Dogs are a valuable preclinical

Dogs are a valuable preclinical Veliparib cost model for transplantation studies, including adoptive immunotherapy with donor lymphocytes. Conversion of mixed-haematological-chimerism into complete-donor-chimerism thereby simulate efficacy of transplantation [21, 72, 73]. In conclusion, after establishing the implements for the generation of cUTY-specific CTLs, we are able to use this mixed-chimerism model as an in vivo model for the treatment of leukemic relapse with UTY-specific CTLs.

In up to 50% of the females we could induce a UTY-specific reaction (W248) in male-DLA-identical animals in vitro and in vivo. This is a very promising starting point for exploitation of our preclinical canine-model for leukemia treatment in humans: Ex vivo-generated UTY-specific-female-donor CTLs using UTY-derived-peptide-loaded DCs will be transfused to male-recipients in the course of DLT after transplantation in order to prevent or cure AML-relapse. We thank the people from the animal facility (Helmholtz Center Munich), especially M. Hagemann, S. Schlink and V. Terkowski for taking care of the dogs. We also thank I. Laaser and J. Adamski (Helmholtz Center Munich, Neuherberg) for providing the canine-UTY-mRNA sequence. Supports: DLR-grant 01GU0516 (D. Bund); Deutsche-José-Carreras-Stiftung-e.V. (H.J. Kolb). All authors concur with the manuscript

submission and have no financial/commercial conflict of interest to disclose. “
“The dendritic cell (DC) lineage is remarkably heterogeneous. FK506 purchase It has been postulated that specialized DC subsets have evolved in order to select and support Lonafarnib supplier the multitude of possible T cell differentiation pathways. However, defining the function of individual

DC subsets has proven remarkably difficult, and DC subset control of key T cell fates such as tolerance, T helper cell commitment and regulatory T cell induction is still not well understood. While the difficulty in assigning unique functions to particular DC subsets may be due to sharing of functions, it may also reflect a lack of appropriate physiological in-vivo models for studying DC function. In this paper we review the limitations associated with many of the current DC models and highlight some of the underlying difficulties involved in studying the function of murine DC subsets. Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells critically required for the initiation of T cell responses. Some DC subsets sample antigens in peripheral tissues and transport them to the lymph node (LN), where DCs come into contact with recirculating naive T cells. Other DC subsets are strategically positioned within secondary lymphoid organs to capture blood-borne antigens and present them to T cells (reviewed in [1]).

In contrast, scores for vascular injury (v, cv) or glomerular inj

In contrast, scores for vascular injury (v, cv) or glomerular injury (g, cg) did not differ significantly between the two groups (Table 2). The proportion of steroid-resistant ATCMR was significantly higher in the IL-17 high group (P = 0·00). In the FOXP3 high group, only 7% (2/30) did not respond to steroid pulse therapy. In contrast, 46% (12/26) were resistant to steroid pulse therapy in the IL-17 group (Fig. 2a). Out of two steroid-resistant ATCMR cases in the FOXP3 high group, one did not recover completely after ATG therapy; hence the overall incomplete recovery rate was 4% (1/30). In the IL-17 high group, eight patients did not recover completely after OKT3 (n = 2) or ATG

(n = 10), hence the overall incomplete recovery rate was 31% (P = 0·01) (Fig. 2b). Recurrence of ATCMR within 6 months after first ATCMR episode was also more frequent in the IL-17 high Osimertinib nmr group (57% (13/23) versus 28% (8/29), P = 0·03) (Fig. 2c). In the comparison of long-term allograft outcomes after ATCMR episode, the FOXP3 high group was significantly superior to the IL-17 high group (P = 0·00). The 1-year and 5-year graft survival rates were 90% and 85%, respectively, in the FOXP3 high group, but they were only 54% and 38%, respectively, in the

IL-17 high group (Fig. 2d). To evaluate whether the Small molecule library supplier FOXP3/IL-17 ratio is a significant prognostic factor for allograft outcome, we performed univariate and multivariate analysis. Univariate analysis revealed that late-onset ATCMR, development of IF/TA, elevated serum creatinine at biopsy, positive C4d, and low Log (FOXP3/IL-17) were significant risk factors for allograft failure. Multivariate analysis using the Cox regression hazard model showed that elevated serum creatinine at biopsy, development of IF/TA, and low Log (FOXP3/IL-17) were independent risk factors for allograft failure (Table 3). Twenty-seven repeat ATCMR developed in 21 patients. The interval between the first rejection and the second rejection was 8·2 ± 10·4 months. Out of them, 15 allograft tissues

from Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin 13 patients were available for immunohistochemistry evaluation. We compared the FOXP3/IL-17 ratio, allograft function at biopsy, and the severity of tissue injury between the first rejection and the repeat rejection in those 13 patients. The FOXP3/IL-17 ratio significantly decreased in the repeat rejection compared with the first rejection (Log FOXP3/IL-17, 0·50 ± 0·41 versus 0·12 ± 0·58, P = 0·04) (Fig. 3). The severity of interstitial fibrosis (ci score, 0·38 ± 0·50 versus 1·07 ± 0·88, P = 0·04) and tubular atrophy (ct score, 0·38 ± 0·51 versus 1·07 ± 0·88, P = 0·02) significantly increased in the repeat ATCMR. In contrast, allograft function (serum creatinine, 2·5 ± 1·2 mg/dl versus 2·9 ± 1·8 mg/dl, P = 0·47), the severity of interstitial infiltration (i score, 1·62 ± 0·96 versus 1·92 ± 0·64, P = 0·34) and tubulitis (t score, 1·92 ± 0·76 versus 2·15 ± 0·99, P = 0·50) did not change significantly.

Fusion of the limiting MVB endosomal membrane with the plasma mem

Fusion of the limiting MVB endosomal membrane with the plasma membrane releases the intraluminal vesicles into the extracellular environment,[14] whereafter they are known as exosomes (Fig. 1). The fusion of MVB with the plasma membrane and subsequent release of exosomes is a constitutive process in most cell types,[15] although it is also this website subject to regulation by a variety of stimuli. Exosome release from MVB has been demonstrated to be regulated by endosomal and vesicular trafficking proteins,[16, 17] Rab small GTPase family members,[18, 19] ceramide[20] and calcium.[18] Exosomes are emerging as a part of the cellular response to a range of different stresses.

Increased exosome release has been reported in hypoxia,[21] acidic pH[22], heat shock[23] and oxidative stress.[24] Significantly, p53 has been implicated in regulating exosome release,[25] further providing support to the idea that exosomes may act as a intercellular signals to communicate during cellular stress. Exosome isolation protocols vary depending on the biological fluid of origin, but generally involve serial centrifugation at low speed, followed by ultracentrifugation at 100 000 g to pellet exosomes.[26, 27] Alternatively, exosomes can be isolated by immunocapture or size exclusion methods.[26, 28] Filtration and microfluidics

approaches have been developed,[29, 30] but have yet to be widely adopted. Recently, a proprietary method of exosome isolation called ExoquickTM (System Biosciences, Mountain View, MI-503 mouse California, USA) has been made commercially available.[31] Exosomes have densities between 1.10–1.21 g/mL,

and this characteristic is often exploited for further purification, either by sucrose density gradients or flotation on sucrose/deuterium oxide cushion.[26, 27, 32] Velocity gradients can also be used, Progesterone especially in order to distinguish between viral and exosomal vesicles.[33, 34] A comparison of different methods showed that circulating exosomes isolated by ExoquickTM precipitation produce exosomal mRNA and miRNA with greater purity and quantity than ultracentrifugation.[35] The morphology and size of exosomes were first characterized by electron microscopy (see Fig. 2), and further characterization of exosomes has traditionally relied upon biochemical methods such as immunoblotting, mass spectrometry, 2-DIGE and microarrays, although atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering technologies have also been used. The ExoCarta and vesiclepedia databases provide a comprehensive record of exosomal protein, RNA and lipid profiles ([36] Detection and quantification of exosomes currently relies upon indirect methods such as immunoblotting of exosomal proteins, activity of exosomal enzymes,[37, 38] exosomal protein quantification,[23] fluorescent labelling of exosomes[39, 40] or antibody-specific bead-coupled approaches.

g changes in the profile of secreted cytokines

We found

g. changes in the profile of secreted cytokines.

We found up-regulation of intestinal FoxP3 in children with untreated CD in association with the enhanced IL-17 immunity. It has been suggested that FoxP3-expressing Tregs show plasticity and may develop into Th17 cells in the tissue inflammation [13–15]. In our study, the activation of intestinal FoxP3, similar to IL-17 immunity, selleck screening library seems to occur only in the late phase of disease progression, and up-regulation of FoxP3 was not present in potential CD. Treatment with a strict GFD normalized the expression of both FoxP3 and IL-17. The expression of RORc mRNA did not correlate with IL-17 mRNA, which instead correlated positively with FoxP3 mRNA in CD. This could be an indicator of plasticity reported between Tregs and Th17 cells [13–15]. The IL-1β and IL-6 cytokine environment supports the conversion from FoxP3-expressing Tregs to IL-17-secreting cells. In our study a remarkably high secretion of both IL-1β and IL-6 was demonstrated Everolimus datasheet in the active CD mucosa. Thus, on one hand the mucosal cytokine environment in CD supports IL-17 differentiation and on the other hand it may lead to impaired suppressive function of FoxP3-expressing cells [26]. A recent study suggested that Th17 cell clones also may change their phenotype when Carnitine dehydrogenase RORc is down-regulated

and FoxP3 up-regulated upon repeated

TCR engagement [27]. This kind of plasticity might explain the low RORc mRNA expression in association with IL-17 and FoxP3 expression demonstrated in the mucosa of untreated CD. To evaluate the role of IL-17 in the induction of epithelial cell apoptosis and villous atrophy [28], we treated the epithelial cell line, CaCo-2, with IL-17 to study the induction of apoptosis. CaCo-2 cells showed expression of IL-17RA, and IL-17 potentiated the expression of the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2. The expression of the apoptotic signalling gene, BAX, decreased slightly. These findings suggest that IL-17 is not contributing to the apoptosis of enterocytes. On the contrary, it may instead activate protective anti-apoptotic mechanisms in epithelial cells. The dualistic role of IL-17 immunity in tissue inflammation has been reported to depend at least partly on the response of the target tissue on IL-17. In a murine model of autoimmune diabetes, the induction of IL-17 immunity contributed to the progression of autoimmune diabetes during the effector phase of the disease [29] and IL-17 also induced apoptotic mechanisms in human islet cells [21]. Conversely, a recent study showed that a commensal bacteria strain which mediated protection from autoimmune diabetes in a rodent model caused induction of mucosal IL-17 immunity [30].

(reviewed in ref 35) It is therefore possible that IL-10, produc

(reviewed in ref. 35) It is therefore possible that IL-10, produced by a small number of skin-resident Treg cells, mediates potent anti-inflammatory effects by serving to limit the amplification of inflammatory networks. With this in mind it is

therefore tempting to speculate that in our model, IL-10 produced by skin-resident Treg cells, acts to suppress the accumulation and survival of neutrophils at the site of antigenic challenge thereby reducing the overall immunogenicity of the antigen. These findings have implications for vaccine efficacy because they indicate that even partial removal of Treg cells will alter vaccine immunogenicity through limiting the influence of the cells on both innate and adaptive immune responses. This work was supported by an MRC non-clinical

Buparlisib senior fellowship (G117/488), an MRC collaboration grant (G0500617) and project grants from the AICR (05-028) and the Wellcome Trust (067046). The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest. “
“Membrane microdomains play an important role in the regulation of natural killer (NK) cell activities. These cholesterol-rich membrane domains are enriched at the activating immunological synapse and several activating NK-cell receptors are known to localize to membrane microdomains upon Epacadostat mw receptor engagement. In contrast, inhibitory receptors do not localize in these specialized membrane domains. In addition, the functional competence of educated NK cells correlates with a confinement of activating receptors in membrane microdomains. However, the molecular basis for this confinement is unknown. Here we investigate the structural requirements for the recruitment of the human activating NK-cell receptors NKG2D and 2B4 to detergent-resistant membrane fractions in the murine BA/F3 cell line an in the human NK-cell line NKL. This stimulation-dependent recruitment occurred

independently of the intracellular domains of the receptors. However, either interfering with the association between NKG2D and DAP10, or mutating the transmembrane region of 2B4 impacted the recruitment of the receptors to detergent-resistant about membrane fractions and modulated the function of 2B4 in NK cells. Our data suggest a potential interaction between the transmembrane region of NK-cell receptors and membrane lipids as a molecular mechanism involved in determining the membrane confinement of activating NK-cell receptors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved “
“Immunoinflammatory-mediated demyelination, the main pathological feature of multiple sclerosis (MS), is regularly accompanied by neurodegenerative processes, mostly in the form of axonal degeneration, which could be initiated by glutamate excitotoxicity. In the current study, the relationship between Th17-mediated inflammatory and excitotoxic events was investigated during an active phase of MS.

Microglia and astrocytes are activated following tissue injury or

Microglia and astrocytes are activated following tissue injury or inflammation and have been reported to be both necessary

and sufficient for enhanced nociception. Blood-borne monocytes/macrophages can infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) and differentiate into microglia resulting in hypersensitivity and chronic pain. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion of the proinflammatory CD14+CD16+ monocytes as well as plasma cytokine levels in blood from CRPS Autophagy inhibitor manufacturer patients compared to age- and gender-matched healthy control individuals. Forty-six subjects (25 CRPS, 21 controls) were recruited for this study. The percentage of monocytes, T, B or natural killer (NK) cells did not differ between CRPS and controls. However, Palbociclib research buy the percentage of the CD14+CD16+ monocyte/macrophage subgroup was elevated significantly (P < 0·01) in CRPS compared to controls. Individuals with high percentage of CD14+CD16+ demonstrated significantly lower (P < 0·05) plasma levels on the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. Our data cannot determine whether CD14+CD16+ monocytes became elevated prior

to or after developing CRPS. In either case, the elevation of blood proinflammatoty monocytes prior to the initiating event may predispose individuals for developing the syndrome whereas the elevation of blood proinflammatory monocytes following the development of CRPS may be relevant for its maintenance. Further evaluation of the role the immune system plays in the pathogenesis of CRPS may aid in elucidating disease mechanisms as well as the development of novel therapies for its treatment. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a severe chronic pain disorder that often follows an injury to peripheral nerves [1,2]. CRPS demonstrates a 3:1 female to male preponderance and is characterized by pain that is out of proportion to the initial injury and does not respect a nerve or root distribution [3,4]. The signs and symptoms of CRPS cluster into four categories: (1) abnormalities in pain processing; (2) skin colour and temperature

changes; (3) sudomotor abnormalities and oedema; and (4) motor dysfunction and trophic changes [5,6]. Although the pathophysiology of CRPS is not completely understood, there is evidence demonstrating that neurogenic inflammation plays a significant role [7,8]. L-NAME HCl Furthermore, neuroinflammation and neuroimmune activation have been shown to act in concert in persistent pain states [9]. Following injury, mast cells, neutrophils and macrophages are recruited to the involved area and can invade the nerve through a disrupted blood–nerve barrier [10,11]. These cells produce a variety of proinflammatory cytokines that have been implicated in the generation of neuropathic pain either by direct sensitization of nociceptors or indirectly by stimulating the release of agents that act on neurones and glia [12,13].

“Recently, mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 have been reported a

“Recently, mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 have been reported as an early and common genetic alteration in diffuse gliomas, being possibly followed by 1p/19q loss in oligodendrogliomas and TP53 mutations in astrocytomas. Lately, IDH1 mutations have also been identified in adult gliomatosis cerebri (GC). The aim of our study was to test the status of IDH1/2, p53 and of chromosomes 1 and 19 in a series of 12 adult and three

pediatric GC. For all tumors, clinico-radiologic characteristics, histopathologic features, status of IDH1/2, p53 and of chromosomes 1 and 19 were evaluated. IDH1 mutations were detected only in GC of adult patients (5/12). They all corresponded to R132H. Additional 1p/19q losses were observed in two of them with histological features of oligodendroglial lineage. PD0325901 datasheet Other copy number alterations of chromosomes 1 and 19 Ibrutinib mouse were also noticed. The median overall survival in adults was 10.5 months in non-mutated GC and 43.5 months in mutated GC. IDH1 mutations were present in GC of adult patients, but not in those of children. There was a trend toward longer

overall survival in mutated GC when compared to non-mutated ones. Concomitant 1p/19q loss was observed in IDH1-mutated GC with oligodendroglial phenotype. These observations contribute toward establishing a stronger link between GC and diffuse glioma. In addition, these results also emphasize the importance of testing for IDH1/2 mutations and 1p/19q deletions in GC to classify them better and to allow the development of targeted therapy. “
“We report autopsy cases of two siblings who developed muscular atrophy and dementia, clinically considered to be familial motor neuron disease (MND). They presented with motor neuron signs predominantly in the distal limbs without sensory impairment. At autopsy, severe neuronal

loss in the anterior horn consistent with MND was found, but histopathological hallmarks like Bunina bodies and skein-like inclusions were absent. Surprisingly, numerous huge axonal swellings (about 30 µm in diameter) and onion-bulb-like structures were found in the spinal ventral roots. These changes were not observed in spinal dorsal roots or peripheral nerves. However, obvious segmental demyelination of the ventral root was not found. In addition, neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and neuritic plaques were present in the frontal cortex, temporal cortex and hippocampus, and to a lesser degree, in the amygdala, substantia nigra and thalamus. Our two cases are a hitherto unreported type of MND, which shows focal giant axonopathy and prominent formation of onion-bulb-like structures due to Schwann cell proliferation restricted to the spinal ventral roots. “
“O. Cataltepe, M. C. Arikan, E. Ghelfi, C. Karaaslan, Y. Ozsurekci, K. Dresser, Y. Li, T. W. Smith and S.

The three baseline factors independently associated with renal at

The three baseline factors independently associated with renal atrophy (identified by the univariate Cox proportional analysis) were systolic hypertension, severity of RAS and diminished renal cortical blood flow velocity. A 1.9-fold and 1.6-fold

increase in I-BET-762 supplier the risk of renal atrophy was associated with every 20 mmHg increase in systolic BP and 10 mmHg increase in diastolic BP, respectively, at the follow-up examinations. The use of ACE inhibitors at baseline showed no significant association with renal atrophy even in kidneys with significant stenosis. There was no significant association between the presence of accessory renal arteries and a decreased risk of atrophy. Finally, the mean change in serum creatinine concentration was +7 µmol/L per year and +29 µmol/L per year in participants with atrophy detected in one kidney and both kidneys, respectively. In an observational series of patients with ARVD using intravenous pyelography, Dean et al. demonstrated a stability (<5% reduction) in renal sizes in 37% of patients,

mild to moderate decrease (5–9%) in 26% of patients and significant (>10%) reduction in kidney length (equated to 30% decrease in renal mass) in 37% of patients.10 This study supports the hypothesis that ARVD could be associated with progressive renal atrophy. However, there was little data relating renal atrophy to degree of baseline stenosis. The study by Schreiber et al. used angiographic images for kidney sizes and reported a reduction in renal size in 70% of patients Smad inhibitor with progressive ARVD compared with 13% in those with stable stenosis (P < 0.001). However,

there is little information about the side of the stenosis, the side of renal atrophy and correlation between them.9 A number Nitroxoline of longitudinal studies have demonstrated a decline in kidney function over time in patients with ARVD. Schreiber et al. reported change in serum creatinine in different categories of baseline stenosis (<50%, 50–75%, 75–99% and 100%) over a mean follow-up period of 52 months. An increase in serum creatinine levels was seen in 54% of patients with progressive disease (defined as change from one category of stenosis to a category of higher grade stenosis), while an increase was observed in only 25% of patients without evidence of angiographic progression.9 However, these data are limited by the use of serum creatinine, which is a poor indicator of individual kidney function as a marker of renal function. Chabova et al. in a retrospective cohort study at the Mayo Clinic, looked at 68 patients with angiographically proven high-grade stenosis (>70%) over a mean period of 38.9 months. Serum creatinine rose from 124 µmol/L to 176 µmol/L for the entire group. This result was skewed by 10 patients (14.7%), 6 of whom developed end-stage kidney disease.

The patient did well until 18 months later, when she presented to

The patient did well until 18 months later, when she presented to the Emergency Department with erythema and drainage from a medial malleolar wound. She was again treated with oral cephalexin, and on follow-up, an aspirate was taken from the ankle joint with only bloody return and negative culture results (no growth). Radiographs showed only a possible subtle loosening NVP-LDE225 price of the tibial component of the prosthesis. Nonetheless, based on clinical suspicion, the patient was admitted for intravenous antibiotics and taken to surgery for explantation of the TAR components with the placement of a vancomycin/gentamicin spacer. Intraoperative

irrigation with methylene blue demonstrated a sinus track from the medial malleolar wound to the joint space. Intraoperative cultures were positive only for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Roxadustat datasheet aureus (MRSA). Explanted specimens are the subject of this report. Tibial and talar components recovered during the implant removal surgery were placed aseptically in sterile specimen bags and placed directly on ice. Additionally, associated reactive

tissue was collected in sterile specimen containers and placed on ice. Two pieces of tissue for RT-PCR were deposited directly into RNase-free tubes containing RNALater® (Ambion) and stored at −20 °C. Postoperatively, the patient was maintained on intravenous vancomycin for 3 weeks, but was changed to daptomycin for a possible antibiotic-induced leucopenia. She subsequently

required re-exploration for persistent wound failure, with replacement of her ZD1839 research buy antibiotic-impregnated cement spacer and treatment with tigecycline. Thereafter, her wound ultimately healed and she is now ambulating as tolerated with the cement spacer in place. We used the Ibis T5000 Universal Biosensor System, which is a multiprimer PCR technique used to rapidly identify bacteria associated with clinical specimens (Ecker et al., 2008). The Ibis T5000 is for research use only (RUO) and is not yet approved for use in diagnostic procedures. First, we extracted DNA from the tissue: approximately 1 mm3 of tissue was transferred to a microcentrifuge tube containing lysis buffer (Qiagen) and 20 μg mL−1 proteinase K (Qiagen). The sample was incubated at 55 °C until visual inspection indicated that lysis was achieved. Zirconia/Silica Beads (0.45 g of 0.1 mm diameter, Biospec, PN: 11079101z) were added to the microcentrifuge tube and the sample was homogenized for 10 min at 25 Hz using a Qiagen Tissuelyser (Model MM300, cat# 85210). Nucleic acid from the lysed sample was extracted using the Qiagen DNeasy Tissue kit. Supernatants (200 μL) containing the extracted nucleic acid were removed and aliquoted into the wells of an Ibis Bacterial Surveillance microtiter plate (Abbott, cat# 03N33-01), which is used for broad identification of bacterial species.

GraphPad Prism 5 statistical software was used to determine stati

GraphPad Prism 5 statistical software was used to determine statistical significance. One or two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni’s multiple comparison post-tests were performed. Where appropriate, statistical significance was determined by an unpaired t-test using GraphPad software. For all statistical analyses p<0.05 was considered significant. Values are expressed as mean±SEM. The authors thank Kay Samuel, New Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, UK, for FACS analysis and Dr Dominic Campopiano, School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, UK for helpful discussion. This work was supported by the MRC and grants from EPSRC (J.R.D.), ARC (M.G.) and D.J.D. is a Wellcome Trust

Research Career Development Fellow (Fellowship this website ♯ 078265). Conflict of interest: The authors declare no financial or commercial conflict of interest. Detailed facts of importance to specialist readers are published as ”Supporting Information”. Such documents are peer-reviewed, but not copy-edited or typeset. They Selumetinib cost are made available as submitted by the authors. “
“Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM, Brazil Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation–Ecosystem Sciences, Canberra, Australia Hantaviruses are emerging human pathogens. They induce an unusually strong antiviral response of human HLA class I (HLA-I) restricted CD8+ T cells that may contribute to tissue damage and

hantavirus-associated disease. In this study, we analyzed possible hantaviral mechanisms that enhance the HLA-I antigen presentation machinery. Upon hantavirus infection of various human and primate cell lines, we observed transactivation of promoters controlling classical HLA molecules. Hantavirus-induced

HLA-I upregulation required proteasomal activity and was associated with increased TAP expression. Intriguingly, human DCs acquired the capacity to cross-present antigen upon hantavirus infection. Furthermore, knockdown of TIR domain containing adaptor inducing IFN-β or retinoic acid inducible gene I abolished hantavirus-driven HLA-I induction. In contrast, MyD88-dependent viral sensors were not involved in HLA-I induction. Our results show that hantaviruses strongly boost the HLA-I antigen presentation machinery by mechanisms that are dependent on both retinoic Metalloexopeptidase acid inducible gene I and TIR domain containing adaptor inducing IFN-β. Rapidly changing ecosystems and climate facilitate the emergence of human infections with hantaviruses [1-3]. In Germany, increasing numbers of hantavirus-associated disease cases have been observed [4]. The enhanced health hazard emanating from pathogenic hantavirus species has been recognized by the German National Health Institute, which has recently reprioritized infectious pathogens and placed hantaviruses in the highest priority group [5]. Hantaviruses belong to the family Bunyaviridae and have segmented genomes [6].