The only outcome reported in this trial was patient knowledge. The effect on patient knowledge between
the patient education with repeat-back versus patient education without repeat-back groups was imprecise and based on 1 trial of 173 participants; SMD 0.07; 95% CI -0.22 to 0.37; very low quality evidence). Authors’ FDA approved Drug Library conclusions Due to the very low quality of the current evidence, the effects of formal patient education provided in addition to the standard information provided by doctors to patients compared with standard care remain uncertain. Further well-designed randomised clinical trials of low risk of bias are necessary.”
“To study the transcriptional activity of the HIV-1 LTR, we constructed a vector containing Renilla and Firefly luciferase genes under the control A-1331852 order of the LTR (wild-type or
mutated version) and oriented in a manner that allowed them to be transcribed in opposite directions. We found that the HIV-1 LTR acted as a bidirectional promoter, which activity was controlled by NF-kappa B- and Sp1-binding sites in both orientations. We next analyzed with this reporter vector the bidirectional promoter activity of the HTLV-1 LTR and showed that this LTR also possessed a bidirectional transcriptional activity. Interestingly, Sp1-binding elements were also involved in the control of HTLV-1 bidirectional transcription. Moreover, both retroviral trans-activators, Tat and Tax, could preferentially activate sense transcription with no or limited effect on the extent
of antisense transcription. We also cloned into this plasmid the MLV LTR and found that the LTR of a simple retrovirus also possessed bidirectional transcriptional activity. This reporter vector represents a powerful tool to LBH589 in vivo analyze the bidirectional transcriptional activity of retrovirus LTRs. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Unbiased proteomic analysis of plasma samples holds the promise to reveal clinically invaluable disease biomarkers. However, the tremendous dynamic range of the plasma proteome has so far hampered the identification of such low abundant markers. To overcome this challenge we analyzed the plasma microparticle proteome, and reached an unprecedented depth of over 3000 plasma proteins in single runs. To add a quantitative dimension, we developed PROMIS-Quan-PROteomics of MIcroparticles with Super-Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC) Quantification, a novel mass spectrometry-based technology for plasma microparticle proteome quantification. PROMIS-Quan enables a two-step relative and absolute SILAC quantification. First, plasma microparticle proteomes are quantified relative to a super-SILAC mix composed of cell lines from distinct origins. Next, the absolute amounts of selected proteins of interest are quantified relative to the super-SILAC mix.
Expression of mutant cFLIP-L proteins with a deletion or mutations in the NLS and NES confers resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis, as does wt-FLIP-L, but they do not enhance Wnt signaling, which suggests an important role of the C-terminus of cFLIP-L in Wnt-signaling modulation. When wt-FLIP-L is expressed in the cytoplasm JNK-IN-8 by conjugation with exogenous NES (NES-FLIP-L), Wnt signaling is not enhanced, whereas the NES-FLIP-L increases cytoplasmic. beta-catenin as efficiently as wt-FLIP-L.cFLIP-L physically interacts with the reporter plasmid for Wnt signaling, but not with the control plasmid. These results suggest a role for nuclear cFLIP-L in the modulation of Wnt signaling.”
study was designed to examine antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of red and yellow forms of Melampyrum barbatum L. In this study, we report the results concerning flower and leaf antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase), reduced glutathione quantity, flavonoids, photosynthetic pigments and soluble protein contents and quantities of malonyldialdehyde,
(center dot)OH and O(2)(center dot-) radicals; total antioxidant capacity was determined by FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) method and scavenger activity by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-pycril-hydrasil radical) method. Lipofuscin ‘plant age pigments’ were also determined. According selleck to our results, flowers of the red form of M. barbatum exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“The study of interrelationships between soil structure and its functional properties is complicated by the fact that the quantitative description of soil structure is challenging. Soil scientists have tackled this challenge by taking advantage of approaches such as fractal
geometry, which Selleckchem Temsirolimus describes soil architectural complexity through a scaling exponent (D) relating mass and numbers of particles/aggregates to particle/aggregate size. Typically, soil biologists use empirical indices such as mean weight diameters (MWD) and percent of water stable aggregates (WSA), or the entire size distribution, and they have successfully related these indices to key soil features such as C and N dynamics and biological promoters of soil structure. Here, we focused on D, WSA and MWD and we tested whether: D estimated by the exponent of the power law of number-size distributions is a good and consistent correlate of MWD and WSA; D carries information that differs from MWD and WSA; the fraction of variation in D that is uncorrelated with MWD and WSA is related to soil chemical and biological properties that are thought to establish interdependence with soil structure (e.g., organic C, N, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi).
Minimizing exposure to allergens and remediating the environment play a critical role in the treatment of asthma and allergies. The most effective environmental
control measures are tailored multifaceted interventions which include education, thorough cleaning, using high efficiency particulate MEK inhibitor air ( HEPA) filters, integrated pest management, and maintenance of these practices.”
“Background: Palutop+4 (All. Diag, Strasbourg, France), a four-band malaria rapid diagnostic test (malaria RDT) targeting the histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP-2), Plasmodium vivax-specific parasite lactate dehydrogenase (Pv-pLDH) and pan Plasmodium-specific pLDH (pan-pLDH) was evaluated in a non-endemic setting on stored whole blood samples from international travellers suspected of malaria.\n\nMethods: Microscopy corrected by PCR was the reference method. Samples include those infected by Plasmodium falciparum (n
= 323), Plasmodium vivax (n = 97), Plasmodium JQEZ5 clinical trial ovale (n = 73) and Plasmodium malariae (n = 25) and 95 malaria negative samples.\n\nResults: The sensitivities for the diagnosis of P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale were 85.1%, 66.0%, 32.0% and 5.5%. Sensitivities increased at higher parasite densities and reached 90.0% for P. falciparum >100/mu l and 83.8% for P. vivax >500/mu l. Fourteen P. falciparum samples reacted with the Pv-pLDH line, one P. vivax sample with the HRP-2 line, and respectively two and four P. ovale and P. malariae samples reacted with the HRP-2 line. Two negative samples gave a signal with the HRP-2 line. Faint and weak line intensities were observed for 129/289 (44.6%) HRP-2 lines in P. falciparum samples, for 50/64 (78.1%) Pv-pLDH Selleck LDN-193189 lines in P. vivax samples and for 9/13 (69.2%) pan-pLDH lines in P. ovale and P. malariae samples combined. Inter-observer reliabilities for positive and negative readings were excellent for the HRP-2 and Pv-pLDH lines (overall agreement >92.0% and kappa-values for each pair of readers >= 0.88), and good for the pan-pLDH line (85.5% overall agreement and kappa-values
>= 0.74).\n\nConclusions: Palutop+4 performed moderately for the detection of P. falciparum and P. vivax, but sensitivities were lower than those of three-band malaria RDTs.”
“PurposeMyocardial T-1 mapping is an emerging technique that could improve cardiovascular magnetic resonance diagnostic accuracy. In this study, a variable flip angle approach with B-1 correction is proposed at 3T on the myocardium, employing standard 3D spoiled fast gradient echo and echo planar imaging sequences.\n\nMethodsThe method was tested on phantoms to determine the set of standard 3D spoiled fast gradient echo angles adapted to myocardial T-1 measurements and was compared to the inversion-recovery spin-echo reference T-1 method. Seven volunteers underwent magnetic imaging resonance to acquire myocardial T-1 maps and T-1 values of the human heart.
No microorganisms were detected
in the air samples during the washing machine spin cycle, and transfer rates of bacteriophages from water to environmental surfaces were 100-fold less than from water directly to hands. Findings from this study provide relevant information that can be used to refine regulations governing recycled water and to allay public concerns about the use of recycled water.”
“Male and female gametocytes are the components of the malaria parasite life cycle which are taken up from an infected host bloodstream by mosquitoes and thus mediate disease transmission. These gamete precursors are morphologically and functionally U0126 cost quite distinct from their asexual blood stage counterparts and this is reflected in their distinct patterns of gene MK-8776 expression, cellular development and metabolism. Recent transcriptome, proteome and reverse genetic studies have added valuable information to that obtained from traditional studies. However, we still have no answer to the fundamental question regarding sexual development: ‘what triggers gametocytogenesis’?
In the current climate of eradication/elimination, tackling transmission by killing gametocytes has an important place on the agenda because most antimalarial drugs, whilst killing asexual blood stage parasites, have no effect on the transmissible stages. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“A well-preserved and articulated partial foot and ankle of Australopithecus sediba, including an associated complete adult distal tibia, talus, and calcaneus, have been discovered at the Malapa site, South Africa, and reported in direct association with the female paratype Malapa Hominin 2. These fossils reveal a mosaic of primitive and derived features that are distinct from those seen in other hominins. The ankle (talocrural) joint is mostly humanlike in form and inferred
function, and there is some evidence for a humanlike arch and Achilles tendon. However, Au. sediba is apelike in possessing a more gracile calcaneal body and a more robust medial malleolus than expected. These observations AS1842856 order suggest, if present models of foot function are correct, that Au. sediba may have practiced a unique form of bipedalism and some degree of arboreality. Given the combination of features in the Au. sediba foot, as well as comparisons between Au. sediba and older hominins, homoplasy is implied in the acquisition of bipedal adaptations in the hominin foot.”
“The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C(14)H(14)N(4)center dot 2H(2)O consists of two half-molecules of the main molecule, each situated on an inversion center, and two molecules of water.
Fifteen patients, with a median age of 62 years, received trastuzumab according to the schedule approved for breast cancer patients (ie, 4 mg/kg intravenous loading dose followed by 2 mg/kg weekly). The overall response rate was 13% with 2 patients achieving partial response and partial remission cytolytic response, respectively. Two other patients were documented with blast clearance. Only 1 reversible grade 3 cardiac toxic event occurred. This phase 2 study showed that trastuzumab monotherapy can allow for some responses in a very high-risk refractory/relapsed HER2-positive adult B-ALL population. Combination of trastuzumab with chemotherapy or other therapeutic monoclonal antibodies should be tested in the future. This
trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct as NCT00724360. (Blood. 2012; 119(11): 2474-2477)”
“Bile ducts are hepatic tubular IPI-145 mw structures that are lined by cholangiocytes, a type of liver epithelial cell. Cholangiocytes first form a single layer of cells, termed the ductal plate, surrounding the portal vein, which eventually remodels into the branching tubular Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor network of bile ducts. The process of bile duct morphogenesis is not yet clear: a conventional model where cholangiocytes
proliferate to duplicate a single layer of the ductal plate before lumen formation seems inconsistent with the observation that proliferation is dramatically reduced when hepatoblasts, liver progenitor cells, differentiate into cholangiocytes. Here, we developed a new culture system in which a liver progenitor cell line, HPPL, reorganizes from
a monolayer to tubular structures in response to being overlaid with a gel containing type I collagen and Matrigel. We found that some of the HPPL in the monolayer depolarized www.selleckchem.com/screening/autophagy-signaling-compound-library.html and migrated to fold up the monolayer into a double-cell layer. These morphogenetic processes occurred without cell proliferation and required phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt activity. Later in morphogenesis, luminal space was generated between the two cell layers. This process, in particular enlargement of the apical lumen, involved transcriptional activity of HNF1 beta. Thus, using this sandwich culture system, we could segregate tubulogenesis of bile ducts into distinct steps and found that the PI3K/Akt pathway and HNF1 beta regulated different steps of the morphogenesis. Although the process of tubulogenesis in culture specifically resembled early bile duct formation, involvement of these two key players suggests that the sandwich culture might help us to find common principles of tubulogenesis in general.”
“Hyperglycemia with severe reduction of plasma insulin level is frequently associated with acute ischemic heart disease. Since insulin is reported to be an anti thrombotic humoral factor, the mechanism of the impaired insulin synthesis was investigated. The plasma from the patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
S.A./Canada. These findings contribute to a burgeoning body https://www.selleckchem.com/products/pd-1-pd-l1-inhibitor-3.html of data on poorly studied North American plant distributions extending into southern Mexico.”
“Background: Previous studies have suggested
that medicines prices in Europe converge over time as a result of policy measures such as external price referencing. Objective: To explore whether ex-factory prices of on-patented medicines in Western European countries have converged over a recent period of time. Methods: Prices of ten on-patent medicines in five years (2007, 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012) of 15 European countries were analyzed. The unit of analysis was the ex-factory price in Euro per defined daily dose (exchange rate indexed to 2007). A score (deviation from the average price) per country as well as the ranges were calculated for all medicines. Results: The prices between countries and selected
products varied to a great extent from as low as an average price of (sic) 1.3/DDD for sitagliptin in 2010-2012 to an average of (sic) 221.5/DDD for alemtuzumab in 2011. Between 2008 and 2012, a price divergence was seen which was fully driven by two countries, Germany (up to 27% more expensive than the average) and Greece (up to 32% cheaper than the average). All other countries had stable prices and centered around the country average. Prices of less expensive as well as expensive medicines remained relatively stable or decreased over time, while only the price of sirolimus relatively increased. Conclusions: Our study period included the time of the recession and several pricing policy measures may have affected the prices of medicines. Instead of the expected price KPT-8602 nmr convergence we observed a price divergence driven by price changes in only two of the 15 countries. All other European countries remained stable around the country average. Further research is needed to expand the study to a bigger sample size, and include prescribing IPI-145 datasheet data and Eastern European countries. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aim: The promoter of human interleukin-10 (IL10), a cytokine crucial for suppressing inflammation and regulating immune responses, contains an interspecies-conserved
sequence with CpG motifs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether methylation of CpG motifs could regulate the expression of IL10 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).\n\nMethods: Bioinformatic analysis was conducted to identify the interspecies-conserved sequence in human, macaque and mouse IL10 genes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 20 RA patients and 20 health controls were collected. The PBMCs from 6 patients were cultured in the presence or absence of 5-azacytidine (5 mu mol/L). The mRNA and protein levels of IL10 were examined using RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. The methylation of CpGs in the IL10 promoter was determined by pyrosequencing. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were performed to detect the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-DNA interactions.
Conclusions: Whereas TSA has low short- term rates of perioperative complications and mortality, careful perioperative medical optimization and efficient surgical technique should be emphasized to decrease morbidity Nepicastat manufacturer and mortality. Published by Elsevier
Inc. on behalf of Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees.”
“P>Background:\n\nFraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is considered, by some authors, to be a treatment follow-up parameter in allergic asthmatics. However, factors such as active smoking can influence NO production and must be taken into account in the interpretation of FeNO values. In children, the evidence in favour of an impact of passive smoking (PS) on FeNO values is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of chronic PS on FeNO in allergic asthmatic children.\n\nMethods:\n\nSeventy nontreated allergic asthmatic children over 5 years of age, exposed and unexposed to PS, underwent measurement of FeNO, spirometry, and allergic tests (skin prick tests, total and specific serum IgE, and blood eosinophilia). Children were considered to be exposed to PS when at Combretastatin A4 cost least 1 cigarette per day was declared to be smoked at home.\n\nResults:\n\nGeometric mean FeNO value in 22 children exposed to PS was 26.3 +/- 1.5 ppb vs 56.3 +/- 1.7 ppb in 48
children unexposed (P < 0.001). After adjustment for age, blood eosinophilia, allergic sensitizations, total IgE, dust mite sensitization and asthma severity, multivariate analysis showed that PS exposure was negatively associated with FeNO values (P = 0.0001) and was the primary determinant of FeNO variations.\n\nConclusion:\n\nPassive smoking lowers FeNO, and might be a GPCR Compound Library major determinant of FeNO levels in nontreated allergic asthmatic children.”
“Recent surveys in Japan reported that more than half of children interviewed complained of daytime sleepiness, approximately one quarter reported insomnia, and some complained of both nocturnal insomnia and daytime sleepiness. To explain the pathophysiology of this type of sleep disturbance, a novel
clinical concept of asynchronization has been proposed. Asynchronization involves disturbances in various aspects of biological rhythms that normally exhibit circadian oscillations. The putative major triggers for asynchronization include a combination of nighttime light exposure, which can disturb the biological clock and decrease melatonin secretion, and a lack of morning light exposure, which can prohibit normal synchronization of the biological clock to a 24-h cycle and decrease activity in the serotonergic system. The early phase of asynchronization may be caused by inadequate sleep hygiene, is likely to be functional, and to be relatively easily resolved by establishing a regular sleep wakefulness cycle. However, without adequate intervention, these disturbances may gradually worsen, resulting into the chronic phase.
The new method was evaluated for real-time MRI studies using highly undersampled radial gradient-echo sequences. ResultsAME reconstructions for a motion phantom with controlled
speed as well as for measurements of human heart and tongue movements demonstrate improved temporal fidelity and DAPT chemical structure reduced residual undersampling artifacts when compared with NLINV reconstructions without motion estimation. ConclusionNonlinear inverse reconstructions with aggregated motion estimation offer improved image quality and temporal acuity for visualizing rapid dynamic processes by real-time MRI. Magn Reson Med 72:1039-1048, 2014. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Background: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of microinjection of histamine and its H-1, H-2 and H-3 receptor antagonists, mepyramine, ranitidine and thioperamide, respectively, into the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on pain-related behaviors induced by formalin in rats. Methods: Two stainless steel guide canulas were bilaterally implanted into the ACC of anaesthetized rats. For induction of pain, intraplantar (ipl) injection of a 2.5% formalin solution was performed. The duration of paw licking/biting and the number of paw flinching were recorded in 5 min blocks for 60 min. Locomotor activity was assessed using an open-field
test. Results: Formalin produced a marked biphasic pattern of pain. Histamine reduced the second phases of paw licking/biting JQ1 order and flinching. Mepyramine (2 mu g/side) prevented the suppressive effect of histamine IWR-1-endo supplier (1 mu g/side) on second phase of pain, but at a dose of 8 mu g/side it did not inhibit the suppressive effects of 4 mu g/side of histamine. Ranitidine at doses of 2 and 8 mu g/side prevented histamine (1 and 4 mu g/side)induced antinociception. Thioperamide not only suppressed the second phases of pain, but also increased the suppressive effect of histamine. Naloxone prevented suppressive effects of histamine and thioperamide on pain. Mepyramine (8 mu g/side) suppressed locomotor activity. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed pain suppressing effects for histamine. Histamine
H-2 and H-3, and to a lesser extent, H-1 receptors might be involved in histamine-induced antinociception. Opioid receptors might be involved in suppressive effects of histamine and thioperamide. (C) 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: This work deals with the development of an active heterogeneous catalyst for selective organic synthesis under both visible light and UV irradiation to utilize efficiently solar light. Very few studies have been reported on the selective photooxidation performance of multimetal oxide materials under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation of azodyes was investigated systematically in aqueous NiO/Ag3VO4 dispersion under visible light irradiation.
\n\nConclusions: Postoperative infectious complications are thus considered to accelerate
a rapid hepatic recurrence after a gastrectomy for gastric cancer.”
“High-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance to stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) is a durable type of resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). This study identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring HTAP resistance to stripe rust in a population consisting of 169 F-8:10 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) VX-680 mw derived from a cross between a susceptible cultivar Rio Blanco and a resistant germplasm IDO444. HTAP resistance was evaluated for both disease severity and infection type under natural infection over two years at two locations. The genetic linkage maps had an average density of 6.7 cM per marker across the genome
and were constructed using 484 markers including 96 wheat microsatellite (SSR), 632 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) polymorphisms, two sequence-tagged-site (STS) from semi-dwarf genes Rht1 and Rht2, and two markers for low molecular-weight glutenin gene subunits. QTL analysis detected a total of eight QTL significantly associated with HTAP resistance to stripe rust with two on chromosome 2B, two on 3B and one on each of 1A, 4A, 4B and 5B. QTL on chromosomes 2B and 4A were the major loci derived Liproxstatin-1 cell line from IDO444 and explained up to 47 and 42% of the phenotypic variation for disease severity and infection type, respectively. The remaining five QTL accounted for 7-10% of the trait variation. Of these minor QTL, the resistant alleles at the two QTL QYrrb.ui-3B.1 and QYrrb.ui-4B derived
from Rio Blanco and reduced infection type only, while the resistant alleles at the other three QTL, QYrid.ui-1A, QYrid.ui-3B.2 and QYrid.ui-5B, all derived from IDO444 and reduced either infection type or disease severity. Markers linked to 2B and 4A QTL should be useful for selection of HTAP resistance to stripe rust.”
“Anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis are emerging tick-borne diseases with clinically similar presentations caused by closely selleck chemical related pathogens. Currently, laboratories rely predominantly on blood smear analysis (for the detection of intracellular morulae) and on serologic tests, both of which have recognized limitations, for diagnostic purposes. We compared the performance of a published real-time PCR assay that incorporates melt curve analysis to differentiate Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species with blood smear and serologic methods in an upper Midwest population. Overall, 38.5% of the specimens selected for evaluation had one or more tests that were positive for anaplasmosis. The PCR positivity for all specimens was maximal (21.
526. Interobserver agreement between ATM/ATR inhibitor review the most experienced clinicians and the most advanced algorithm was kappa = 0.592. Besides, the most advanced algorithm was often able to predict agreements and disagreements between clinicians.\n\nCONCLUSIONS. Automated DR severity assessment algorithms, trained to imitate experienced clinicians, can be used to predict when young clinicians would agree or disagree with their more experienced fellow members. Such algorithms may thus
be used in clinical practice to help validate or invalidate their diagnoses. CBIR algorithms, in particular, may also be used for pooling diagnostic knowledge among peers, with applications in training and coordination of clinicians’ prescriptions. (Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:8342-8348) DOI: 10.1167/iovs.11-7418″
“Many flying insects exhibit an active flight and gaze strategy: purely translational flight segments alternate with quick turns called saccades. To generate such a saccadic flight pattern, the animals decide the timing, direction, and amplitude of the next saccade during the previous translatory intersaccadic interval. The information underlying these decisions
is assumed to be extracted from the retinal image displacements (optic flow), which scale with the distance to objects during the intersaccadic flight phases. In an earlier study we proposed https://www.selleckchem.com/products/bromosporine.html a saccade generation mechanism based on the responses of large-field-motion-sensitive
neurons. In closed-loop simulations we achieved collision avoidance behavior in a limited set of environments but observed collisions in others. Here we show by open-loop simulations that the cause of this observation is the known texture dependence of elementary motion detection in flies, reflected also in the responses of large field neurons as used in our model. We verified by electrophysiological experiments that this result is not an artifact of the sensory model. Already subtle changes in the texture may lead to qualitative differences in the responses of both our model cells and their biological Daporinad ic50 counterparts in the fly’s brain. Nonetheless, free flight behavior of blow flies is only moderately affected by such texture changes. This divergent texture dependence of motion sensitive neurons and behavioral performance suggests either mechanisms that compensate for the texture dependence of the visual motion pathway at the level of the circuits generating the saccadic turn decisions or the involvement of a hypothetical parallel pathway in saccadic control that provides the information for collision avoidance independent of the textural properties of the environment.”
“This work presents the main thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetric characteristics of commercial Thai transparent window glass. The amorphous structure of window glass was investigated by XRD. The glow curve revealed a peak (T-m) at 235 degrees C.