coli plant in the middle, the same plant will later be strongly i

coli plant in the middle, the same plant will later be strongly inhibited by colonies it supports (Figure 9b). Even more illustrative is the interaction of the trio R, F, and E. coli. The R/E.coli chimera (normally the growth of R suppressed – Fig 1c, 6a) in the vicinity of F, the F will keep E. coli at bay (as in Thiazovivin order Fig. 9), which enables R to grow and, in turn, overgrow and suppress the F (Figure 6c). All such interactions may be considered as paradigmatic for much more complicated ecosystems of natural microbial consortia. Chimeras The dominance/subordination rules as observed above for colony encounters more or less fit also for chimeric growths;

i.e. they are not explainable from the growth rates of particular morphotypes involved, as observed in suspensions (Graph in Figure 6d). Which of the partners will BAY 80-6946 mw prevail will often depend by rock – paper – scissors rules – as described for single colonies. This is not surprising when we take into account that the chimera represents a model gnotobiotic

Anlotinib microbial ecosystem. The dense initial mixed suspension on the area of planting is not able to negotiate the rules how to build the final body: Compare to situation with planting axenic cultures, where even very dense suspension establish a full-fetched colony indistinguishable from that growing from a single colony. An exception is “chimeras” where one of partners is completely eliminated, and the “winner” continues

in building an ordinary colony (Table 2, Figure 6). Hence, in cases when all strains present in the mix survive, the planting area represents not the center of a colony, but a gnotobiotic ecosystem containing a nebula of very small colonies. An organized outgrowth from this navel will build the external circle composed of a single morphotype, or containing alternative wedges, each of a single morphotype. A chimera, thus, does not represent a body, but a consortium of bodies, even in simple gnotobiotic settings; only the clonal outgrowths into the free space may be compared to genuine colonies, albeit “one-dimensional”. It deserves attention that even closely related sister clones F-Fw and R-W will not cooperate in building a single colony upon chimeric planting: Especially conspicuous is the “chrysanthemum” appearance of R/W chimeras GNAT2 (Figure 1). The finding is not new. Korolev et al.[28] working with a different pair of strains, argue that cells that happen to appear on the margin of the plant, will establish cooperating groups of this of that origin. They take over a corresponding part of the circumference and grow out of it as monoclonal, one-dimensional colonies – hence the “petals” of the chrysanthemum. Remarkably – in quoted studies as well as in our results – outgrowing “petals” grow to similar length, independently on the diameter of the planted navel.

N Engl J Med 2003, 348:1737–1746 CrossRefPubMed 9 Kyaw MH, Lynfi

N Engl J Med 2003, 348:1737–1746.CrossRefPubMed 9. Kyaw MH, Lynfield R, Schaffner W, Craig AS, Hadler J, Reingold A, Thomas AR, Harrison LH, Bennett NM, Farley MM, Facklam RR, Jorgensen H, Besser J, Zell ER, Schuchat A, Whitney CG, Active Bacterial

Core Surveillance of the Emerging Infections Program Network: Effect of introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. N Engl J Med 2006, 354:1455–1463.CrossRefPubMed 10. Hicks LA, Harrison LH, Flannery B, Hadler JL, Schaffner W, Craig AS, Jackson D, Thomas A, Beall B, Pynfield R, Reingold A, Farley MM, Whitney CG, Active Bacterial Core Surveillance of the Emerging Infections Program learn more Network: Incidence of pneumococcal disease due to NCT-501 price non-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) serotypes in the United States during the era of widespread PCV7 vaccination, 1998–2004. J Infect Dis 2007, 196:1346–1354.CrossRefPubMed 11. Ardanuy C, Tubau F, Pallares R, Calatayud L, Ángeles-Domínguez M, Rolo D, Grau I, Martín R, Liñares J: Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease among adult patients in Barcelona before and after pediatric 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction, 1997–2007. Clin Infect Dis 2009, 48:57–64.CrossRefPubMed 12. Muñoz-Almagro C, Jordan I, Gene A, Latorre C, Garcia-Garcia JJ, Pallares R: Emergence of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by nonvaccine serotypes in the era of 7-valent

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DE: Diversity of PspA: Mosaic genes and evidence for past recombination in Streptococus pneumoniae. Infect Immun 2000, 68:5889–5900.CrossRefPubMed 17. Jedrzejas MJ: Pneumococcal virulence factors: structure and function. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2001, 65:187–207.CrossRefPubMed 18. McDaniel LS, Sheffield JS, Delucchi P, Briles DE: PspA, a surface protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae , is capable of eliciting protection against pneumococci of more than one capsular type. Infect Immun 1991, 59:222–228.PubMed 19. Briles DE, Tart RC, Swiatlo E, Dillard JP, Smith P, Benton KA, Ralph BA, Brooks-Walter A, Crain MJ, Hollingshead SK, McDaniel LS: Pneumococcal diversity: considerations for new vaccine strategies with emphasis on pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA).


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Large resistance switching ratio is expected by choosing a metal

Large resistance switching ratio is expected by choosing a metal with lower oxidation Gibbs free energy as an electrode material and using the interface resistance component due to metal oxide layer in the PCMO-based devices. Acknowledgements This work was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research (no. 23656215) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). References 1. Liu SQ, Wu NJ, Ignatiev A: Electric-pulse-induced reversible resistance change effect in magnetoresistive films. Appl Phys Lett 2000, 76:2749–2751.CrossRef 2. Zhuang WW, Pan W, Ulrich Selleckchem ACP-196 BD, Lee JJ, Stecker L, Burnaster A, Evans DR, Hsu ST, Tajiri M, Shimaoka A, Inoue K, Naka T, Awaya N, Sakiyama K, Wang Y,

Liu S, Wu NJ, Ignatiev A: Novell colossal magnetoresistive thin film nonvolatile resistance random access memory (RRAM). In Technical Digest of the IEDM’02: International Electron Device Meeting 2002: December 8–11 2002; San Francisco. Piscataway: Electronic Devices Society of IEEE; 4SC-202 in vivo 2002:193–196. 3. Fujimoto M, Koyama H, Kobayashi S, Tamai Y, Awaya N, Nishi Y, Suzuki T: Resistivity and resistive switching properties of Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3

thin films. Appl Phys Lett 2006, 89:243504.CrossRef 4. Liu X, Biju KP, Bourim EM, Park S, Lee W, Lee D, Seo K, Hwang H: Filament-type resistive switching in homogeneous bi-layer Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 thin film memory devices. Electrochem Solid-State Lett 2011, 14:H9-H12.CrossRef 5. Baikalov A, Wang YQ, Shen B, Lorenz B, Tsui S, Sun YY, Xue YY, Chu CW: Field-driven hysteretic and reversible resistive NVP-LDE225 switch at the Ag–Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 interface. Appl Phys Lett 2003, 83:957–959.CrossRef 6. Nian YB, Strozier J, Wu NJ, Chen X, Ignatiev A: Evidence for an oxygen diffusion model for the electric pulse induced resistance change effect in transition-metal oxides.

Phys Rev Lett 2007, 98:146403.CrossRef 7. Sawa A, Fujii T, Kawasaki M, Tokura Y: Hysteretic current–voltage characteristics and resistance switching at a rectifying Ti/Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 Acyl CoA dehydrogenase interface. Appl Phys Lett 2004, 85:4073–4075.CrossRef 8. Odagawa A, Sato H, Inoue IH, Akoh H, Kawasaki M, Tokura Y, Kanno T, Adachi H: Colossal electroresistance of a Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 thin film at room temperature. Phys Rev B 2004, 70:224403.CrossRef 9. Odagawa A, Kanno T, Adachi H: Transient response during resistance switching in Ag/Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3/Pt thin films. J Appl Phys 2006, 99:016101.CrossRef 10. Das N, Tsui S, Xue YY, Wang YQ, Chu CW: Electric-field-induced submicrosecond resistive switching. Phys Rev B 2008, 78:235418.CrossRef 11. Harada T, Ohkubo I, Tsubouchi K, Kumigashira H, Ohnishi T, Lippmaa M, Matsumoto Y, Koinuma H, Oshima M: Trap-controlled space-charge-limited current mechanism in resistance switching at Al/Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 interface. Appl Phys Lett 2008, 92:222113.CrossRef 12. Chang W-Y, Liao J-H, Lo Y-S, Wu T-B: Resistive switching characteristics in Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 thin films on LaNiO3-electrodized Si substrate.

Treatment with cinnamic acid efficiently decreased HT-144 melanom

Treatment with cinnamic acid efficiently decreased HT-144 melanoma cell viability in culture at a concentration of 3.2 mM. Our study MLN2238 purchase demonstrates that the

antiproliferative activity of the drug is associated with caspase 9 activation, but not p53 phosphorylation, after 24 h treatment. We showed that HT-144 cells presented phospho-cytokeratin 18 and that the M30 staining was efficient in detecting early apoptosis in this cell line. Cinnamic acid showed genotoxic potential at both tested concentrations, inducing the formation of micronucleated cells. This activity was, at least in part, a consequence of cytoskeletal disorganization. Thus, despite the genotoxic effects observed, the anti-proliferative activity of cinnamic acid at a concentration of 3.2 mM in melanoma cells suggests its potential use as an adjuvant in melanoma therapy. Acknowledgements We would like to thank Dr. Estela M. A. F. Bevilacqua and Dr. Ruy Jaeger for allowing us to use their ELISA plate readers, MSc. Roberto Cabado for the assistance in the performance of the confocal microscope and MSc. Adam A. Martens for the assistance with the western BI 2536 datasheet blotting. We also thank Dr. Gilberto A. Paula, Daniel D. Barreto, Paula C. G. Melo and Thiago F. Costa for helping with statistical analysis and FAPESP, CNPq

and CAPES for financial support. References EX 527 research buy 1. Jemal A, Siegel R, Xu J, Ward E: Cancer statistics, 2010. CA Cancer J Clin 2010,60(5):277–300.PubMedCrossRef 2. Soengas MS, Lowe SW: Apoptosis and melanoma chemoresistance. Oncogene 2003,22(20):3138–3151.PubMedCrossRef 3. Singh DK, Lippman SM: Cancer

chemoprevention. Part 1: Retinoids and carotenoids and other classic antioxidants. Oncol (Williston Park) 1998,12(11):1643–1653. 1657–1648; Interleukin-2 receptor discussion 1659–1660 4. Singh DK, Lippman SM: Cancer chemoprevention. Part 2: Hormones, nonclassic antioxidant natural agents, NSAIDs, and other agents. Oncol (Williston Park) 1998,12(12):1787–1800. discussion 1802, 1805 5. Liu L, Hudgins WR, Shack S, Yin MQ, Samid D: Cinnamic acid: a natural product with potential use in cancer intervention. Int J Cancer 1995,62(3):345–350.PubMedCrossRef 6. Birt DF, Pelling JC, Nair S, Lepley D: Diet intervention for modifying cancer risk. Prog Clin Biol Res 1996, 395:223–234.PubMed 7. Conney AH, Lou YR, Xie JG, Osawa T, Newmark HL, Liu Y, Chang RL, Huang MT: Some perspectives on dietary inhibition of carcinogenesis: studies with curcumin and tea. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1997,216(2):234–245.PubMed 8. Lee YJ, Kuo HC, Chu CY, Wang CJ, Lin WC, Tseng TH: Involvement of tumor suppressor protein p53 and p38 MAPK in caffeic acid phenethyl ester-induced apoptosis of C6 glioma cells. Biochem Pharmacol 2003,66(12):2281–2289.PubMedCrossRef 9. Ferguson LR, Philpott M, Karunasinghe N: Dietary cancer and prevention using antimutagens. Toxicology 2004,198(1–3):147–159.PubMedCrossRef 10.

2007), predominating underestimation (Burdorf and Laan 1991), and

2007), predominating c-Met inhibitor underestimation (Burdorf and Laan 1991), and deviations in both directions in one sample (Jensen et al. 2000). Thus, the assessment behaviour may depend on the wording of the questionnaire, the study sample, or the exposure level (Barrero et al. 2009). As this study indicates, exposure level seems to have an enormous impact on the validity of self-reported knee exposure. In both surveys, selleck chemicals llc differences between reported and recorded durations of knee postures were small at a low exposure level but increased with increasing

exposure. Participants were able both to report the absence of knee postures exactly and to assess short time exposure, especially by comparing absolute values (see Bland–Altman plots) rather than relative ones. On the other hand, high-exposed subjects were misjudging their amount of knee loading by far. Confirming this effect, a study on the duration of computer use of 87 computer workers reports comparable assessment behaviour for low- and high-exposed subjects (Heinrich et al. 2004). But in contrast, another study on that topic gives an opposite AMN-107 clinical trial result: agreement between self-reported and observed duration of computer

use of 572 office workers improved with increasing exposure (IJmker et al. 2008). This effect might be explained by the use of categorical data (seven response categories for hours of computer use per day), while we used continuous data for assessment in our study. With respect to occupational knee load, only one of the cited studies took assessment behaviour of low- and high-exposed subjects into consideration (Klußmann et al. 2010). In a sub-analysis of this study, high-exposed workers showed a better ability to assess their exposure than low-exposed. However, study sample was rather small (n = 25) and deviations between mafosfamide both methods were only reported as relative differences instead of absolute numbers;

thus, the effect may be overestimated. Impact of knee disorders on the validity of self-reports The present study gave no hint of a differential misclassification of exposure due to self-reported knee complaints. Participants both with and without such complaints showed comparable assessment behaviour. This result seems to be contrary to studies reporting differential misclassifications caused by several forms of musculoskeletal complaints and risk factors such as low back pain and manual material handling (Wiktorin et al. 1993), neck-shoulder complaints and awkward postures of head, back and arms (Hansson et al. 2001), or upper limb complaints, and physical activity (Balogh et al. 2004). In terms of occupational kneeling or squatting, only a few studies considered the impact of musculoskeletal disorders on the assessment behaviour. Moreover, if complaints were taken into account, it was not about knee complaints. Burdorf and Laan (1991) found no impact of low back pain or shoulder pain on self-reported kneeling or squatting of mechanical repairmen.

Matteo Blood Medicine ≤2 8/4 >2 >32 >8 >64 >64/4 >16 >32 >16 ≤1 ≤

Matteo Blood Medicine ≤2 8/4 >2 >32 >8 >64 >64/4 >16 >32 >16 ≤1 ≤1 0.5-1.0 AmpC, OXA-90, OXA-10 SMAL 6 S. Matteo Sputum Medicine ≤2 8/4 >2 >32 >8 >64 >64/4 >16 >32 >16 ≤1 ≤1 0.5-1.0 AmpC, OXA-90, OXA-10 SMAL 2 S. Matteo Urine Medicine 4 / >2 >32 >8 >64 >64/4 >16 >16 / 2 ≤1 0.5-1.0 AmpC, OXA-90, OXA-10 SMAL 6 S. Matteo Soft tissue swab Medicine 4 8/4 >2 >32 >8 >64 >64/4 >16 >16 >16 ≤1 ≤1 0.5-1.0 AmpC, OXA-90, OXA-10 SMAL, SMAL 2, 3 S. Matteo click here Bronchoaspirate Medicine / 8/4

>2 >32 >8 >64 >64/4 >16 >16 >16 ≤1 ≤1 0.5-1.0 AmpC, OXA-90, OXA-10 SMAL, SMAL 3 3 S. Matteo Urine Surgery 4 / >2 >32 >8 >64 >64/4 >16 >16 / 2 ≤1 0.5-1.0 AmpC, OXA-90, OXA-10 SMAL 8 S. Matteo Wound swab Surgery ≤2 8/4 >2 >32 >8 >64 >64/4 >16 >16 >16 ≤1 ≤1 0.5-1.0 AmpC, OXA-90, OXA-10 SMAL 8 S. Matteo Blood Surgery / / >2 >32

>8 >64 >64/4 >16 >16 / 2 ≤1 0.5-1.0 AmpC, OXA-90, OXA-10 SMAL, SMAL 1 1 S. Matteo Pus Surgery ≤2 8/4 >2 >32 >8 >64 >64/4 >16 >16 >16 ≤1 ≤1 1 AmpC, OXA-90, OXA-10 SMAL 1 S. Matteo Sputum Surgery / 4/2 >2 >32 >8 >64 64/4 >16 >16 >16 ≤1 ≤1 1 AmpC, OXA-90, OXA-10 SMAL 1 S. Matteo Soft tissue swab LTCU ≤2 / >2 >32 >8 >64 64/4 >16 >16 >16 ≤1 ≤1 1 AmpC, OXA-90, OXA-10 SMAL 1 S. Matteo Sputum LTCU / / >2 >32 >8 >64 64/4 >16 >16 >16 2 ≤1 1 AmpC, OXA-90, OXA-10 SMAL 1 S. Matteo Blood LTCU / / >2 32 >8 >64 64/4 >16 >16 >16 ≤1 ≤1 1 AmpC, OXA-90, OXA-10 SMAL 2 S. Matteo Soft tissue VX-680 swab Dermatology ≤2 / >2 >32 >8 >64 >64/4 >16 >16 >16 ≤1 ≤1 0.5-1 AmpC, OXA-90, OXA-10 SMAL 1 S. Matteo Pus Dermatology ≤2 8/4 >2 >32 >8 >64 >64/4 >16 >16 >16 ≤1 ≤ 1 AmpC, OXA-90, OXA-10 SMAL 2 S. Matteo Wound swab Ambulatory / / >2 >32 >8 >64 >64/4 >16 >16 >16 4 2 2 AmpC, OXA-90, OXA-10 SMAL 1 S. Matteo Urine Ambulatory ≤2 / >2 >32 >8 >64 >64/4 >16 >16 / ≤1 ≤1 1

AmpC, OXA-90, OXA-10 SMAL 2 S. Matteo Wound swab STK38 Urology ≤2 / >2 >32 >8 >64 >64/4 >16 >16 >16 ≤1 ≤1 0.5 AmpC, OXA-90, OXA-10 SMAL 2 S. Matteo Urine Nephrology / / >2 >32 >16 >64 >64/4 >16 >16 / ≤1 ≤1 1 AmpC, OXA-90, OXA-10 SMAL 1 S. Matteo Blood Haematology 8 / >2 >32 >8 >64 >64/4 >16 >16 16 ≤1 ≤1 1 AmpC, OXA-90, OXA-10 SMAL 1 S. Maugeri Bronchoaspirate PRU 8 / >2 >32 >8 >64 >64/4 >16 >16 / ≤1 ≤1 1 AmpC, OXA-90, OXA-10 SMAL 7 S.

1 30 7 Number of chronic diseases  0 57 9 73 8  1 24 6 19 2  2 11

1 30.7 Number of chronic diseases  0 57.9 73.8  1 24.6 19.2  2 11.8 5.2  3 or more 5.8 1.8 Chronic diseases  Arthrosis, arthritis 31.4 16.4  Chronic anxiety

or depression 6.5 3.9  Chronic bronchitis 5.5 2.9  Thyroid diseases 4.5 4.2  Other cardiac diseases 4.0 1.6  Asthma 3.5 2.5  Myocardial infarction 3.4 1.2  Malignant tumors 2.5 0.7  Cataract 1.7 0.7  Diseases of the nervous system 1.6 0.4  Angina pectoris 1.5 0.7  Serious skin diseases 1.4 1.3  Stroke, cerebral hemorrhage 1.2 0.4  Cirrhosis 0.6 0.2 The following provides the updated, corrected version of Table 1. The authors apologize for any inconvenience this mistake may have caused.”
“Introduction Although selleck chemicals llc there is growing evidence that cultural activities in general may promote health (Cuypers et al. 2011; Cox et al. 2010; Clift et al. 2009; Bygren et al. 1996) there are many unanswered questions regarding possibly beneficial health effects of cultural

GDC-0994 order activities organised through work. In a random trial Bygren et al. (2009a) have shown that an offer of a cultural activity (self-selected from a list of possible activities) once a week for medical staff lasting for 2 months may have beneficial effects on mental health during this period. However, the kinds of cultural activities offered and the way in which such activities are organised may be crucial for the effects. In a study by our group (Theorell et al. 2009) it was shown that among employees who were offered cultural activities once a week for 3 months, those who were the most enthusiastic participants were likely to benefit the most with regard to health but also that social climate (social support) may have been disturbed for these people (a jealousy effect among non-participants?). The conclusion was that cultural activities at work should preferably be organised in such a way that all employees

are offered participation and that the majority of employees should be able to benefit. Therefore, it is not known whether cultural activities organised through work are beneficial for Rucaparib mw employee health or not. The present study was performed in order to throw light on this question. That regular cultural activities in managers could have important effects on employee health has been shown in a recently published randomised intervention study from our group (Romanowska et al. 2011). A year-long art-based manager education programme was compared with an accepted educational programme designed for improvement of psychosocial competence in managers. The managers themselves as well as their employees were followed from start during the process up to 18 months after start (and half a year after the end of the respective programmes). The results showed that the art-based programme for the managers had more beneficial effects on employee health than the alternative after 18 months, both on standard scores for psychological health and on a the blood PU-H71 order concentration of a regenerative hormone (DHEA-s).

Accession numbers (Acc n°) and

Accession numbers (Acc. n°) and identities are given. Specificity of designed oligonucleotides The specificity of the 95 designed oligonucleotides (Additional file 3) was evaluated using PCR amplicons that were generated from sporocarp check details tissues. PCR amplicons mainly hybridised to the phylochip

oligonucleotides according to the expected patterns (Figure 1), and the patterns were highly reproducible in the replications conducted with each of the templates. The hybridisation signal intensities ranged from -22 (background value) to 44,835 units. Ninety-nine percent of the oligonucleotides tested generated positive hybridisation signals with their matching ITS. Cross-hybridisations

LY333531 concentration were mainly observed within the Cortinarius and Lactarius species complex. Among the Boletaceae species, a few cross-hybridisations were observed between the species that belonged to the Boletus and Xerocomus genera. Within the Amanita, Russula or Tricholoma genus, rare cross-selleck inhibitor Reactions occurred between single sequences from closely related species. Figure 1 Hybridisation reactions of the species-specific fungal oligonucleotides. Reactions were tested by hybridising known fungal ITS pools to the phylochip. Vertical line indicates the fungal species used in the fungal ITS pools (hybridised probes), and the horizontal lines list the species-specific oligonucleotides. Grey boxes denote the positive hybridisation signals of an oligonucleotide obtained after threshold subtraction. The accompanying Tryptophan synthase tree showing the phylogenetic relationship between tested fungal species was produced by the MEGAN programme.

The size of the circle beside the genus name indicates the number of species of this genus used in the cross-hybridisation test. Identification of ECM species in root samples using phylochip The ITS amplicons that were obtained from the two different environmental root samples were labelled and hybridised to the phylochips. The phylochip analysis confirmed the presence of most of the ECM fungi that were detected with the morphotyping, with the ITS sequencing of individual ECM tips, and with the ITS clone library approaches that were obtained using the same PCR products (Table 2). The exceptions included the following fungal species for which corresponding oligonucleotides on the phylochips were lacking: Pezizales sp, Atheliaceae (Piloderma) sp, Sebacina sp, Sebacinaceae sp, and unknown endophytic species.

Principal attention was paid to the phase and structural analyses

Principal attention was paid to the phase and structural analyses of Cu NPs which are formed at the initial stages of deposition. These NPs cannot be studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) due to their extremely small sizes and trace amount. Such analysis was performed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) which allowed scanning of the sample surface with a 2-nm resolution up to a 100-nm depth. It is necessary to note that the Cu lattice cell is similar to that of most metals usually deposited by immersion technique on bulk Si and PS (Ag, Ni, Au, Pd, and Pt). We suppose that the NPs of

such metals grow on bulk Si and PS similarly with Cu NPs, and our findings are important to researchers with close interests in the metallization of PS by immersion deposition. Methods Antimony-doped 100-mm monocrystalline silicon BIBW2992 solubility dmso wafers of (100) and (111) orientations and 0.01-Ω·cm resistivity were used as initial substrates. Chemical cleaning of the Si wafers was performed for 10 min with a hot (75°C) solution Ricolinostat molecular weight of NH4OH, H2O2 and H2O mixed in a volume ratio of 1:1:4. After that, the wafers were AZD1390 price rinsed in deionized water and dried by centrifugation. The wafers were then cut into a number of rectangular samples of 9 cm2 area. Some of samples were used to deposit copper on the surface of original bulk Si for comparative study with PS. Just before

PS formation or immersion deposition of copper, each experimental sample was etched in 5% HF solution for 30 s to remove the native oxide. Immediately after oxide removal, the Si sample was placed in an electrolytic cell made of Teflon. The active opening of the cell had a round shape and an area of 3 cm2. Uniform PS layers were formed by electrochemical anodizing of silicon samples in a solution of HF (45%), H2O, and (СН3)2СНОН mixed

in a 1:3:1 volume ratio. A spectrally pure graphite disk was used as contact electrode to the back side of the samples during Lumacaftor nmr the electrochemical treatment. Platinum spiral wire was used as cathode electrode. Anodizing was performed at a current density of 60 mA/cm2 for 20 s. After PS formation, the HF solution was removed, and the electrolytic cell was thoroughly rinsed in (СН3)2СНОН to remove products of the reactions from the pores. To perform Cu deposition, we filled the cell containing Si or PS/Si samples with aqueous solution of 0.025 M CuSO4·5H2O and 0.005 M HF for different time periods. After that, the solution was poured out, and the cell was rinsed with (СН3)2СНОН. The sample was then taken of the cell and dried by flow of hot air at 40°C for 30 s. OCP measurements were carried out using the Ag/AgCl reference electrode filled with saturated KCl solution. The reference electrode was immersed into a small bath filled with the solution for Cu deposition.