptional co-activator. XBP-1 binds to the OBF1 promoter, possibly through an ACGT/C sequence found in human and mice OBF1 promoters [94]. These are

the first evidences that demonstrate XBP-1 acting directly on target gene promoter during plasma cell differentiation [20, 94]. During the plasmacytic differentiation programme the PERK branch of the UPR and its downstream targets are silenced [91, 95, 96]. Two independent studies provided evidences that the IRE1/XBP-1, but not PERK/eIF2α, 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase axis of UPR was activated in B lymphocytes after LPS treatment [91, 95]. Interestingly, B lymphocyte maturation occurred normally in PERK-deficient animals and their B cells could differentiate into plasma cells and secrete antibodies [95]. A third study showed that under LPS induced differentiation, I.29 μ+ B cell line activated IRE1α and consequently spliced XBP-1 mRNA at early phases. PERK was partially phosphorylated, but the LPS-elicited PERK activation was insufficient to phosphorylate eIF2α and to induce GADD34 and CHOP, downstream events of PERK activation. Curiously, pretreatment of I.

3d–g) The SOCS-1 mRNA and protein levels in N9 cells stimulated

3d–g). The SOCS-1 mRNA and protein levels in N9 cells stimulated with selleck kinase inhibitor LPS increased following miRNA inhibition and decreased upon miR-155 over-expression. Furthermore, under resting conditions, a decrease in SOCS-1 protein levels was observed following over-expression of miR-155 (Fig. 3e) and a similar result was observed in mRNA levels (data not shown). However, no increase in SOCS-1 mRNA or protein levels was observed following transfection with anti-miR-155 oligonucleotides, probably because of the low levels of miR-155

in resting cells. As no significant changes were observed in cells transfected with the control oligonucleotide or with pGFP, the results presented in Fig. 3 validate miR-155 as a specific modulator of SOCS-1 in microglia cells. To assess the effects of miR-155 and SOCS-1 modulation on microglia

activation and on the production of inflammatory mediators, initial studies www.selleckchem.com/products/apo866-fk866.html addressed the time-dependent expression of IFN-β, a classical target of SOCS-1 negative feedback regulation, following microglia activation with LPS (0·1 μg/ml). Results in Fig. 4(a) clearly show that although IFN-β levels start to increase quickly after LPS exposure, achieving a twofold increase after 1 hr of incubation, this effect becomes much more pronounced following a 4-hr incubation period. These results correlate with our previous observations of an increase in miR-155 levels (Fig. 1a) and a decrease in SOCS-1 expression levels (Fig. 3a) at this same time point, suggesting that the observed IFN-β response is dependent on both miR-155 and SOCS-1 expression. To confirm the relation among IFN-β, miR-155 and SOCS-1, we evaluated the functional consequences of miR-155 inhibition or over-expression

in IFN-β mRNA levels following microglia activation. For this purpose, N9 Parvulin microglia cells were transfected again with a plasmid encoding miR-155 or with anti-miR-155 oligonucleotides 24 hr before N9 exposure to LPS (0·1 μg/ml). Interferon-β mRNA levels were determined by qRT-PCR following an 18-hr incubation with LPS (Fig. 4b). A very strong increase in IFN-β mRNA levels was observed following over-expression of miR-155 and incubation with LPS, whereas an inhibition of this miRNA reduced IFN-β expression levels to basal levels even in the presence of LPS. These data indicate that changes in miR-155 levels are sufficient to modulate IFN-β production in activated microglia cells. No significant changes in IFN-β expression levels were observed in cells transfected with control oligonucleotides or with the control plasmid (pGFP), which further attests that the observed effect is specific for miR-155 modulation.

In this context, LTC4 induces the release of IL-23 by inflammator

In this context, LTC4 induces the release of IL-23 by inflammatory DCs, favouring the expansion of Th17 cells. All experiments were carried out using 2-month-old virgin female C57BL/6

mice raised at the National Academy of Medicine, Buenos Aires, Argentina. They were housed six per cage and kept at 20 ± 2° under an automatic 12 hr light–dark schedule. Animal care was in accordance with institutional guidelines. The procedure used in this study was as described by Inaba et al.27 with some minor modifications. Briefly, bone marrow was flushed from the long bones of the limbs using 2 ml RPMI-1640 (Gibco, Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) with a syringe and 25-gauge needle. Red cells were lysed with ammonium chloride. After washing, cells were suspended at a concentration of 1 × 106 cells/ml in 70% RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS; Gibco), and 5·5 × 10−5 mercaptoethanol (Sigma, St Louis, MO) (mouse complete medium) and 30%

www.selleckchem.com/products/ensartinib-x-396.html J588-GM cell line supernatant. The cultures were fed every 2 days by gently swirling PXD101 in vitro the plates, aspirating 50% of the medium, and adding back fresh medium with J588-GM cell line supernatant. At day 9 of the culture, > 85% of the harvested cells expressed MHC class II, CD40 and CD11c, but not Gr-1 (not shown). The standard medium used in this study was bicarbonate-buffered RPMI-1640 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) supplemented with 10% FCS, 50 U/ml penicillin, 50 μg/ml streptomycin, 0·1 mm non-essential amino acids, and 5·5 × 10−5 mercaptoethanol (all from Invitrogen) (complete

medium). Horseradish peroxidase (HRP), dextran (DX, 40 000 molecular weight), Zymosan (Zy, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae), LPS from Escherichia coli (0111:B4), were from Sigma Chemical Co. (St Louis, MO). SB-202190 [p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)], PD-98059 [extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/MAP kinase Kinase (MEK) MAPK], were from Promega Corporation (Madison, WI). The DX and Zy were conjugated with FITC, second as described previously.28 Cells staining were performed using the following monoclonal antibodies (mAbs): FIYC-conjugated anti-CD11c, anti-CD40-FITC, anti-I-Ad conjugated with phycoerythrin (PE), GR1-PE and CD86-PE (Pharmingen, San Diego, CA). Cell surface antigen expression was evaluated by single staining, and analysis was performed using a FACS flow cytometer and cellquest software (Becton Dickinson, San Jose, CA). After different treatments, DCs were suspended in medium RPMI-1640 at 37°. FIYC-DX was added at the final concentration of 100 μg/ml. The cells were washed four times with cold PBS containing 1% FCS and were analysed on a FACS flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson). The background (cells pulsed at 0°) was always subtracted. Endocytosis of HRP was performed as previously described.29 Briefly, DCs were suspended in complete medium; HRP was added at the final concentration of 150 μg/ml HRP, and cells were cultured for 30 min at 37°.

To detect whether IFN-γ-producing CTLs could lyse target cells in

To detect whether IFN-γ-producing CTLs could lyse target cells in vitro, an LDH assay was performed; the effector/target ratios were 10:1, 20:1 and 40:1. PBMCs from healthy donors, W02, W03, and C01, were stimulated with synthetic peptides (10 μg/ml) according to the previously mentioned method for CTLs induction. EC-9706 cells, p321-loaded T2A2 cells, KYSE-140 cells, and HT-29 cells were used

as target cells. As shown in Fig. 3, when EC-9706 cells used as target cells, the peptide-specific CTLs induced by p321-1Y9L showed more potent cytotoxic activity than that of p321 at the effector/target ratio of 20:1 and 40:1 in all ABT-888 price the tested donors, otherwise the peptide-specific CTLs induced by p321-9L showed more potent cytotoxic activity than that of p321 at the effector/target ratio of 20:1 and 40:1 in two donors (W02, W03). In addition, as shown in Fig. 4, in all the tested donors, the CTLs induced by the analogue p321-1Y9L showed more potent cytotoxic activities on p321-loaded T2 cells than that of p321 at the effector/target ratio of 40:1, but not on T2 cells without peptide-loaded at all the effector/target ratios. p321-9L showed the equal cytotoxic activity with p321-1Y9L in donor W03, but in other two donors p321-9L showed the equal cytotoxic activity with p321. These results showed that in all tested donors, the peptide-specific

CTLs induced by p321-1Y9L showed more potent cytotoxic activity than that of p321, and in donor W03, p321-9L showed more potent cytotoxic activity than that of p321. To further confirm the COX-2 specificity and HLA-A2 restriction of the CTLs, Z-IETD-FMK in vitro KYSE-140 (HLA-A2-positive, COX-2-negative) and HT-29 (HLA-A2-negative, COX-2-positive) were used as target cells. As shown in Fig. 5, the CTLs induced by p321 and its analogues p321-9L and p321-1Y9L could not lyse (a) KYSE-140 cells and (b) HT-29 cells, which Tenoxicam showed that the induced CTLs were peptide specific and HLA-A2 restricted. In addition, monoclonal antibody inhibition assay was carried out to further determine

whether the effectors recognized COX-2 positive target tumour cells in an HLA-A2-restricted manner. As shown in Fig. 6, our results showed that the specific killing effects of the CTLs could be significantly eliminated when the HLA-A2 molecules on the target cells were blocked by HLA-A2 monoclonal antibody, BB7.2. To investigate whether the peptides could induce specific CTLs in vivo, HLA-A2.1/Kb transgenic mice were immunized three times with p321 and p321-1Y9L emulsified in IFA in the presence of HBVcore128 T helper epitope. After immunization, spleen lymphocytes were pooled and re-stimulated in vitro with the related peptides, respectively. Then, LDH release assay (Fig. 6) and ELISPOT assay (Fig. 7) were carried out to test the cytotoxic activity of the CTLs induced by p321, p321-9L and p321-1Y9L.

This threshold could be numerical or physiological,

This threshold could be numerical or physiological, CHIR-99021 manufacturer or a combination of both. It therefore takes a “team effort” to cause periodontitis in that the disease requires cooperative

interactions among bacteria with different roles. A recently formulated model that accommodates these concepts is called the polymicrobial synergy and dysbiosis (PSD) model [2]. This model holds that physiologically compatible organisms assemble into heterotypic communities, which exist in a controlled immunoinflammatory state. While they are pro-inflammatory and can produce toxic products such as proteases, overgrowth and overt pathogenicity are controlled by the host response. The microbial constituents of the communities can vary among individuals, among sites, and over time. Colonization by keystone pathogens such as P.

gingivalis elevates the virulence of the entire community following interactive communication with accessory pathogens. Initially, host immune surveillance is impaired and the dysbiotic community increases in number. Subsequently, the community proactively induces inflammation to sustain itself with derived nutrients, which will also shape a modified “inflammophilic” community. The action of pathobionts in the community, in addition to overt pathogens, eventually leads to destruction of periodontal tissues. The PSD model reconciles a number of features of periodontal click here disease that were discordant with earlier concepts of pathogenicity. These include: the variable microbiota at disease sites, even within the same patient; the presence of pathogens

in the absence of disease; the episodic nature of the disease; and the failure of P. gingivalis to cause periodontitis in the absence of the commensal microbiota [13]. Bacteria on human mucosal surfaces tend to accumulate into complex multispecies communities, a process controlled by a sophisticated series of interbacterial signaling and host response interactions. Within these communities, bacteria have specialized roles, such as provision of an essential enzyme for progressive nutrient metabolism. Bacteria ID-8 that influence the pathogenicity of the entire community are keystone pathogens, the best-documented example of which is P. gingivalis. While P. gingivalis can affect gene and protein expression in other community members, the major keystone-related influence of the organism is likely through interference with host immunity. This is accomplished by a multipronged approach that compromises immune function on a number of levels (Fig. 1 and 3). It is important to bear in mind, however, that periodontitis is an inflammatory disease, and thus the timing, location, and context of immune suppression by P. gingivalis will have major significance for the ultimate progression of disease.

Pathological examination revealed that the resection edge of the

Pathological examination revealed that the resection edge of the extradural component consisted of a spinal nerve with thickened epineurium and was free of neoplastic cells. No schwannoma component was evident in the intradural tumor. No obvious transition thus existed between the extra- and intradural tumors. Distinguishing these tumors prior to surgery is critical for determining

an optimal surgical plan, as schwannoma and meningioma require different surgical procedures. We therefore recommend a careful review of preoperative imaging with the possibility of concurrent tumors in mind. “
“M. Paradisi, M. Fernández, G. Del Vecchio, G. Lizzo, G. Marucci, M. Giulioni, selleck screening library E. Pozzati, T. Antonelli, G. Lanzoni, G. P. Bagnara, https://www.selleckchem.com/screening/gpcr-library.html L. Giardino and L. Calzà

(2010) Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology36, 535–550 Ex vivo study of dentate gyrus neurogenesis in human pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy Aims: Neurogenesis in adult humans occurs in at least two areas of the brain, the subventricular zone of the telencephalon and the subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampal formation. We studied dentate gyrus subgranular layer neurogenesis in patients subjected to tailored antero-mesial temporal resection including amygdalohippocampectomy due to pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using the in vitro neurosphere assay. Methods: Sixteen patients were enrolled in the study; mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) was present in eight patients. Neurogenesis was investigated by ex vivo neurosphere expansion in the presence Fossariinae of mitogens (epidermal growth factor + basic fibroblast growth factor) and spontaneous differentiation after mitogen withdrawal. Growth factor synthesis was investigated by qRT-PCR in neurospheres. Results: We demonstrate that in vitro proliferation of cells derived from dentate gyrus of TLE patients is dependent on disease duration.

Moreover, the presence of MTS impairs proliferation. As long as in vitro proliferation occurs, neurogenesis is maintained, and cells expressing a mature neurone phenotype (TuJ1, MAP2, GAD) are spontaneously formed after mitogen withdrawal. Finally, formed neurospheres express mRNAs encoding for growth (vascular endothelial growth factor) as well as neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, glial-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor). Conclusion: We demonstrated that residual neurogenesis in the subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus in TLE is dependent on diseases duration and absent in MTS. “
“A polymorphous variant of oligodendroglioma was described by K.J. Zülch half a century ago, and is only very sporadically referred to in the subsequent literature. In particular, no comprehensive analysis with respect to clinical or genetic features of these tumors is available.

Clotting in the dialysis circuit is triggered by both the extrins

Clotting in the dialysis circuit is triggered by both the extrinsic and the intrinsic pathways at the same time but to different degrees depending on the composition of the dialysis membrane and design and composition of the lines. Once the blood flow is initiated, plasma proteins deposit on the dialyser surface, and factor XII and high-molecular-weight kallikrein accumulate and act as initiating factors for contact coagulation

BAY 80-6946 – the Intrinsic Pathway. Peripheral blood leucocytes and monocytes, which contact the dialyser membrane, become adherent or activated and release blebs of surface membrane rich in tissue factor – activating the Extrinsic pathway. Platelets become activated by contact and in response to turbulent flow and high shear stress. The surface of platelets provides an enhancing environment promoting the interaction of coagulation cascade components. These triggers activate the clotting cascade, platelet aggregation, activation and degranulation, cytokine release and activation of circulating white cells, all of which can contribute in differing degrees to the triggering of or progressive activation GSK126 purchase of the clotting cascade leading to thrombosis in the dialysis circuit. Anticoagulation is routinely required to prevent clotting of the dialysis lines

and dialyser membranes, in both Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II acute intermittent haemodialysis and

continuous renal replacement therapies.5 As the field of anticoagulation is constantly evolving it is important to regularly review advances in knowledge and changing practices in this area.6 The responsibility for prescribing and delivering anticoagulant for haemodialysis is shared between the dialysis doctors and nurses. Dialysis is a medical therapy, which must be prescribed by an appropriately trained doctor. The prescribing doctor usually determines which anticoagulant agent will be used and the dosage range. The doctor’s prescription may include broad instructions such as ‘no heparin’, ‘low heparin’ or ‘normal heparin’. In a mature dialysis unit the dose and delivery of anticoagulant is, however, the responsibility of professional and experienced dialysis nurses, who have latitude within parameters determined by detailed written policies or standing orders. Dosing regimens, while generally safe and effective, are somewhat unscientific. In terms of monitoring, most units do not practise routine monitoring, although the anticoagulant effect of unfractionated heparin (UF heparin) can be monitored with some accuracy by the APTT or the activated clotting time tests where indicated. The dialysis nurses know there is too much anticoagulation if the needle sites continue to ooze excessively for a prolonged period (e.g. more than 15 min) after dialysis.

Serum IL-12p40 was measured by ELISA as recommended by the manufa

Serum IL-12p40 was measured by ELISA as recommended by the manufacturer (BD Bioscience). Cells from

uninfected mice had no detectable IL-10, IL-4, or IFN-γ production with antigen stimulation in these experiments. Serum from uninfected mice had no detectible IL-12p40. Nitric oxide production was assayed by measuring nitrite in 3-day recall supernatants A769662 with the Griess reaction (16). Serial dilutions of sera from infected mice were assayed for Leishmania-specific IgG1 and IgG2a/c by ELISA using L. mexicana FTAg for capture, and biotin-conjugated anti-mouse IgG1 and IgG2a/c (BD Biosciences) with peroxidase-conjugated streptavidin (Jackson ImmunoResearch; West Grove, PA, USA) for detection, using 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) as substrate. IgG quantitation shows mean and SEM for ≥5 mice per group. Significant differences were determined by t-test from optical density

(OD) values for the top two dilutions only. Relative amounts of IgG were calculated for the mean WT value by first creating a standard curve from the mean OD values of the KO serum dilution series, plotting OD vs. (1/dilution factor) and fitting the curve using a 6th degree polynomial (KaleidaGraph Mac v.3.6.4). Values of r2 were always very close to 1·0 for this fit (0·9999 for each). The KO dilution, as read from the calculated function, that gave the same OD as the 60-fold dilution of WT serum was designated as the relative amount after the 60-fold dilution Roscovitine research buy was taken into account. LN cells from infected mice were incubated with or without L. mexicana FTAg for 3 days and

then were stimulated Orotidine 5′-phosphate decarboxylase with phorbol myristate acetate (50 ng/mL), ionomycin (0·5 μg/mL), and Brefeldin A (10 μg/mL) for 4 h followed by staining for CD3ε (FITC-145–2C11), CD8α (PerCP-53–6·7), and CD25 (PE-PC61 5·3), fixed with 1% formaldehyde, and stained for intracellular IL-10 (APC-JES5-16E3) after permeabilization with 1% saponin. We used CD3+CD8− staining to determine CD4+ cells because of the relative downregulation of CD4 with antigen stimulation. Antibodies were from BD Biosciences, eBiosciences, or Caltag (CD25) and flow cytometry was acquired and analysed using a FACSCaliber flow cytometer with CellQuest Pro software (BD Biosciences). Isotype controls were used to identify positive vs. negative cell populations. Parasite quantification was performed for three randomly chosen mice per group, by limiting dilution as described previously (17). The limit of detection was 1·4 log = 25 parasites/lesion. Experiments were performed two to four times and representative data are shown. A two-tailed, unequal variance Student’s t-test was used to compare means of lesion sizes, log parasite burdens, cytokine production, IgG levels, mean fluorescence intensity, and FACS distributions from different groups of mice.

Glucocorticoids are the sole drugs of clinical interest for DMD p

Glucocorticoids are the sole drugs of clinical interest for DMD patients.

The mechanism for their beneficial action is not completely understood yet and may involve multiple effects, beside the classical anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive ones. These include an improvement of regeneration and an increased expression of utrophin, the homologue-surrogate for dystrophin [20–22]. However, the clinical use of glucocorticoids in DMD children is limited by severe side effects over long-term use; this compels the search of safer drugs or of strategies to limit their side selleck compound toxicity [23]. As for other complex disorders, one feasible strategy is to find compounds with relevant synergistic interactions: thus glucocorticoids in combination with a synergistic drug, may exert greater effects and/or have less side effects as a result of dose lowering. This rationale is reinforced by the anecdotal report that DMD patients often take various food and drink supplements or herbal remedies along with the classical glucocorticoids and it is important

to develop a more systematic preclinical evaluation of the outcome of drug combinations, both in vitro and in vivo[23,24]. For instance, the combination of deflazacort with the food supplement L-arginine has been reported to produce an improved functional benefit in dystrophic mdx selleck mice [25]. We therefore aimed to investigate the effects of a combined treatment of α-methyl-prednisolone (PDN), a clinically used glucocorticoid, with taurine. Taurine is a sulphonic amino acid normally present in skeletal muscle, able to modulate sarcolemmal excitability and calcium homeostasis [26]. It is used as a soft-drink supplement for its claimed ability to stimulate metabolism and provide energy. Little, if any, toxicity has been reported for taurine

at the generally assumed quantities [27]. Complex Vorinostat molecular weight fluctuations in tissue taurine content occur in mdx mouse in the different phases of muscle degeneration/regeneration, suggesting that the amino acid levels may be influenced by myofibre state and may in turn contribute to cellular and tissue dysfunction and/or repair; taurine increases seem to be generally associated with muscle regeneration and membrane stabilization [28–30]. In addition, taurine exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions [31], with potential beneficial outcomes on the pathology progression. We have previously found that taurine either applied in vitro or administered in vivo exerts beneficial effects on the altered excitation-contraction coupling mechanism of mdx myofibres [8,29]. Also the amino acid administration enhances mdx mouse strength impaired by a chronic exercise on treadmill, a protocol that is able to exacerbate in vivo and ex vivo markers of the murine pathology [2,8]. We have performed a chronic (4–8 weeks treatment) in vivo treatment with α-methyl-prednisolone (1 mg/kg i.p.