The animals fed with Standard Diet (Purina – Labina®) used for re

The animals fed with Standard Diet (Purina – Labina®) used for regular maintenance of our rats is composed of 50.30% of carbohydrate, 41.90% of protein and 7.80% of fat presenting a total of 2.18 kcal AZD6244 per 1 g of diet. High-fat diet was composed of 24.55% of carbohydrate, 14.47% of protein and 60.98% of fat, presenting a total of 5.28 kcal per 1 g of diet [2]. The food intake was measured twice a week during the treatment to obtain food efficiency (food intake/body weight). Overnight fasted rats were killed by decapitation and samples of blood and epididymal, retroperitoneal

white adipose tissue and liver were collected, weighed and immediately frozen in dry ice and stored at −80 °C for subsequent analysis. For the glucose tolerance test, d-glucose (2 mg/g body weight) was intraperitoneally injected into overnight fasted rats. Glucose levels from tail blood samples were monitored at 0, 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. An insulin sensitivity test was performed on overnight-fed rats, after intraperitoneal injection of insulin (0.75 units/kg Sunitinib order body weight). Tail blood samples were taken at time

0, 15, 30, and 60 min after injection. Total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides were assayed using enzymatic kits (Doles®, Goiania, Brazil). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were used to measure serum adiponectin and insulin (Adipo-Gen®, Seoul, Korea) and leptin (Lincoln®, St. Louis, USA) levels. Total RNA from the liver was prepared using TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen Corp.®, San Diego, California, USA), treated with DNAse and reverse

transcribed with M-MLV (Invitrogen Corp.®) using random hexamer primers. The endogenous glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ACE, ACE2, resistin, TLR4, IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB cDNA were amplified using specific primers and SYBR green reagent (Appllied Biosystems®, USA) in an PlusOne platform (Appllied Biosystems®). Relative comparative Ribonucleotide reductase CT method was applied to compare gene expression levels between groups, using the equation 2−ΔΔCT[11]. Proteins were extracted from epididymal adipose tissue samples of rats and 30 μg of protein were resolved on SDS–PAGE gels (10%), transferred onto nitrocellulose membranes and blocked with Odyssey Blocking Buffer 1× (LI-COR Biosciences®, Germany). For immunoblotting, the membranes were probed with a polyclonal rabbit anti-p38/MAPK (Thr180/Tyr182) antibody (1:1000; Cell Signaling Inc., USA). The blots were then incubated with β-actin anti-rabbit IgG (1:1000; Sigma–Aldrich, Germany), was used as endogenous control. The blots were viewed using an infrared Q3127 LICOR® scanner and analyzed using the Odyssey® software.

512) ( Table 3), whereas Mg intake explained 10 3% of the varianc

512) ( Table 3), whereas Mg intake explained 10.3% of the variance in erythrocyte Mg (R2 = 0.103) ( Table 3).

The findings reported herein reveal inadequate intake of Ca and hypercalciuria in the study population of pregnant women, but with CTX levels within the normal range. All of the participants showed Mg intake below the EAR and 40% presented hypomagnesuria. However, the plasma Mg and erythrocyte learn more Mg levels of the study population were within the normal range. Based on these findings, the hypothesis that Ca and Mg status is inadequate in pregnant women must be rejected. In previous studies, increases in the levels of CTX and of other bone resorption markers have been observed after the 35th week of pregnancy, with 80% of the Ca transferred being find more utilized in the formation of fetal bone [24] and [25]. However, no alterations in CTX levels were observed in the population of pregnant women studied herein at the 29th week of pregnancy. The linear regression

analyses carried out in the present study revealed significant positive relationships among urinary Ca excretion, Ca intake, and urinary Mg excretion. The well-described hypercalciuria of pregnancy [6] and [26] may result from the combination of increased glomerular filtration rate (25%-50%) and intestinal Ca absorption [27]. Although the mechanism involved in hypercalciuria is not completely understood, it is possible that some hormones act to increase the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, thereby stimulating the intestinal absorption of dietary Ca resulting in increased Ca excretion

that is characteristic of absorptive check details hypercalciuria [6]. Furthermore, hypercalciuria can lead to the formation of kidney stones, a process that is inhibited by the increase of urinary Mg and citrate excretion [26] and [28]. On this basis, the observed association between urinary Ca and Mg excretion was as expected, although it should be emphasized that hypermagnesuria was not observed in the present study. Although Ca intake of the study population was lower than the recommended EAR (800 mg/d), linear regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary Ca excretion and Ca intake, possibly because of higher intestinal Ca absorption [27]. This finding may indicate that the level of Ca intake, which was higher than values determined in earlier studies conducted in Brazil [7], [10] and [29], was sufficient for pregnant women to maintain their normal physiological functions. No reports are available concerning Mg intake in pregnant women in Brazil, but the intake values recorded in the present study were lower than those reported in studies conducted in other countries [30] and [31]. The normal levels of plasma Mg and erythrocyte Mg detected in the present study were apparently maintained through hypomagnesuria.

, 1993, Abe et al , 1998, Nakano and Nagata, 2003, Davern

, 1993, Abe et al., 1998, Nakano and Nagata, 2003, Davern

et al., 2008, te Velthuis et al., 2011 and Hoedemakers et al., 2012); many of the mAbs that we have produced against FLC do not bind FLC from up to a quarter of individual myeloma patients. The extent of FLC structural diversity is reflected in the LC gene structure. Thus, the κ immunoglobulin gene family contains 81 genes located on chromosome 2, of which, at least 40 functional genes are responsible for V region variability, giving rise to at least 4 major V region types (Vκ1, Vκ2, Vκ3, and Vκ4) (Sitnikova and Nei, 1998 and Davern et al., 2008). Further, there are 5 genes responsible for encoding the J region, and 1 constant region gene expressing 1 of 3 allotypic forms (κm1, κm2, κm3) ( Sitnikova and Nei, 1998, Davern et al., 2008 and Jefferis and Lefranc, 2009). The λ immunoglobulin gene family appears to learn more support more diversity, in that there are at least 40 functional genes responsible for V region variability that results in at least 5 major V region types (Vλ1, Vλ2, Vλ3, Vλ6, and Vλ8). Further, there are at least 5 genes responsible for encoding the J region, and up to 7 genes for the C region that gives rise to at least 3 C region isotypes (Cλ1, Cλ2/3, Cλ7) ( Solomon and Weiss, 1995 and Davern et al., 2008). FLC diversity is extended by somatic mutations in the encoding

genes and post-translational modifications of FLC. Given this multiplicity of human FLC structures, it is not surprising that it is difficult to produce mAbs that would detect the FLC from substantially all patients and neoplastic plasma cell clones. To be clinically reliable any new assay for FLC should be tested against a large number of serum and urine samples to show that the mAbs are at least close to the ideal of detecting FLC from all

patients and neoplastic plasma cell clones. In plasma samples containing Dipeptidyl peptidase normal polyclonal FLC, obtained from healthy donors, each of the mAbs provided similar quantitation of absolute FLC levels. These samples were obtained from UK blood donors, which include persons up to the age of 65 years. It is likely that some of these donors had MGUS, and indeed, one donor found to have an abnormal FLC ratio detected by both the mAb assay and Freelite™, had a 30 g/L IgG λ paraprotein. Similarly, we cannot exclude the possibility that some donors had a degree of renal impairment. For both polyclonal and monoclonal λ FLC in a thousand consecutive serum samples, the two anti-λ FLC mAbs exhibited excellent correlations with each other, and displayed good clinical concordance with Freelite™. The diversity in FLC repertoire may explain the more divergent correlations demonstrated in this study between the mAb assay and Freelite™ for highly elevated monoclonal λ FLC paraproteins (see Fig. 4).

The following sentence should correctly read: Binding studies wer

The following sentence should correctly read: Binding studies were carried out at pH 1.2 and 6.8. P(HEMA-co-SS) (80 – 800 mg/L) and different proteins (40 – 400 mg/L) were mixed together at pH 1.2 (50 mmol/L KCl and 85 mmol/L HCl) or 6.8 (20 mmol/L K2HPO4 and 2 mmol/L NaOH) and incubated for 2 hours at 37°C. The same error occurred in the legend of Figure 1B (on page 291). The following sentence should read: (B) Ibrutinib order SDS-PAGE of albumin, ovalbumin, α-gliadin, and

lysozyme (40 mg/L) incubated with (+) or without (−) P(HEMA-co-SS) (25 kilodaltons) (protein/polymer weight ratio of 1:2) at pH 6.8 and 37°C. “
“Deugnier Y, Turlin B, Ropert M, et al. Improvement in liver pathology of patients with β-thalassemia treated with deferasirox for at least 3 years. Gastroenterology 2011;141:1202–1211 In the above article, the acronym EPIC in the penultimate paragraph of the discussion section was incorrectly expanded. The correct expansion of the acronym EPIC should be: Evaluation of Patients’ Iron Chelation with Exjade. “
“Adaptation to different states,

such as exercise, rest, and starvation or overnutrition, is essential for life. In turn, dysfunction and perturbation Baf-A1 of these networks can lead to metabolic imbalances, which if uncorrected induce diseases such as obesity or diabetes. Metabolic adaptation is largely controlled by transcriptional co-regulators and transcription factors responsible, respectively, for sensing metabolic disturbances and fine-tuning the transcriptional response.1 During starvation,

this adaptive response is essential for species survival, and the liver plays a central role in this process as a main site for gluconeogenesis and energy production.2 At early stages, the liver mobilizes glucose from its glycogen stores; as fasting progresses, it oxidizes fat to provide both energy for gluconeogenesis and substrate for ketogenesis. Generation C59 cost of sugar from nonsugar carbon substrates (gluconeogenesis) involves several enzyme-catalyzed reactions that take place in both cytosol and mitochondria. Iron is essential for vital redox activities in the cell, in particular it is required for respiration and energy production in mitochondria (which are also the unique site for heme synthesis and the major site for Fe-S cluster biosynthesis), and likewise is important for mitochondria biogenesis.3 A number of iron abnormalities, ranging from low serum iron/iron-restricted anemia to hepatic/systemic iron overload, have been reported in human disorders with activated gluconeogenic signaling pathways, including obesity,4 metabolic syndrome,5, 6 and 7 and diabetes.8 and 9 Interestingly, iron excess has been associated with worsened insulin sensitivity and disease progression, whereas iron removal has been found to be beneficial.6, 8 and 10 Based on these premises, we asked whether iron status could be regulated directly by gluconeogenic signals.

0005, 0 005, 0 001) To determine the pattern of midgut proteinas

0005, 0.005, 0.001). To determine the pattern of midgut proteinase activity with respect to pH in fifth instar nymphs of T. brasiliensis the wide-ranging proteinase substrate gelatine was used. Gelatinase activity of electrophoretic separated proteins led to a degradation of the gelatine matrix and appeared in colorless, non-stainable areas in the gel. Only fresh midgut content samples showed proteolytic

activity, samples stored at −20 °C lost the major part of their activity and could not be visualized by the methodology used in the present study (data not shown). Both, the small intestine content ( Fig. 5) and the small intestine tissue samples (data not shown) showed up to four distinct bands of proteolytic degradation, although the Proteasome function activity of the gut content was Venetoclax cell line always more intense. Stomach content of unfed fifth instar nymphs never generated proteolytic activity bands (data not shown). Content of small intestine at 5 daf produced three broad proteolytic activity bands corresponding to the molecular weights of cysteine proteinases (about 28–35 kDa), showing the maximum intensity at pH 4.5. Therefore further experiments were carried out at this pH value. Also among the other tested conditions proteolytic degradation of gelatine became visible (Fig. 5A). Only at a pH 3.5 and 4.0 an additional band of about

45 kDa was visible in T. brasiliensis samples. In small intestine homogenates of T. infestans this 45 kDa band remained visible also in all tested pH values in a similar intensity (data not shown). The other activity band detected in the small intestine of T. infestans slightly differed in their molecular weight from those of T. brasiliensis ( Fig. 5B). Using specific proteinase inhibitors, the analysis revealed that the midgut activity contained cysteine like enzymes in small intestine samples at 5 daf (Fig. 5B). E-64 fully inhibited all proteinase

activity bands of T. brasiliensis after 30 min incubation at room temperature, while in T. infestans a residual activity of the 45 kDa band remained ( Fig. 5B). After incubation with the specific cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074, in T. infestans 22.9% and in T. brasiliensis 72.5% of remaining activity was detected. After incubation with E-64 at 4 °C a residual activity was visible in T. brasiliensis Protirelin small intestine samples, indicating a minor affinity of the inhibitor to the enzyme at low temperatures (data not shown). Cathepsin activity was detected in unfed insects and at 3, 5 and 10 daf, at 15 daf no activity was observed. Proteolytic activity increased at 3 daf and reached its maximum at 5 daf (Fig. 5C). To verify the zymography results of intestinal triatomine cathepsins, the midgut content samples were separated by SDS–PAGE and analyzed by immuno blotting using specific antibodies to Helicoverpa armigera cathepsin L. H. armigera mature cathepsin L amino acid sequence has an identity of 70.0 and 69.6% with that of TBCATL-1 and TBCATL-2, respectively.

, 1999) In terms of brainstem regions, the raphe nuclei and locu

, 1999). In terms of brainstem regions, the raphe nuclei and locus coeruleus Talazoparib chemical structure are both implicated

in several psychiatric conditions as well as having reciprocal connections with the vestibular nuclei. The raphe nuclei receives projections from the vestibular nuclei ( Cuccurazzu and Halberstadt, 2008) and sends serotonergic and nonserotonergic projections to the vestibular nuclei ( Halberstadt and Balaban, 2006 and Kalen et al., 1985) as well as sending axon collaterals to the central amygdaloid nucleus, suggesting co-modulation of vestibular pathways with regions involved in affective control ( Halberstadt and Balaban, 2006). The raphe-vestibular projections are organised into anatomically distinct fields which is thought to selectively modulate processing in regions of the vestibular nuclear complex that receive input from specific cerebellar zones, representing a potential mechanism whereby motor activity and behavioural arousal could influence the activity of cerebellovestibular circuits ( Halberstadt and Balaban, 2003). The locus coeruleus provides noradrenergic innervation to the vestibular nuclei ( Schuerger and Balaban, 1999), as well as collateral projections to regions including the cerebellum, neocortex and hypothalamus, which have been hypothesised to mediate effects of arousal

on vestibular reflex performance. The locus coeruleus also responds to vestibular stimulation ( Manzoni et al., 1989) via direct projections from selleck chemicals the vestibular nuclei ( Balaban, 1996) and input from vestibular related sources ( Luppi et al., 1995). The limbic system is central to both vestibular function

and emotional processing. The parabrachial nucleus (PBN) network provides a direct link between the vestibular system and neural networks involved in emotional processing. The PBN has reciprocal connections with the vestibular nuclei ( Balaban Nintedanib chemical structure and Thayer, 2001, Balaban, 2002 and Balaban, 2004b), as well as reciprocal connections with the amygdala, hypothalamus, locus coeruleus, and prefrontal cortex ( Balaban and Thayer, 2001, Gorman et al., 2000 and Schuerger and Balaban, 1999). The amygdala, hypothalamus, locus coeruleus and prefrontal cortex are all areas of the brain that are commonly linked with mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression (e.g. Bennett, 2011; Brown et al., 2011). The hippocampus is consistently implicated in cognition and models of psychiatric disorders and there is a large body of evidence supporting vestibular–hippocampal interactions (e.g. Besnard et al., 2012, Brandt et al., 2005, Hufner et al., 2007, Sharp et al., 1995 and Smith et al., 2005a).

The ADW protection against

The ADW protection against see more BPA induced cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay (Fig. 4). The cells were incubated with ADW (100 μg/mL) and BPA (100 nM) for 0-72 h and the cell viability was measured. BPA induced 6%, 35% and 56% cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells at 24, 48 and 72 h. The mitochondrial

respiration inhibitor Antimycin A was used as negative control was very effective and caused 57%, 65% and 84% cytotoxicity to cells at 24, 48 and 72 h respectively. When ADW (100 μg/mL) was co-incubated with BPA, cell viability was significantly increased from 45% to 78% compared to BPA treated group and showed rescue effect of ADW against BPA induced toxicity. The oxygen consumption rate in the mitochondria of HepG2 cells treated with BPA was evaluated and the results are given in Fig. 5(a). The results show that BPA and antimycin A treated cells showed to decreased oxygen consumption compared to control which was measured as fluorescent life time signal (μs) over a period of 0-200 mins. When the cells were treated with ADW along with BPA the oxygen consumption was increased significantly over 0-200 mins and the oxygen consumption pattern was comparable to control cells. The ATP concentration was measured in the HepG2 cells treated with BPA and the results are presented in Fig. 5(b). The results

show that ATP level in the cells treated with BPA and antimycin A was significantly reduced by 7.5 folds and 5.45 folds compared to control at 24 h incubation time. While cells treated with ADW along with BPA could withstand the ATP depletion in a significant manner. The mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨM) using JC-1 stain was measured in HepG2 cells treated with BPA and the results are given in Fig. 5(c). At 24 h the ΔΨM was increased significantly by 3.9 and 5.25 folds in cells treated with BPA and antimycin A. Whereas, the cells treated with ADW along with BPA significantly inhibited the increase in ΔΨM and inhibited mitochondrial membrane damage. Ureohydrolase The lipid peroxidation was significantly increased by 2.4 folds upon addition of BPA in HepG2 cells as shown in Fig.

6. The cells treated with antioxidants such as Vitamin E and BHA could significantly inhibit the lipid peroxidation induced by BPA. In similar lines, ADW addition was very effective and significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation by 63.16% compared to BPA treated cells. The effect of BPA treatment on GSH and GSSG levels in the HepG2 cells was evaluated and the results are given in Table 2. The results showed that non-enzymic antioxidant glutathione content was significantly reduced by 2.94 folds upon BPA treatment compared to control cells. The antimycin A treated group showed 4.29 folds reduction in GSH content. While, addition of ADW and Vitamin E to cells treated with BPA showed to inhibit GSH depletion significantly.

Approval from the Animal Experiment Committee of the University o

Approval from the Animal Experiment Committee of the University of Kuopio and the Provincial Government Afatinib cost of Eastern Finland was obtained for all animal study plans. Following euthanasia, liver tissues were excised, sliced, and snap-frozen. The tissues were later homogenized and total RNA was extracted using Qiagen RNeasy kits according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Qiagen, Mississauga, Canada) as previously described (Boutros et al., 2011). The isolated RNA was assayed on Affymetrix RAT230-2 (Wis and F344; performed with six biological replicates each) or RAE230-A (L-E, H/W, LnA, and LnC; performed with four biological replicates each) arrays at The Centre for Applied Genomics at The

Hospital for

Sick Children (Toronto, Canada). The two platforms RAT230-2 and RAE230-A differ by the number of probe sets contained on the array. The platform RAE230-A is a subset of RAT230-2 and hence shares many of the same genes as RAT230-2. Our statistical comparisons were performed within the same platform; thus any variability is balanced and no bias is introduced. We rigorously assessed the technical quality of each array and none were excluded from subsequent data analyses. Animal handling and reporting comply with ARRIVE guidelines (Kilkenny et al., 2010). Raw quantitated array data (CEL files) were loaded into the R Bcl-2 phosphorylation statistical environment (v2.12.2) using the affy package (v1.28.0) of the BioConductor library (Gentleman et al., 2004). Data were screened for spatial and distributional homogeneity and none were excluded from this study. Data were pre-processed with a sequence-specific version of RMA algorithm – GCRMA – as implemented in R (gcrma package v2.22.0). Probes were remapped to Entrez Gene IDs using rat2302rnentrezgcdf (v13.0.0) and rae230arnentrezgcdf very (v13.0.0) R packages (Dai et al., 2005). Entrez Gene annotation was downloaded from NCBI on 2011-02-22. Individual strains were treated as separate cohorts and animals within a cohort were pre-processed together to avoid confounding effects from co-normalization of diverse strains. Raw and

pre-processed microarray data are available in the GEO repository under accession GSE31411. Following pre-processing, we employed general linear-modeling to identify genes affected by TCDD treatment relative to the vehicle control. The expression profiles across all animals within a cohort were determined using a per-gene linear model that assesses both basal levels and TCDD-induced effects. Coefficients were fit to terms representing each effect and the standard errors of the coefficients were adjusted using an empirical Bayes moderation of the standard error (Smyth, 2004). To test if each coefficient was statistically different from zero, we applied model-based t-tests, followed by a false-discovery rate adjustment for multiple-testing (Storey and Tibshirani, 2003).

The long-term aim is to build an OSD Consortium to continue build

The long-term aim is to build an OSD Consortium to continue building a global time-series data set as part of the world’s Ocean Observatories. DNA microarrays are coated

solid surfaces onto which a large number of fluorescently labelled DNA probes can be spotted. Each probe is specific for a species, and when the probe hybridizes with a sample, the sample/probe complex fluoresces in UV light. Microarrays are used for in situ monitoring of multiple harmful algal bloom (HAB) species using DNA probe arrays coupled with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to simultaneously detect algal toxins. This method is especially useful for the rapid identification of HABs, toxic algae that can have serious health consequences (Bricker et al., 2007). As an example, the European project MIDTAL (Microarrays for the detection of toxic algae) has developed a microarray FG-4592 nmr to target major HAB species including toxic dinoflagellates, raphidophytes, prymnesiophytes, Dichtyocophyceae and the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia (Lewis et al., 2012). Another study (Doucette et al., 2009) introduced the Environmental Sample Processor (ESP) which was developed for the autonomous detection of HAB species using DNA probe arrays, as well as their associated toxins. The algal toxin domoic acid (DA)

was extracted and detected in situ from Pseudo-nitzschia cells onboard the ESP within 3 h (Doucette et al., 2009). Although the custom nature of the ESP makes purchasing and maintaining one of these instruments expensive, since no ship or laboratory time is involved in learn more collecting and analyzing samples once the Cediranib (AZD2171) instrument is deployed, per sample cost compared with ship and laboratory time may actually

be less. Standardization/commercialization of reagents and other consumable items is likely to make this system more cost effective than collecting samples by ship and returning them to the lab on a routine basis. Because this instrument relies on DNA probes for detection of HAB species, the potential for new indicators is nearly unlimited. The cELISA-based assay used to detect and quantify algal toxins is similarly adaptable, as all one would need to develop is a set of antibodies for the desired toxin. HABs can have potentially devastating socioeconomic, public health and ecosystem impacts (Bricker et al., 2007). The ability to monitor for and detect these organisms in real time is an extremely high priority. This method consists in the amplification and quantification a gene sequence specific to the organism(s) of interest. The correlation of the amount of DNA obtained with the number of individuals will allow quantification of the organisms of study in a given sample. This is only possible for unicellular organisms that contain a single or a known number of copies of the gene under study.

Additional statistical calculations were made using StatPlus (Ana

Additional statistical calculations were made using StatPlus (AnalystSoft

Inc.) software. Normality was assessed using the Shapiro–Wilk test, and measures among survey zones were compared using two-tailed T-tests or Mann Whitney U tests, as appropriate. For most statistical analyses, data from 26 to 500 m were pooled, as described in the text, after finding no significant differences in data collected among these distances. F-tests were used to determine differences in sample variance between sites. Throughout, P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 11,184 megafaunal individuals from 10 phyla and 61 taxa (Table 1) were observed from video transects selleck screening library covering an area of 3089 m2 Panobinostat (Fig. 2). As expected, the megafaunal assemblage on the container surface differed greatly (Permutational MANOVA, Monte Carlo P = 0.0001) from the assemblages found on sediment-covered survey zones around the container ( Fig. 3). Container megafauna was dominated by serpulid and sabellid worms, pectinid scallops, Calliostoma sp. top snails, and attached tunicates ( Fig. 4). These taxa were only associated with the container’s surface and not observed on sediment habitats. Megafauna on the container were present in higher density (two-tailed T-test of individuals m−2, P < 0.001), lower

taxa richness (two-tailed T-test of Margalef’s d, P < 0.001), and lower diversity (two-tailed T-test of H’Loge, P < 0.001) than

observed for the sediment-dwelling assemblage pooled from 26 to 500 m ( Fig. 5). Furthermore, the variance in density of individuals (F-test of individuals m−2, F ⩾ 9.0, P ⩽ 0.048), diversity (F-test of H′Loge, F ⩾ 11.6, P ⩽ 0.032), and dominance (F-test of 1-λ′, F ⩾ 51.6, P ⩽ 0.002), of megafauna on the container was higher than measured for the sediment assemblage (26–500 m; Fig. 5). Overall, the container surface houses a megafauna assemblage approximately 40% similar to the benthos within 10 m of its base and 30% similar to the benthos >10 m, based on distance-based redundancy analysis (dbRDA) with standardized densities of individuals per survey location ( Fig. 6). Sediment-dwelling megafauna varied in abundance according to their distance from the container. Within 10 m of the container, the megafaunal Docetaxel mw assemblage was distinctive from all more distant areas (Permutational MANOVA, Monte Carlo P < 0.05). The megafauna dominating the benthos ( Fig. 7a–d) were not observed on the container and were present in lower densities within 10 m of the container compared to all more distant locations (two-tailed T-tests, P < 0.05). The principal difference in megabenthos near the container was the decreased abundance of the sea pen Pennatula sp. and other filter feeders ( Fig. 7). Mobile taxa were more abundant within 10 m of the container (ca.