Moreover, we determined the molecular mechanisms of parthenolide on the inhibitory action of nuclear factor-kappa B in inflammatory
human benign urothelial cells.
Materials and Methods: Rats were pretreated with parthenolide or vehicle solution and administered cyclophosphamide. Histological analysis and cystometry were performed 24 hours after cyclophosphamide administration. Human urothelial cells were pretreated with parthenolide and stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha. 3Methyladenine Western blotting and immunofluorescence were performed to determine activation of the cyclooxygenase-2 and nuclear factor-kappa B pathway.
Results: Parthenolide pretreatment inhibited bladder inflammation as well as bladder overactivity and it was also associated with nuclear factor-kappa B activation in the bladder. Parthenolide dose dependently suppressed tumor necrosis factor-a induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prevented nuclear factor-kappa B phosphorylation as well as nuclear factor-kappa B nuclear translocation and IKB alpha phosphorylation/degradation.
Nuclear factor-kappa B may have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of cyclophosphamide induced cystitis models. Parthenolide ameliorates bladder inflammation and bladder overactivity, and it might be a promising agent for preventing cyclophosphamide induced complications.”
“Recent studies have shown that sulforaphane, a naturally occurring compound that is found in cruciferous vegetables, offers cellular VE-822 purchase protection in several models of brain injury. When administered following traumatic brain injury (TBI), sulforaphane has been demonstrated find more to attenuate blood-brain barrier permeability and reduce cerebral edema. These beneficial effects of sulforaphane have been shown to involve induction of a group of cytoprotective, Nrf2-driven genes, whose protein products include free
radical scavenging and detoxifying enzymes. However, the influence of sulforaphane on post-injury cognitive deficits has not been examined. In this study, we examined if sulforaphane, when administered following cortical impact injury, can improve the performance of rats tested in hippocampal- and prefrontal cortex-dependent tasks. Our results indicate that sulforaphane treatment improves performance in the Morris water maze task (as indicated by decreased latencies during learning and platform localization during a probe trial) and reduces working memory dysfunction (tested using the delayed match-to-place task). These behavioral improvements were only observed when the treatment was initiated 1 h, but not 6 h, post-injury. These studies support the use of sulforaphane in the treatment of TBI, and extend the previously observed protective effects to include enhanced cognition. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.