These results were associated with increased expression of endoth

These results were associated with increased expression of endothelin-1 and its receptor, together with e-NOS up-regulation as potential mechanisms of protection. Taking into account these experiments, it is plausible

that CIH effects on vascular reactivity could be attenuated in the CBDL model, such as in sustained chronic hypoxia. On the other hand, further vasoconstriction to Mtx was observed in both models of cirrhosis after CIH. Our results suggest that additional factors STA-9090 cell line may play a role in this response. Particularly, increased production of endothelin-1 has been found to occur during CIH.34 To our knowledge, this is the first experimental study investigating the hepatic hemodynamic effects of CIH in the setting of cirrhosis. Our novel findings are clinically relevant, because CIH and OSAS have been described in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension. A pilot study showed a previously undescribed high prevalence of OSAS and nocturnal oxygen desaturations among patients who have cirrhosis with ascites that improved after paracenthesis.10 This observation has been

confirmed by other groups more recently.11, 13 The results of these studies showed that OSAS can be present in cirrhotic patients and particularly in those with severe liver disease, which could exacerbate impairment of liver function. In fact, OSAS has been associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase levels in patients12 and animals exposed to CIH.35 Furthermore, even severe histology changes (inflammation and fibrosis) have been shown to appear after long exposure to GSK-3 inhibitor review CIH.35 In our short-term experimental conditions, MCE the

absence of change in baseline portal perfusion pressure makes a change in intrahepatic mechanical vascular resistance unlikely due to increased fibrosis. In vivo baseline hemodynamic parameters were not significantly different between CIH and HC rats. However, after volume expansion was performed in cirrhotic rats, analysis of hemodynamics yielded interesting results. As shown by other investigators,16, 36 after volume expansion in cirrhotic rats, PP increases as MAP and portal blood flow augments, due to the inability of the liver circulation to appropriately dilate in response to flow. In fact, this further increase in PP can be prevented with NO donors16, 36 without modifying MAP or portal blood flow. In our study, PP increase was similar in CIH and HC rats. However, MAP and probably PBF increase were lower in CIH rats. Indeed, vascular hyporeactivity due to autonomic impairment has been described recently after exposure to CIH.37 These observations suggest that CIH may also provoke additional deleterious systemic effects in cirrhotic rats, yet to be studied. Overall, these data suggest that CIH could be a relevant underestimated factor to take into account when assessing cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension.

After pulling the endoscope out, 20-Fr PEG-J tube was placed at t

After pulling the endoscope out, 20-Fr PEG-J tube was placed at the jejunum over the guidewire under fluoroscopy. At first concentrated liquid diet was used as PEG-J tube feedings but tube occlusion occurred easily in a few days because of milk constituent deposition in PEG-J tube inner cavity. Elemental diet (Elental®) which is highly liquid was used as PEG-J tube feedings to prevent tube occlusion. Results: No recurrence of vomiting and serious aspiration pneumonia caused by GERD was observed after the PEG-J tube placements.

PEG-J tube placements were successfully completed within 5 minutes in all cases. There were no complications. PEG-J tube feedings were safely performed even in the acute phase such as serious check details pneumonia,

acute pancreatitis. PEG-J tube could also be used as decompression tube in ileus cases. Elemental diet can prevent tube occlusion because of its high fluidity. Elemental diet seems to be the best for PEG-J tube feedings. Conclusion: The efficacy of PEG-J was clear because PEG-J tube have two lumens for transjejunal feedings and gastric decompression. PEG-J is useful to save PEG related problems. Key Word(s): 1. percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy; 2. peg; 3. percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy with jejunal extension; 4. PEG-J Presenting Author: SINTA MURTI Additional Authors: ARI FAHRIAL SYAM, DADANG MAKMUN Corresponding Author: SINTA MURTI Affiliations: Medical Faculty Indonesia Univ-Cipto Mangunkusumo, Medical Faculty Indonesia Univ-Cipto selleck chemicals llc Mangunkusumo Objective: Introduction Handgrip strength (HGS) is a simple, easily performed bedside test that has been shown to correlate with patients mortality, surgery complication and length of stay. Many hospitalized patient need a bedside test to assess their nutritional status. Whether HGS can be used for this purpose is still under investigation. This study aimed to investigate handgrip utility as a marker of nutritional status in hospitalized patient, compared to other nutritional marker. Methods: This

MCE公司 is a retrospective study. Data from hospitalized internal medicine patients were recorded at the time of their entry and discharge, consist of HGS value, subjective global assessment, anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis (BIA) measurement and albumin. Results: We collect data from 177 inpatients. Handgrip strength significantly difer between those with good nutrition compared to those with mild undernourish, also if compared to severe undernourish (p = 0,0005). Handgrip strength significanty correlate with circumference arm muscle area, muscle mass and albumin but it doesn’t correlate with arm fat area and body fat. These results are consistent from entry time to disharge. There is no significant HGS differences between patient whose able to achieve nutrition target based on subjective global assessment.

After pulling the endoscope out, 20-Fr PEG-J tube was placed at t

After pulling the endoscope out, 20-Fr PEG-J tube was placed at the jejunum over the guidewire under fluoroscopy. At first concentrated liquid diet was used as PEG-J tube feedings but tube occlusion occurred easily in a few days because of milk constituent deposition in PEG-J tube inner cavity. Elemental diet (Elental®) which is highly liquid was used as PEG-J tube feedings to prevent tube occlusion. Results: No recurrence of vomiting and serious aspiration pneumonia caused by GERD was observed after the PEG-J tube placements.

PEG-J tube placements were successfully completed within 5 minutes in all cases. There were no complications. PEG-J tube feedings were safely performed even in the acute phase such as serious Akt activation pneumonia,

acute pancreatitis. PEG-J tube could also be used as decompression tube in ileus cases. Elemental diet can prevent tube occlusion because of its high fluidity. Elemental diet seems to be the best for PEG-J tube feedings. Conclusion: The efficacy of PEG-J was clear because PEG-J tube have two lumens for transjejunal feedings and gastric decompression. PEG-J is useful to save PEG related problems. Key Word(s): 1. percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy; 2. peg; 3. percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy with jejunal extension; 4. PEG-J Presenting Author: SINTA MURTI Additional Authors: ARI FAHRIAL SYAM, DADANG MAKMUN Corresponding Author: SINTA MURTI Affiliations: Medical Faculty Indonesia Univ-Cipto Mangunkusumo, Medical Faculty Indonesia Univ-Cipto www.selleckchem.com/products/ulixertinib-bvd-523-vrt752271.html Mangunkusumo Objective: Introduction Handgrip strength (HGS) is a simple, easily performed bedside test that has been shown to correlate with patients mortality, surgery complication and length of stay. Many hospitalized patient need a bedside test to assess their nutritional status. Whether HGS can be used for this purpose is still under investigation. This study aimed to investigate handgrip utility as a marker of nutritional status in hospitalized patient, compared to other nutritional marker. Methods: This

medchemexpress is a retrospective study. Data from hospitalized internal medicine patients were recorded at the time of their entry and discharge, consist of HGS value, subjective global assessment, anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis (BIA) measurement and albumin. Results: We collect data from 177 inpatients. Handgrip strength significantly difer between those with good nutrition compared to those with mild undernourish, also if compared to severe undernourish (p = 0,0005). Handgrip strength significanty correlate with circumference arm muscle area, muscle mass and albumin but it doesn’t correlate with arm fat area and body fat. These results are consistent from entry time to disharge. There is no significant HGS differences between patient whose able to achieve nutrition target based on subjective global assessment.

After pulling the endoscope out, 20-Fr PEG-J tube was placed at t

After pulling the endoscope out, 20-Fr PEG-J tube was placed at the jejunum over the guidewire under fluoroscopy. At first concentrated liquid diet was used as PEG-J tube feedings but tube occlusion occurred easily in a few days because of milk constituent deposition in PEG-J tube inner cavity. Elemental diet (Elental®) which is highly liquid was used as PEG-J tube feedings to prevent tube occlusion. Results: No recurrence of vomiting and serious aspiration pneumonia caused by GERD was observed after the PEG-J tube placements.

PEG-J tube placements were successfully completed within 5 minutes in all cases. There were no complications. PEG-J tube feedings were safely performed even in the acute phase such as serious Selleck AP24534 pneumonia,

acute pancreatitis. PEG-J tube could also be used as decompression tube in ileus cases. Elemental diet can prevent tube occlusion because of its high fluidity. Elemental diet seems to be the best for PEG-J tube feedings. Conclusion: The efficacy of PEG-J was clear because PEG-J tube have two lumens for transjejunal feedings and gastric decompression. PEG-J is useful to save PEG related problems. Key Word(s): 1. percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy; 2. peg; 3. percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy with jejunal extension; 4. PEG-J Presenting Author: SINTA MURTI Additional Authors: ARI FAHRIAL SYAM, DADANG MAKMUN Corresponding Author: SINTA MURTI Affiliations: Medical Faculty Indonesia Univ-Cipto Mangunkusumo, Medical Faculty Indonesia Univ-Cipto Talazoparib research buy Mangunkusumo Objective: Introduction Handgrip strength (HGS) is a simple, easily performed bedside test that has been shown to correlate with patients mortality, surgery complication and length of stay. Many hospitalized patient need a bedside test to assess their nutritional status. Whether HGS can be used for this purpose is still under investigation. This study aimed to investigate handgrip utility as a marker of nutritional status in hospitalized patient, compared to other nutritional marker. Methods: This

MCE is a retrospective study. Data from hospitalized internal medicine patients were recorded at the time of their entry and discharge, consist of HGS value, subjective global assessment, anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis (BIA) measurement and albumin. Results: We collect data from 177 inpatients. Handgrip strength significantly difer between those with good nutrition compared to those with mild undernourish, also if compared to severe undernourish (p = 0,0005). Handgrip strength significanty correlate with circumference arm muscle area, muscle mass and albumin but it doesn’t correlate with arm fat area and body fat. These results are consistent from entry time to disharge. There is no significant HGS differences between patient whose able to achieve nutrition target based on subjective global assessment.

4D) HCV core protein and nonstructural protein NS5A have been sh

4D). HCV core protein and nonstructural protein NS5A have been shown to induce oxidative stress,26, 27 a trigger of viral replication.28 In fact, we found that incubation of LucUbiNeo-ET replicon cells in

the presence of H2O2 dose dependently resulted in modification of HCV replication, which was increased by low concentrations and reduced by higher concentrations (Fig. 5A). Oxidative stress, for example, caused by viral replication, down-regulates expression of antiviral factors.29, 30 We found that biliverdin, which, like bilirubin, is able to reduce oxidative stress,31 induced expression of antiviral interferons (Fig. 5B). We measured endogenous interferon alpha2 and alpha17 expression (Fig. 5B), as well as expression of interferon-dependent antiviral

genes, such as 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase selleck screening library (OAS) 1 and OAS2, or protein kinase R (PKR), but not OAS3, as well as heme-regulated eIF2alpha kinase (Fig. 5C). Therefore, biliverdin seems to interfere with HCV replication by restoring the expression of antiviral interferons, which are reduced during viral infection. HO-1 has profound antiviral effects on HBV, HCV and HIV, although the replication machinery of these viruses is quite different. In case of HBV inhibition, HO-1 is able to reduce stability of HBV core protein and thus block refill of nuclear HBV covalently closed circular DNA.24 The contribution of HO-1 products to inhibition of HBV replication is the subject of our ongoing investigations. In the case of HIV, HO-1 has been shown to reduce, but not completely block, GSK126 research buy viral entry and also to interfere with nonspecified post-entry events in viral replication.23 A connection between HO-1 and HCV replication is implicated by the observation that HCV increases basal HO-1 expression32 but interferes with HO-1 induction, rendering cells more susceptible 上海皓元 to cytotoxicity.33 This effect has been attributed to HCV core protein33;

however, nonstructural HCV proteins also might be involved, because we observed that HO-1 induction by CoPP was less prominent in HCV replicon cells expressing NS3 to NS5, compared with the parental cell line Huh-7 (Fig. 1E). Basic HO-1 expression in Huh-5-15 cells was found to be elevated but not significantly higher than in Huh-7 cells (Fig. 1E), which might be a cellular defense mechanism against oxidative stress induced by viral infection.29 Recently, HO-1 effects on HCV replication have been demonstrated by induction25 or overexpression of the enzyme,26 where the underlying mechanism has been attributed to modulation of oxidative cellular stress.26 In previous HO-1–related work, we have been able to connect HO-1 effects in the liver to one, or a combination, of its products.11, 17 This was also the aim of the current study.

In the present study, we examined the potential

In the present study, we examined the potential AZD0530 purchase contribution of portal myofibroblasts (PMF) to the vascular changes leading to cirrhosis. The analyses of liver cells based on the transcriptome of rat PMF compared to hepatic stellate cell-derived myofibroblasts in culture, identified COL15A1 as a marker of PMF. Normal liver contained rare COL15A1-immunoreactive cells adjacent to the bile ducts and canals of Hering in the portal area. A marked increase in COL15A1 expression occurred together with that of the endothelial cell marker vWF, in human and rat liver tissue, at advanced stages of fibrosis caused by either biliary or hepatocellular injury. In cirrhotic liver, COL15A1-expressing PMF adopted

a perivascular distribution outlining vascular capillaries proximal to reactive ductules, within large fibrotic septa. The effect of

PMF on endothelial cells was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. PMF-conditioned medium increased the migration and tubulogenesis of liver endothelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and triggered angiogenesis within Matrigel plugs in mice. In co-culture, PMF developed intercellular junctions with endothelial cells and enhanced the formation of vascular find more structures. PMF released VEGFA-containing microparticles, which activated VEGFR-2 in endothelial cells and largely mediated their proangiogenic effect. Cholangiocytes potentiated the angiogenic properties of PMF by increasing VEGFA expression and microparticle shedding in these cells. In conclusion, PMF are key cells in hepatic vascular remodeling. They signal to endothelial cells via VEGFA-laden microparticles and act as mural cells for newly formed vessels, driving scar progression from portal tracts into the parenchyma. (Hepatology 2014;) “
“Routine monitoring of liver tests throughout the early and late period following liver transplant is essential in detecting liver allograft injury. Causes of abnormal liver tests after transplant can be related to allograft integrity (primary graft non-function, delayed graft function), vascular problems (hepatic artery thrombosis, outflow obstruction), biliary medchemexpress problems

(bile leak, biliary strictures), infections, immune reactions (acute or chronic rejection, autoimmune hepatitis), and recurrent disease (particularly hepatitis C). Ultrasound of the liver with Doppler examination of the hepatic artery is usually the first step in assessing abnormal tests and may detect biliary abnormalities and/or impaired hepatic artery flow. If the clinical suspicion for a biliary or vascular problem remains high despite a normal ultrasound then magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography or angiography may be more sensitive. Liver biopsy is essential in making the diagnosis of rejection or recurrent disease. Interpretation of biopsy findings by a skilled pathologist is essential to establishing a correct diagnosis.

In the present study, we examined the potential

In the present study, we examined the potential Galunisertib research buy contribution of portal myofibroblasts (PMF) to the vascular changes leading to cirrhosis. The analyses of liver cells based on the transcriptome of rat PMF compared to hepatic stellate cell-derived myofibroblasts in culture, identified COL15A1 as a marker of PMF. Normal liver contained rare COL15A1-immunoreactive cells adjacent to the bile ducts and canals of Hering in the portal area. A marked increase in COL15A1 expression occurred together with that of the endothelial cell marker vWF, in human and rat liver tissue, at advanced stages of fibrosis caused by either biliary or hepatocellular injury. In cirrhotic liver, COL15A1-expressing PMF adopted

a perivascular distribution outlining vascular capillaries proximal to reactive ductules, within large fibrotic septa. The effect of

PMF on endothelial cells was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. PMF-conditioned medium increased the migration and tubulogenesis of liver endothelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and triggered angiogenesis within Matrigel plugs in mice. In co-culture, PMF developed intercellular junctions with endothelial cells and enhanced the formation of vascular selleck chemical structures. PMF released VEGFA-containing microparticles, which activated VEGFR-2 in endothelial cells and largely mediated their proangiogenic effect. Cholangiocytes potentiated the angiogenic properties of PMF by increasing VEGFA expression and microparticle shedding in these cells. In conclusion, PMF are key cells in hepatic vascular remodeling. They signal to endothelial cells via VEGFA-laden microparticles and act as mural cells for newly formed vessels, driving scar progression from portal tracts into the parenchyma. (Hepatology 2014;) “
“Routine monitoring of liver tests throughout the early and late period following liver transplant is essential in detecting liver allograft injury. Causes of abnormal liver tests after transplant can be related to allograft integrity (primary graft non-function, delayed graft function), vascular problems (hepatic artery thrombosis, outflow obstruction), biliary MCE problems

(bile leak, biliary strictures), infections, immune reactions (acute or chronic rejection, autoimmune hepatitis), and recurrent disease (particularly hepatitis C). Ultrasound of the liver with Doppler examination of the hepatic artery is usually the first step in assessing abnormal tests and may detect biliary abnormalities and/or impaired hepatic artery flow. If the clinical suspicion for a biliary or vascular problem remains high despite a normal ultrasound then magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography or angiography may be more sensitive. Liver biopsy is essential in making the diagnosis of rejection or recurrent disease. Interpretation of biopsy findings by a skilled pathologist is essential to establishing a correct diagnosis.

yezoensis × P tenera and cultivated P tenera, respectively) are

yezoensis × P. tenera and cultivated P. tenera, respectively) are heterozygous and possess both genotypes of P. tenera and P. yezoensis in the conchocelis phase. Furthermore, gametophytic blades of two pure lines, HG-TY1 and HG-TY2 (F1 strains of MT-1 and 90-02, respectively), were also heterozygous, and six chromosomes per single cell could be observed Enzalutamide nmr in each blade of the two pure lines. These results demonstrate that allopolyploidy occurs in Porphyra

strains derived from both natural and cultivated populations, even though ITS genotypes of these strains showed homogenization toward one parental ITS. “
“The class Cryptophyceae (Division Cryptophyta) contains ecologically relevant species, which are widespread in aquatic environments. However, classification, identification, and enumeration of cryptophytes

are challenged by a morphology that must be usually examined with EM to permit species identification. The quantitative importance of this group has been revealed by HPLC data. But ecological information assessing the occurrence or seasonality of cryptophytes in the marine environment is still scarce. Molecular techniques allow for a refined assessment of taxonomically challenging taxa, such as the cryptophytes. In our laboratory, a Phylochip was developed to facilitate and refine the assessment of cryptophyte microalgae. Here, we present the results of an environmental

study MK-8669 ic50 that took advantage of the Phylochip. The study was designed to elucidate the seasonality and contribution of cryptophytes to phytoplankton structure in the German Bight. The occurrence of cryptophytes in total plankton versus the picoplankton fraction was assessed with the Phylochip between the years 2004 and 2006. Our data indicate that cryptophytes are an important and constant contributor to phytoplankton structure of the German Bight, especially in the picoplankton fraction. “
“The natural abundance of carbon stable isotopes (δ13C) of marine macrophytes has been measured in previous studies medchemexpress and used to analyze differences in Ci assimilation among the three macroalgal phyla, Chlorophyta, Ochrophyta, and Rhodophyta, and seagrasses, distinguishing diffusive CO2 entry from the operation of a CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCM). The work reported here further resolves the patterns of δ13C variation in aquatic macrophytes related to their taxonomy, geographic location (and consequently climatic conditions), and vertical zonation. Analyses of δ13C for 87 species are reported, including eight that have not been previously examined, belonging to taxa in the three macroalgal phyla, plus two species of seagrasses, collected at different latitudes. For one species of each phylum, analyses were also conducted through a vertical depth gradient.

yezoensis × P tenera and cultivated P tenera, respectively) are

yezoensis × P. tenera and cultivated P. tenera, respectively) are heterozygous and possess both genotypes of P. tenera and P. yezoensis in the conchocelis phase. Furthermore, gametophytic blades of two pure lines, HG-TY1 and HG-TY2 (F1 strains of MT-1 and 90-02, respectively), were also heterozygous, and six chromosomes per single cell could be observed Copanlisib chemical structure in each blade of the two pure lines. These results demonstrate that allopolyploidy occurs in Porphyra

strains derived from both natural and cultivated populations, even though ITS genotypes of these strains showed homogenization toward one parental ITS. “
“The class Cryptophyceae (Division Cryptophyta) contains ecologically relevant species, which are widespread in aquatic environments. However, classification, identification, and enumeration of cryptophytes

are challenged by a morphology that must be usually examined with EM to permit species identification. The quantitative importance of this group has been revealed by HPLC data. But ecological information assessing the occurrence or seasonality of cryptophytes in the marine environment is still scarce. Molecular techniques allow for a refined assessment of taxonomically challenging taxa, such as the cryptophytes. In our laboratory, a Phylochip was developed to facilitate and refine the assessment of cryptophyte microalgae. Here, we present the results of an environmental

study Caspase inhibitor that took advantage of the Phylochip. The study was designed to elucidate the seasonality and contribution of cryptophytes to phytoplankton structure in the German Bight. The occurrence of cryptophytes in total plankton versus the picoplankton fraction was assessed with the Phylochip between the years 2004 and 2006. Our data indicate that cryptophytes are an important and constant contributor to phytoplankton structure of the German Bight, especially in the picoplankton fraction. “
“The natural abundance of carbon stable isotopes (δ13C) of marine macrophytes has been measured in previous studies medchemexpress and used to analyze differences in Ci assimilation among the three macroalgal phyla, Chlorophyta, Ochrophyta, and Rhodophyta, and seagrasses, distinguishing diffusive CO2 entry from the operation of a CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCM). The work reported here further resolves the patterns of δ13C variation in aquatic macrophytes related to their taxonomy, geographic location (and consequently climatic conditions), and vertical zonation. Analyses of δ13C for 87 species are reported, including eight that have not been previously examined, belonging to taxa in the three macroalgal phyla, plus two species of seagrasses, collected at different latitudes. For one species of each phylum, analyses were also conducted through a vertical depth gradient.

4%) and 216 CD (266%) EIMs were observed in 329 (406%) patient

4%) and 216 CD (26.6%). EIMs were observed in 329 (40.6%) patients, 210 UC (35.3%) and 119 CD (55.1%) (p < 0.0001). 37 EIMs were observed before the diagnosis of IBD (11.2%), 229 EIMs after diagnosis (69.6%) and 63 (19.2%) were present at the time of diagnosis. The EIMs found were: 240 musculoskeletal (29.6%); 47 mucocutaneous (5.8%); 26 ocular (3.2%); 6 hepatobiliary (0.8%) and 10 endocrinological (1.2%). Musculoskeletal manifestations were found in 71 CD and in 169 UC (p < 0.0001). In particular, arthritis Type 1 were found in 41 CD (19%) and in 61 UC (10.2%) (p = 0.0012) and arthritis Type 2 in

25 CD (11.6%) and in 100 UC (16.8%) (p = 0.0012). Mucocutaneous CP-673451 manifestations were observed in 26 CD patients and in 21 UC patients (p = 0.0049). Ocular manifestations were observed in 16 CD (7.4%) and in 10 UC (1.7%), (p = 0.0093). Hepatobiliary

manifestations were found in 2 CD (0.9%) and in 4 UC (0.7%) (p = 1.0) and endocrinological in 3 CD (1.4%) and in 7 UC (1.2%), (p = 1.0). Conclusion: EIMs were significantly more frequent in CD than in UC, in particular mucocutaneous, arthritis Type 1 and uveitis. Key Word(s): 1. EIMs; 2. IBD; 3. ULCERATIVE COLITIS; 4. CROHN’S DISEASE; Presenting Author: VISHAL SHARMA Additional Authors: RANJIT SREERAMA, SURINDERS RANA, RAVI SHARMA, CHALAPATHI RAO, RITAMBHRA NADA, RAJESH GUPTA, LILESHWAR KAMAN, Galunisertib cell line KARTAR SINGH, DEEPAKK BHASIN Corresponding Author: DEEPAKK BHASIN Affiliations: PGIMER Objective: Subset of patients with Ulcerative colitis needs immunomodulators for maintaining the disease in remission. The factors at presentation that can predict the need for immunomodulators

have not been adequately studied especially in the MCE Indian population. Methods: We studied 81 patients (males 40; mean age 38.69 ± 12.90 yrs) with UC (41 prospectively & 40 retrospectively) and noted clinical presentation, duration, extra-intestinal features, extent of disease, haematological and biochemical features, and histology of the endoscopic biopsy specimens. We compared these features amongst patients who required immunomodulators and those who did not. Results: The presenting symptoms were blood in stools (100%), mucus in stools (98.8%), abdominal pain (35.8%), anorectal pain (14.8%) and extra intestinal features (4.9%). Seven patients underwent colectomy and two patients died during the study period. Immunomodulators were used in 19 patients (Azathiopurine 16, mycophenolate mofetil 2, Tacrolimus 1) and the remaining patients were in remission with 5-amino salicyclic acid (5-ASA analogues). On comparison of patients needing immunomodulators with patients maintaining remission on 5-ASA we found that the two groups were similar in age (38.68 ± 10.6 and 38.69 ± 13.6), gender (male; 47.3 and 59%), and clinical features as well as the blood investigations. But the patients who received immunomodulators were more likely to have pancolitis (47.4% versus 16.1%, p = 0.005).