The target antigen was identified as SMN complex (Gemin 3, Gemin 4, SMN, and Gemin 2, respectively), which plays a critical role in the assembly of snRNP. In immuno-fluorescence analyses, all 3 sera showed nuclear dots (Cajal bodies) and cytoplasmic staining. Only 1 serum was weakly positive on Western blotting of SMN, suggesting that these sera mainly recognize native molecule or quaternary structure. All 3 patients
were white women with PM, an interesting finding, since deletion or mutation of SMN is known to cause spinal muscular atrophy.\n\nConclusion. SMN complex was identified as a new Cajal body autoantigen recognized by sera from white patients selleck kinase inhibitor with PM. The biologic and clinical significance of anti-SMN autoantibodies will need to be clarified.”
“Background: Historical outcomes in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) are poor, with a median survival of only 5 months and <20% of patients surviving 1 year from diagnosis. We hypothesized that survival in newly diagnosed patients with stages IVA and IVB locoregionally confined ATC click here might be improved by utilizing an aggressive therapeutic approach, prioritizing both the eradication of disease in the neck and preemptive treatment of occult metastatic disease.\n\nMethods: Between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2007, 25 new
ATC patients were evaluated at our institution. Of these 25 patients, 10 (40%) had metastatic disease at diagnosis and therefore underwent palliative treatment, whereas 5 (20%) had regionally confined disease and desired treatment at their local medical facilities. The remaining 10 consecutive patients (40%) had regionally confined ATC and elected aggressive therapy combining individualized surgery (where feasible), intensity-modulated
radiation therapy (IMRT), and radiosensitizing + adjuvant chemotherapy intending four cycles of docetaxel + doxorubicin. Outcomes were assessed on an intention to treat basis.\n\nResults: There were no deaths from therapy, but JQ-EZ-05 nmr hospitalization was required in two patients (20%) because of treatment-related adverse events. Five patients (50%) are alive and cancer-free, all having been followed >32 months (range: 32-89 months; median: 44 months) with a median overall Kaplan-Meier survival of 60 months. Overall survival at 1 and 2 years was 70% and 60%, respectively, compared to <20% historical survival at 1 year in analogous patients previously treated with surgery and conventional postoperative radiation at our and other institutions.\n\nConclusions: Although based upon a small series of consecutively treated patients, an aggressive approach combining IMRT and radiosensitizing plus adjuvant chemotherapy appears to improve outcomes, including survival in stages IVA and IVB regionally confined ATC, but remains of uncertain benefit in patients with stage IVC (metastatic) disease. Also uncertain is the optimal chemotherapy regimen to use in conjunction with DART.
The patients were randomized to receive eribulin or any single-agent treatment of the physician’s choice, selected prior to randomization. The FDA’s approval of eribulin mesylate was based on demonstration of a statistically significant prolongation of overall survival (OS) in patients who had been randomized to receive eribulin. The median OS was 13.1 months in the eribulin arm compared with 10.6 months in the control arm [HR 0.81 (95% CI, 0.66-0.99); P = 0.041]. Treatment with eribulin did not
show a statistically significant treatment effect [HR 0.87 (95% CI, 0.71-1.05)] on progression-free survival as determined by independent review. This approval highlights the appropriate use of an innovative trial design and shows that improvement in OS is an achievable endpoint in the setting of advanced breast cancer. On the basis of the different conclusions arising from the OS and progression-free selleck compound survival Histone Methyltransf inhibitor results, investigators should consider using OS as a primary endpoint in clinical trials for refractory breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 18(6); 1496-505. (C)2012 AACR.”
“Cheville AL, Basford JR, Troxel AB, Kornblith AB. Performance of common clinician- and self-report measures in assessing the function of community-dwelling people with metastatic breast cancer. Arch Phys
Med Rehabil 2009;90:2116-24.\n\nObjective: To characterize the performance of common clinician- and self-report measures of function in assessing community-dwelling people with metastatic breast cancer.\n\nDesign: Cross-sectional study.\n\nSetting: PP2 A tertiary medical center outpatient
cancer clinic.\n\nParticipants: A consecutive sample of community-dwelling patients (N=163) with stage IV breast cancer.\n\nInterventions: Not applicable.\n\nMain Outcome Measures: Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Physical Functioning (PF-10) and Role Physical subscales; the Older Americans Resource Study (OARS) activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL subscales; Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS); and the FIM Total and FIM Mobility scores.\n\nResults: With the exception of the PF-10 and Role Physical subscales, which demonstrated floor effects, ceiling effects were detected in all the measures and were particularly persistent in the OARS ADL subscale. Instrument and item score distributions varied markedly across KPS-defined subgroups with FIM Mobility, FIM Total, and OARS subscale score distributions deviating least from the normal in the lowest performing (KPS 40-50) participants. Correlations between self-reported (Role Physical subscales, PF-10, OARS ADL subscales) and the clinician-rated (KPS and FIM scales) scales were moderate to high (r=.55-.82); however, clinician-reported scores were more consistently associated with the presence of physical impairments.
“We examined the expression of ezrin and moesin
in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and their correlation with patient clinicopathological characteristics and overall survival. Immunohistochemical staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for ezrin and moesin were applied to 60 carcinoma tissues, adjacent normal tissues, and 33 metastatic lymph nodes. Survival functions were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the log-rank test. RT-PCR demonstrated that the intensity ratios of ezrin and moesin to beta-actin were higher in LSCC than in adjacent normal mucous membrane (P smaller than 0.05). Furthermore, intensity ratios were 4EGI-1 clinical trial higher in cervical metastatic lymph nodes than in LSCC (P smaller than 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining showed that ezrin and moesin were well distributed in the cell membrane and cytoplasm. Copanlisib Expression was significantly different between LSCC and adjacent normal tissues (P smaller than 0.05); moreover, expression in the cervical metastatic
lymph nodes was higher than in LSCC (P smaller than 0.05). Expression of ezrin and moesin was significantly related to clinical stage, T stage, and cervical lymph node metastasis (P smaller than 0.05), except that moesin showed no significant relationship with clinical stage (P bigger than 0.05). Patients with negative ezrin and moesin expression had a significantly longer overall survival time compared to patients with moderate and intense ezrin and moesin expression (P smaller than 0.001, P smaller than 0.05). Ezrin and moesin expression is related
to LSCC invasion and metastasis, and may be important molecular markers for predicting prognosis and therapeutic targets in LSCC patients.”
“Influenza A(H3N2) virus was detected in oral fluid from 16/107 children (aged 2 to 12 years) with a clinical diagnosis of mumps, who were sampled between December 2014 and February 2015 in England, during the peak of the 2014/15 influenza season. Sequence analysis of an A(H3N2) virus from a child with suspected mumps showed the virus was similar to AZD9291 order other circulating A(H3N2) viruses detected in winter 2014/15, which were antigenically drifted from the A(H3N2) vaccine strain.”
“Background: Several studies have applied low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) directed at the left temporoparietal area (TP) for the treatment of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH), but findings on efficacy are inconsistent. Furthermore, recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicate that the left TP is not a general focus of activation during the experience of AVH.
Twenty-eight patients with a histologically proven glioblastoma or metastasis were included in the study. Following the definition of regions of interest, DTI metrics [mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA)] were calculated for the tumour volume and the surrounding region of peritumoral oedema. These metrics were then subjected to logistic regression to investigate their ability to discriminate between glioblastomas and cerebral metastases. A cross-validation was performed to investigate the ability of the model to predict tumour. The logistic regression analysis correctly distinguished glioblastoma in 15 of 16 cases (93.8%) and metastasis in 11 of 12 cases (91.7%).
Cross-validation resulted in the model correctly predicting 14 of 16(87.5%) glioblastomas and 10 of 12(83.3%) metastases studied. MD was significantly higher (p = Selleck CHIR99021 0.02) and FA was significantly lower DNA Damage inhibitor (p = 0.04) within the oedema surrounding metastases than within the oedema around glioblastomas. MD was significantly higher (p = 0.02) within the tumour
volume of the glioblastomas. Our results demonstrate that, when DTI metrics from the tumour volume and surrounding peritumoral oedema are studied in combination, glioblastoma can be reliably discriminated from cerebral metastases. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“The optical properties of mechanochromic materials change under mechanical stress. Segmented polyurethanes are elastomers composed of amorphous, saturated chain soft segments, and rigid pi-conjugated hard domains. Within aggregates of hard domains pi-pi interactions may form and result in perturbation of the optoelectronic properties of the system. Disruption and restoration of these electronic interactions selleck inhibitor within the material may lead to observable mechanochromic response. A series of oligothiophene diols and diamines, as well as a naphthalene diimide diol, have been synthesized for incorporation into
the hard domains of segmented polyurethanes and polyureas using long poly(tetramethylene oxide) chains as soft segments. The resulting polymers were evaluated to determine their extent of polymerization and their thermal stability. The optical properties of the materials were studied in solution and as thin films. Where possible the electrochemical properties of the polymers were also explored. The length of the soft segment chains in the segmented polyurethanes hindered electronic coupling of hard domains. Future work involving smaller, more solubilizing soft segments may allow for easier material characterization and mechanochromic response. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 49: 4861-4874, 2011″
“The present study evaluated the effect of replacing elephant grass (EG) with moist pineapple by-product silage (PS) on the apparent digestibility, consumption of digestible nutrients and performance of 25 castrated male lambs Santa Ines crossbreds.
Weight reduction improves maternal health status and reduces the risk of pregnancy complications, as well as long-term consequences. Our objective was to compare the pregnancy outcomes of the same women who delivered before and after bariatric surgery.\n\nMethods: A retrospective study comparing pregnancy outcomes, of the same women, delivered
before and after a bariatric surgery was conducted. The observed deliveries find more occurred from 1988 to 2008 at Soroka University Medical Center, the sole tertiary hospital in the southern region of Israel.\n\nResults: The present study included 288 paired pregnancies: 144 deliveries before and 144 after bariatric surgery. A significant reduction in the prepregnancy and predelivery maternal body mass index was noted after bariatric surgery (36.37 +/- 5.2 versus 30.50 +/- 5.4 kg/m(2), P <.001; and 40.15 +/- 4.92 versus 34.41 +/- 5.42 kg/m(2), P <.001; respectively). Only 8 patients (5.6%) were admitted during their pregnancy for bariatric complications. Pregnancy complications, such as hypertensive disorders (31.9% versus 16.6%; P =.004) and diabetes mellitus (20.8% versus 7.6%; P =.001), were significantly reduced after bariatric surgery. The rate of cesarean deliveries because of labor dystocia was significantly lower after bariatric surgery (5.6% versus 2.1%,
P <.05). Using a multiple logistic regression model, controlling for maternal age, the reduction ASP2215 cost in hypertensive disorders (odds ratio .4, 95% confidence interval .2.8) and diabetes mellitus (odds ratio .15, 95% confidence Silmitasertib interval .1.4) remained significant.\n\nConclusion: A significant decrease in pregnancy complications, such as hypertensive disorders and diabetes mellitus, is achieved after bariatric surgery. (Surg Obes Relat Dis 2012;8:434-439.) (C) 2012 American
Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVES: We aimed to test the hypotheses that (i) plasma choline metabolites differ between normal (body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg m(-2)) and overweight (BMI >= 25 kg m(-2)) men, and (ii) an elevated BMI alters associations between plasma choline metabolites and indicators of metabolic stress.\n\nDESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. A one-time fasting blood sample was obtained for measurements of the choline metabolites and metabolic stress indicators (that is, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and homocysteine), and for genotype determination.\n\nSUBJECTS: The analysis was conducted with 237 Mexican American men with a median age of 22 years.\n\nRESULTS: Compared with men with a normal BMI (n = 98), those with an elevated BMI (n = 139) had 6% lower (P = 0.049) plasma betaine and an 11% lower (P = 0.002) plasma betaine to choline ratio. Among men with an elevated BMI, plasma betaine and the plasma betaine to choline ratio positively associated (P <= 0.
The volume (V) and weight (W) of bilateral
corpus striatum as well as the Tc-99m-TRODAT-1 uptake ratio of corpus striatum/the whole brain (Ra) were calculated using mathematical models. It was displayed that DAT expression level of striatum was significantly decreased and the V, W, and Ra were greatly reduced in the individuals with IAD compared to controls. Taken Dihydrotestosterone purchase together, these results suggest that IAD may cause serious damages to the brain and the neuroimaging findings further illustrate IAD is associated with dysfunctions in the dopaminergic brain systems. Our findings also support the claim that IAD may share similar neurobiological abnormalities with other addictive disorders.”
“Purpose: Glut 1 deficiency syndrome (DS) is defined by hypoglycorrhachia with normoglycemia, acquired microcephaly, episodic movements, and epilepsy refractory to standard antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Gold standard treatment is the ketogenic diet (KD), which provides ketones to treat neuroglycopenia. Our purpose is (1) to describe epilepsy phenotypes in a large Glut 1 DS cohort, to facilitate diagnosis; and (2)
to describe cases in which non-KD agents achieved seizure freedom (SF), highlighting potential adjunctive treatments. Methods: Retrospective review of 87 patients with Glut 1 DS (45% female, age range 3 months35 years, average diagnosis 6.5 years) at Columbia University, from 1989 to 2010. Key Findings: Seventy-eight (90%) of 87 patients had epilepsy, with average onset at 8 months. Seizures were mixed in 68% (53/78): find more generalized tonicclonic (53%), absence (49%), complex partial (37%), myoclonic (27%), drop (26%), tonic (12%), simple partial (3%), and spasms (3%). We describe the first two cases of spasms in Glut 1 DS. Electrophysiologic abnormalities were highly variable AL3818 in vitro over time; only 13 (17%) of 75 had exclusively normal findings. KD was used in 82% (64/78); 67% (41/61) were seizure-free and 68% of seizure-free patients
(28/41) resolved in <1 week and 76% (31/41) in <1 month. Seven patients achieved SF with broad agents only. Significance: Glut 1 DS is a genetic metabolic encephalopathy with variable focal and multifocal seizure types and electroencephalographic findings. Infants with seizures, spasms, or paroxysmal events should be tested for Glut 1 DS. Evidence is insufficient to recommend specific AEDs as alternatives to KD. Early diagnosis and initiation of KD and prevention of unnecessary AED trials in Glut 1 DS are important goals for the treatment of children with epilepsy.”
“Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) comprise a large family of endopeptidases that are capable of degrading all extracellular matrix components. There is increasing evidence that MMPs are not only involved in tissue destruction but may also exert beneficial effects during axonal regeneration and nerve remyelination.
A histopathological examination was performed on the tissues by staining with haematoxylin-eosin and detecting viral antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC). ROCV induced a strong immune response and was pathogenic in hamsters through neuroinvasion. ROCV was recovered from Vero cells exposed to samples from the viscera, brain, blood, serum and urine and was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, liver and blood
for three months after infection. ROCV induced histopathological changes and the expression of viral antigens, which were detected by IHC in the liver, kidney, lung and brain up to four months after infection. These findings show that ROCV is pathogenic to golden hamsters and has the capacity to cause persistent infection selleck kinase inhibitor in animals after intraperitoneal infection.”
“A 4-year-old boy presented with the complaint of fluid discharge from a 0.5-mm diameter opening at the lateral side of the right outer canthus during crying. The need for general anesthesia for contrast radiography prompted the authors to conducted salivary gland scintigraphy, which demonstrated radioactivity of the collected fluid. Salivary gland scintigraphy can be used as a diagnostic tool in cases with anomalous lacrimal ductule without the use of general anesthesia.”
sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is defined as >30 dB of hearing loss in at least three contiguous test frequencies occurring within 3 days or less and may be accompanied by tinnitus and vertigo. Despite the well-documented association Quizartinib solubility dmso between hearing loss and depressive symptoms, research on the emotional distress after SSNHL receives
only scant attention.\n\nDesign: The current study sought to (I) investigate the degree of self-reported mental distress in patients with SSNHL after a median follow-up period of 1 year, LDN-193189 price (2) investigate the association between mental distress, hearing recovery, and tinnitus.\n\nStudy sample: 147 patients admitted for sudden hearing loss and diagnosed with SSNHL\n\nResults: Patients who recovered from SSNHL reported significantly less depressive symptoms. Patients with tinnitus, compared to those without tinnitus, reported more depressive thoughts and feelings, more disruptive activities and personal relationships, and more physical symptoms.\n\nConclusions: This study showed that SSNHL patients who developed continuous tinnitus had a higher rate of greater emotional distress than those without tinnitus. Further research on the consequences of different risk factors specific to SSNHL, their impact on psychological well-being, and the development of better treatment strategies is needed to lessen the burdens associated with SSNHL. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Summary: MR-DWI and endoscopy data were prospectively collected throughout IFX treatment. Altogether, 86 lesions from 13 patients given IFX as induction (weeks 0, 2 and 6) and maintenance (5 mg/kg every 8 weeks beginning at week 14) therapy were analyzed with MR-DWI for 0.5-1.5 years from the starting point. Mucosal findings were confirmed by endoscopy at 1 and 3 years (gold standard). Of the 86 lesions, 65 were graded ’0′ and 21 were graded ’1′ based on their hyperintensity (HI; or lack thereof) on MR-DWI. Two Fludarabine cell line years after the first evaluation, 7 of 15 false-negative lesions had turned positive
based on colonoscopy findings, and 60 of 62 true-negative lesions had not. Thus, 0.03% of those predicted to remain in remission had relapsed (negative predictive value 0.9677, p < 0.0001). MR-DWI-HI at 1 year coincided with the presence of endoscopic inflammation, with sensitivity of 66.67%, specificity of 80.52%, and an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.7359 (0.5479-0.9240, p = 0.0211). The AUC value
of MR-DWI-HI at 3 years was 0.8402 (0.7460-0.9343, p = 0.001) with sensitivity of 94.12% and specificity of 73.91%. Key Message: A definition of the response on the basis of MR-DWI-HI might be helpful for optimizing treatment for patients with CD under treatment with IFX. (C) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“The posterolateral corner (PLC) is more likely to be injured in combination with the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) or the anterior cruciate ligament than in SHP099 Others inhibitor isolation. This leads to instability of the knee and loss of function. We hypothesised that combined PCL and PLC reconstruction would restore sufficient stability to allow improvement
in patient symptoms and function.\n\n19 patients who underwent arthroscopic-assisted single-bundle PCL and PLC reconstruction by a single surgeon were analysed retrospectively. The PLC reconstruction was a modified Larson reconstruction of the lateral collateral ligament and the popliteofibular ligament.\n\nThe IKDC and Tegner scores were used to assess outcome. Dial test and varus laxity were used to assess improvements in clinical laxity. Posterior laxity was tested using the KT-1000.\n\nThe mean follow-up was 38 months (+/-(2x standard deviations), Selleck Torin 1 +/- 12.3). There were no postoperative complications. All patients had less than 5 mm posterior step-off. 17 of 19 patients had negative dial and varus stress tests. Measured range of motion was reduced by a mean of 10A degrees, but patients did not report any daily activities restrictions. Tegner scores improved from a median pre-operative value of 2 (range 1-4) to 6 (4-9) at final follow-up. The mean postoperative IKDC score was 86 (+/- 11).\n\nSubjectively, the knee stability achieved allowed daily activities.
The intervention programme consisted of evaluating an individual’s stage of change after being provided dietary information regarding kind of food and portions, discussion with a role model, and keeping a food diary record. By the end of the intervention programme, most participants in the experimental group were in the action stage (n=36), whereas those in the control group were in the preparation stage (n=32). Body mass index, blood pressure, food consumption behaviour and the 2h postprandial buy MI-503 blood glucose (PPG) in the experimental group had improved (P smaller than 0.05). When performing regression analysis, intervention participation and the 2h PPG at the baseline accounted
for approximately 54% of total variance in predicting the 2h PPG. This study yielded evidence for the benefits of using the Stages of Change Model as a framework in a dietary modification programme among people at risk of type 2 diabetes.”
“We previously previously reported that G protein alpha subunit 1 (GPA1) is essential for sexual reproduction in the homothallic ascomycete fungus Gibberella zeae. In this study we performed microarray analyses on a GPA1 deletion mutant of G. zeae (Delta gpa1) to identify genes involved in the sexual reproduction of this fungus. In the Delta gpa1 strain, 645 genes were BAY 57-1293 in vitro down-regulated
and 550 genes were up-regulated during sexual reproduction Selleck AZD6094 when compared to the wild-type strain. One hundred of the down-regulated genes were selected for further investigation based on orthologous group clusters and differences in transcript levels. Quantitative real time-PCR was used to determine transcriptional profiles of these genes at various sexual and vegetative stages. We observed that transcript levels of 78 of these genes were dramatically increased in the wild-type strain during sexual reproduction compared
to levels observed during vegetative growth, and were down-regulated in Delta gpa1 compared to the wild-type strain. We deleted 57 of these genes and found that four of the deletion mutants lost self-fertility and five produced fewer perithecia compared to the wild-type strain. Two mutants produced wild-type numbers of perithecia, but maturation of perithecia and ascospores was delayed. In all we identified 11 genes that are involved in sexual reproduction of G. zeae and present evidence that some of these genes function at distinct stages during sexual reproduction in the fungus. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The incidence of early death in a large population of unselected patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) remains unknown because of the paucity of outcome data available for patients treated outside of clinical trials. We undertook an epidemiologic study to estimate the true rate of early death with data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program.
These results demonstrate that miR-221 and miR-222 regulate radiosensitivity, and cell growth and invasion signaling pathway of SGC7901 cells, possibly via direct modulation of PTEN expression. Our study suggests that inhibition of miR-221 and miR-222 might form a novel therapeutic strategy for human gastric cancer.”
“We report a novel, scalable and inexpensive approach to fully disperse carbon nanotubes in silicone rubber by the addition of graphene. In comparison to graphene, the dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in silicone rubber matrix is extremely difficult although both of them possess similar physical structure. The different dispersion behavior of graphene and MWNTs could be contributed to the difference in their interaction with polymer matrix and their geometry. Based on SEM, TEM and XRD analysis, we find that the dispersion of MWNTs in silicone rubber is dramatically improved by the addition of graphene. Graphene acts as a compatilizer since it shows strong interaction with both polymer matrix and MWNTs. This method provides a simple route to enhance the dispersion of carbon nanotubes and improve the electrical property of the polymer composites. The synergic effect of the hybrid materials may not to be limited to the applications in polymer composites. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
present a case of a sclerosed hemangioma buy BVD-523 (SH) of the liver BMS345541 that showed a high apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value. The patient
was undergoing preoperative evaluation for a metastatic breast cancer lesion when a liver mass with a diameter of 3 cm was found. It was described as a heterogeneously hyperechoic mass on ultrasonography and as a well-defined, lobulated mass with early peripheral enhancement and internal heterogeneous enhancement in the delayed phase on computed tomography. The fat-suppressed T2-weighted images demonstrated a heterogeneously hyperintense mass, which showed an ADC value of 2.01 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s. Liver metastasis and cholangiocellular carcinoma could not be excluded based on the imaging findings. After surgery, a definite diagnosis of SH was obtained. Microscopically, many hyalinized portions with poor cellular and fibrous components were observed in the tumor, and this hyalinization accompanied with liquiform degeneration, which may have been one of the causes of the high ADC value. We discuss the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted imaging for SH of the liver.”
“Stem cells, either neural [NSCs] or mesenchymal [MSCs], possess tremendous untapped potential for cell therapy. Unlike the NSCs, MSCs are multi-potent and they have high self-renewal capability and broad tissue distribution. Since they do not produce significant immune rejection on post-transplantation; they are better suited for cell-based therapies. However, several critical issues need to be addressed to maximize stem cell-derived therapeutic effects.