coli plant in the middle, the same plant will later be strongly inhibited by colonies it supports (Figure 9b). Even more illustrative is the interaction of the trio R, F, and E. coli. The R/E.coli chimera (normally the growth of R suppressed – Fig 1c, 6a) in the vicinity of F, the F will keep E. coli at bay (as in Thiazovivin order Fig. 9), which enables R to grow and, in turn, overgrow and suppress the F (Figure 6c). All such interactions may be considered as paradigmatic for much more complicated ecosystems of natural microbial consortia. Chimeras The dominance/subordination rules as observed above for colony encounters more or less fit also for chimeric growths;
i.e. they are not explainable from the growth rates of particular morphotypes involved, as observed in suspensions (Graph in Figure 6d). Which of the partners will BAY 80-6946 mw prevail will often depend by rock – paper – scissors rules – as described for single colonies. This is not surprising when we take into account that the chimera represents a model gnotobiotic
Anlotinib microbial ecosystem. The dense initial mixed suspension on the area of planting is not able to negotiate the rules how to build the final body: Compare to situation with planting axenic cultures, where even very dense suspension establish a full-fetched colony indistinguishable from that growing from a single colony. An exception is “chimeras” where one of partners is completely eliminated, and the “winner” continues
in building an ordinary colony (Table 2, Figure 6). Hence, in cases when all strains present in the mix survive, the planting area represents not the center of a colony, but a gnotobiotic ecosystem containing a nebula of very small colonies. An organized outgrowth from this navel will build the external circle composed of a single morphotype, or containing alternative wedges, each of a single morphotype. A chimera, thus, does not represent a body, but a consortium of bodies, even in simple gnotobiotic settings; only the clonal outgrowths into the free space may be compared to genuine colonies, albeit “one-dimensional”. It deserves attention that even closely related sister clones F-Fw and R-W will not cooperate in building a single colony upon chimeric planting: Especially conspicuous is the “chrysanthemum” appearance of R/W chimeras GNAT2 (Figure 1). The finding is not new. Korolev et al. working with a different pair of strains, argue that cells that happen to appear on the margin of the plant, will establish cooperating groups of this of that origin. They take over a corresponding part of the circumference and grow out of it as monoclonal, one-dimensional colonies – hence the “petals” of the chrysanthemum. Remarkably – in quoted studies as well as in our results – outgrowing “petals” grow to similar length, independently on the diameter of the planted navel.