The only axioscapular muscle to record high mean levels of activity in the current study was rhomboid major. This result was expected since scapula downward rotation accompanies adduction and rhomboid major generates scapular torque in a downward rotation direction and into retraction (Oatis 2009). The level of activity recorded in rhomboid major in the current study supports previous research, which reported similar levels during manual muscle testing with a manoeuvre involving adduction (Smith
et al 2004). Activity in serratus anterior, the only other axioscapular muscle to be activated above minimal levels in this study, may be present to prevent rhomboid major from retracting the scapula during isometric adduction or to hold the scapula against the thoracic wall. The pattern of increasing muscle activation with increased load was the same across all angles for all the Alectinib active muscles in the current study. Muscles recruited at low loads during isometric adduction are the same muscles recruited at higher loads but at a higher percentage of their maximum voluntary contraction. Additional muscles are not activated to cope with the additional load. This seems to contradict the ‘law of minimal muscle action’, proposed by MacConaill and Basmajian (1977), which states that ‘the muscles with least synergistic activity will be recruited first and then as load increases
are recruited’. Similar motor patterns at low and high load with systematic increases in activity in all active shoulder muscles selleck screening library have been demonstrated previously in normal participants during isometric shoulder rotation exercises (Dark et al 2007), isotonic scaption exercises up to 90° (Alpert et al 2000) and shoulder flexion exercises. This study adds to the evidence that normal shoulder motor patterns Etomidate do not vary with load. Ethics: Participants were fully informed of the study protocol and signed a consent form prior to participation. The study was approved by The University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee. Our thanks to Mr Daniel Tardo for his assistance with participant recruitment and data collection in this study. “
“Walking aids are provided to patients as part of routine rehabilitation following surgery for hip fracture to compensate for pain, reduced strength and balance, and postoperative restrictions on weight-bearing. The ultimate goal of rehabilitation is to reduce the level of assistance required with ambulation and to return to pre-morbid levels of function. However, progression in individual patients varies dramatically depending on the rate of improvement of strength, balance, confidence, and pain (Bohannon 1997). As a result, it would be appropriate for many of the walking aids to be changed over the first six months, although the time of change would vary.