, 2004) and

the novel-sound P3a has been found to be enla

, 2004) and

the novel-sound P3a has been found to be enlarged in highly distractible children such as those with attention deficit Dapagliflozin concentration hyperactivity disorder (van Mourik et al., 2007) and major depression (Lepistö et al., 2004). In sum, a large P3a to subtle deviants appears to be associated with highly accurate auditory discrimination, whereas high-amplitude P3as to novel sounds may be indicative of heightened distractibility. The P3a responses elicited by novel sounds vs. more subtle deviant tones might also display distinct developmental trajectories. For frequency deviants, an age-related increase in P3a amplitude has been reported (Wetzel & Schröger, 2007a). Admittedly, very few studies have specifically examined the development of the deviant elicited P3a. By visual inspection of the figures,

a few studies (Gomot et al., 2000; Shafer et al., 2000; Horváth et al., 2009a) appear to support an age-related increase in the deviant-tone P3a but unfortunately these studies did not statistically examine the age differences in this response. In contrast, the novel-sound P3a seems to decrease (over the frontal electrodes) between preschool age and adulthood Roxadustat supplier (Määttä et al., 2005; Wetzel & Schröger, 2007b; Wetzel et al., 2011), which might be related the maturation of the frontal cortex. Therefore, the enlarged P3as to deviants and reduced P3as to novel sounds found in the children from more musically active homes could be speculated to reflect more mature response morphology. With regard to the novel-sound P3a, the correlation was specific to parental singing, whereas the correlation between this response and the overall musical activities at home score did not reach significance. This result indicates that, in particular, listening to informal musical performances (as opposed to more active musical play) is associated with

reduced distractibility. Parental singing is highly effective in maintaining the attention of young infants (Trehub, 2009). In fact, singing by the father might be especially engaging for infants as indicated by behavioural Abiraterone concentration measures of visual attention during listening to paternal vs. maternal singing (O’Neill et al., 2001). Several authors have proposed that formal musical training might enhance executive functions (Moreno et al., 2011; Bialystok & DePape, 2009; Dege et al., 2011; however, see Schellenberg, 2011) such as selective attention (Trainor et al., 2009; Moreno et al., 2009). A recent longitudinal intervention study found support for these claims (Moreno et al., 2011). Our results indicate that even informal musical activity may also enhance functions related to auditory attention in childhood. Although a number of suggestions for the functional significance of the LDN have been put forward, the cognitive processes underlying this response remain to be disambiguated.

The first directs expression of the immediate upstream gene rpsO,

The first directs expression of the immediate upstream gene rpsO, and the second is positioned in the rpsO-pnp intergenic region (Portiers & Reginer, 1984). Irrespective of the transcriptional start site, the pnp mRNA is vulnerable to cleavage by endoribonuclease RNase III at positions

within 75 nucleotides upstream the pnp ORF, which in turn initiates degradation of the pnp mRNA by PNPase itself (Portier et al., 1987). Upon a cold shock, the pnp mRNA becomes stabilized allowing enhanced expression of PNPase (Beran & Simons, 2001). In enterobacteria, pnp is followed by nlpI (Blattner et al., 1997; McClelland et al., 2001; Nie et al., 2006). For E. coli, NlpI has been shown to be a lipoprotein (Ohara et al., 1999). We recently demonstrated that PNPase and NlpI posed opposing effect on biofilm formation in S. Typhimurium Ku 0059436 at decreased growth temperature (Rouf et al., 2011). Experiments that followed here demonstrate that mutational inactivation of pnp in S. Typhimurium results in an expected restricted growth at 15 °C. In addition, the experiments showed that pnp transcripts continued into nlpI and that nonpolar pnp mutations increased nlpI expression. Although S. Typhimurium pnp and nlpI are separated

Copanlisib purchase by 109 base pairs, the promoter prediction software bprom (www.Softberry.com) failed to define any tentative nlpI promoter within this intergenic region (data not shown). Combined with the gene expression analysis, this strongly suggests that pnp and nlpI form an operon and implies that nlpI is subject to the same post-translational regulation of pnp. However, we cannot formally exclude potential nlpI promoters within pnp. The co-transcription of pnp and nlpI led us to detail whether, and to what extent, NlpI contributed to cold acclimatization. The data presented in this study demonstrate that nlpI does indeed functionally act as a cold shock gene in concert with, but independently of, pnp. Evidence to support includes the observation that two of the the three pnp mutants applied in this study had enhanced expression of nlpI, whilst the third had unaffected nlpI mRNA levels compared

to the wild type, yet all three mutants showed a very similar defect for growth at 15 °C. In addition, a pnp–nlpI double mutant had more restricted growth at 15 °C compared to either single mutant, whilst cloned pnp and nlpI enhanced the replication of all the respective mutants at 15 °C (Figs 4b and 5). The nlpI gene is adjacent to csdA/deaD in the genomes of enterobacteria (Blattner et al., 1997; McClelland et al., 2001; Nie et al., 2006). The csdA gene encodes for an alternative RNA helicase that in E. coli also contributes to cold acclimatization (Turner et al., 2007). In S. Typhimurium, the homologue for csdA is defined as deaD. Deleting deaD in S. Typhimurium resulted in a cold-sensitive growth phenotype. However, we could not trans-complement the cold-restricted growth of the deaD mutant phenotype with either pnp or nlpI.

The number of visible viral lesions was

counted and the d

The number of visible viral lesions was

counted and the diameter and area of lesions were measured 6 days after inoculation. For each treatment, six plants were used and each experiment find more was repeated three times. The production of superoxide anion radical (O2−) and peroxide (H2O2) in the leaves of the 8–10-leaf stage tobacco plants treated with Trichokonins or control solution were examined using the procedure of Fitzgerald et al. (2004). For detection of systemic responses, seedlings were cultured in MS-medium containing 100 nM Trichokonins or control solution for 4 days, after which the top leaf was harvested. For detection of local responses, Trichokonins (100 nM) or 2 μL control solution were placed on the adaxial surface beta-catenin inhibitor of scratched leaves. Leaves were harvested and analyzed immediately. The leaves treated with Trichokonins or control solution were vacuum-infiltrated with nitrotetrazolium blue chloride (NBT) or 3,3-diaminobenzidine (DAB), incubated overnight at 28 °C, fixed and cleared in alcoholic lactophenol solution and examined for the formation of precipitates. Microscopic analysis was performed using an Olympus Stereoscope SZX-9 (Olympus America Inc., Melville, NY)

at × 40 magnification. To test autofluorescence, 2 μL of 100 nM Trichokonins or 2 μL control solution were placed on the adaxial surface of scratched leaves. After 24 h incubation at 25±1 °C, the autofluorescence in the leaves was assessed (Fitzgerald et al., 2004). Microscopic analysis was performed using Olympus BX-51 fluorescent microscope (Olympus America Inc.) at × 200 Amobarbital magnification. The excitation wavelengths were 470–490 nm and the emission wavelengths were 510–550 nm. Each tobacco plant at the 8–10-leaf stage was sprayed with 1 mL of 100 nM Trichokonins or 1 mL control solution. After 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 days, the leaves of tobacco plants were harvested, ground to a fine powder in liquid

nitrogen and stored at −80 °C until analysis. Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase (PAL, E.C. activity was determined as described by González-Aguilar et al. (2004). Peroxidases (POD, E.C. activity was determined as described by Rathmell & Sequeira (1974). Polyphenol oxidases (PPO, E.C. activity was assayed using Flurkey’s method (Flurkey, 1985). For each treatment, three tobacco plants were used and each experiment was repeated three times. RT-PCR analysis was conducted to determine the expression of selected defense-related genes in Trichokonins-treated tobacco plants. Each tobacco plant at the 8–10-leaf stage was sprayed with 1 mL of 100 nM Trichokonins. Total RNA was extracted from treated tobacco leaves after 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 24 or 48 h treatment. The quality of extracted RNA was tested by 1.0% agarose electrophoresis. The transcription levels of genes were detected by RT-PCR using a One Step RNA PCR Kit (TaKaRa, Japan). RT-PCR products were loaded on 1.

, 2007) Furthermore, fungi with no known sexual stage still have

, 2007). Furthermore, fungi with no known sexual stage still have functional MAT genes (Sharon et al., 1996; Kerényi et al., 2004), indicating that the lack of sexual reproduction in mitotic holomorphic species is caused by adverse mutations at loci other than the MAT locus. The reasons for the occurrence of functional MAT genes in fungi with no known sexual stage are not well understood. One plausible hypothesis is that the MAT transcriptional factors have some functions during the asexual Regorafenib part of the life cycle and may regulate additional genes not involved directly

in sexual events (Hornok et al., 2007). The MAT genes may thus have a selective impact (e.g. through the stimulation of carotenoid production) on asexually reproducing populations. Another explanation is that these fungi have a cryptic sexual stage, but their teleomorphs have not been identified due to the extreme rarity of mating (Leslie & Klein, 1996; Turgeon, 1998). The regulatory mechanism(s) for light-inducible carotenogenesis in Fusarium species are not fully understood. The white collar (WC) proteins are regarded as a universal photoreceptor system regulating

carotenogenesis and other photoregulated processes in fungi (Corrochano & Avalos, 2010). Recent results on WC1-defective mutants in Fusarium oxysporum and F. fujikuroi indicate, however, that carotenogenesis is regulated differentially in members of the genus Fusarium (Avalos & Estrada, 2010). Light-inducible carotenogenesis CAL 101 was retained in WC1 mutants of these Fusarium species, suggesting the existence of WC-independent photoreceptor mechanisms and/or the involvement of unknown factors in light-dependent carotenogenesis. Our present results confirm that F. verticillioides, like F. fujikuroi, has transcriptional control of carotenogenesis in response to light. The induction of car gene expression

and carotenoid biosynthesis are drastically reduced in the absence of a functional MAT1-2-1 gene. Thus, the regulation of light-induced carotenogenesis in F. verticillioides depends at least in part on MAT1-2-1. This gene is absent in the wild strain of enough the opposite sex, FGSC 7600, which, however, exhibits a normal light induction of carotenogenesis. Presumably, the regulatory role played by MAT1-2-1 in FGSC 7603 is played in FGSC 7600 by an equivalent MAT1-1 gene from its MAT locus (Yun et al., 2000). The available information on photoinduction of carotenogenesis in Fusarium suggests that it is a transcriptionally controlled mechanism mediated by a still unknown regulatory system. The attenuation of this photoresponse in the ΔFvMAT1-2-1 mutants of F. verticillioides reveals a novel key regulatory element in the carotenoid pathway whose connection with the light-inducing mechanism remains to be identified.

We are grateful to Dr Ian Toth at the Scottish Crop Research Inst

We are grateful to Dr Ian Toth at the Scottish Crop Research Institute

for supplying the Pa strains, to Rita Monson for providing cDNA and Nick Thomson for help with bioinformatic comparisons. T.J.E. was supported by a Collaborative Award in Science and Engineering from Leatherhead Food Research. This work was funded by the BBSRC. Fig. S1. Multiple sequence alignment of PflA. Table S1. Supplementary strains and primers used in this study. Please note: Wiley-Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting materials supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing material) should be directed to the corresponding author PTC124 cost for the article. “
“Lipopolysaccharide is a major immunogenic structure for the pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, which contains the O-specific polysaccharide (OPS) that BYL719 manufacturer is presented on the cell surface. The OPS contains many repeats of the oligosaccharide O-unit and

exhibits a preferred modal chain length that has been shown to be crucial for cell protection in Yersinia. It is well established that the Wzz protein determines the preferred chain length of the OPS, and in its absence, the polymerization of O units by the Wzy polymerase is uncontrolled. However, for Y. pseudotuberculosis, a wzz mutation has never been described. In this study, we examine the effect of Wzz loss in Y. pseudotuberculosis serotype O:2a and compare the lipopolysaccharide chain-length profile to that of Escherichia coli serotype O111. In the absence of Wzz, the lipopolysaccharides of the two species showed significant differences in Wzy polymerization. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:2a exhibited only OPS with very short chain lengths, which is atypical of wzz-mutant phenotypes that have been observed for other species. We hypothesise that the Wzy

polymerase of Y. pseudotuberculosis O:2a has a unique default activity in the absence of the Wzz, revealing the requirement of Wzz to drive O-unit polymerization to greater lengths. “
“Flavodoxin (Fld) is a bacterial electron-transfer protein Temsirolimus solubility dmso that possesses flavin mononucleotide as a prosthetic group. In the genomes of the Pseudomonas species, the mioC gene is the sole gene, annotated Fld, but its function remains unclear. In this study, phenotype microarray analysis was performed using the wild-type and mioC mutant of pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Our results showed that the mioC mutant is very resistant to oxidative stress. Different antibiotics and metals worked differently on the sensitivity of the mutant. Other pleiotropic effects of mutation in the mioC gene, such as biofilm formation, aggregation ability, motility and colony morphology, were observed under iron stress conditions. Most of the phenotypic and physiological changes could be recovered in the wild type by complementation.

More than 50% of the faint type colocalized with NG2 and 91% with

More than 50% of the faint type colocalized with NG2 and 91% with oligodendrocyte transcription factor-2, whereas 94% of NG2-immunoreactive and 45% of oligodendrocyte transcription factor-2-immunoreactive cells were faintly CNPase-enhanced green fluorescent protein positive. Based on the complexity of the overall structure, the three types probably represent stages of a maturation process such that one subtype can morph into another. Thus, the least complex ‘smooth’ cell

would represent the youngest oligodendrocyte that matures into the stellar type and eventually progresses to become the most complex ramified oligodendrocyte. Investigation of the distribution pattern revealed that the highest density of oligodendrocytes was IDH mutation found in the stratum lacunosum-moleculare and the hilar region. PD-0332991 clinical trial The distribution analysis of oligodendrocyte subclasses revealed a tendency for different cell types to segregate in large non-overlapping areas. This observation suggests that morphologically, and possible functionally, different oligodendrocytes are topographically segregated. “
“The addictive

properties of morphine limit its clinical use. Learned associations that develop between the abused opiate and the environment in which it is consumed are engendered through Pavlovian conditioning processes. Disruption of the learned associations between the opiate and environmental cues may Dynein be a therapeutic approach to prevent morphine dependence. Although a role for the δ-opioid receptor in the regulation of the rewarding properties of morphine has already been shown, in this study we further characterized the role of the δ-opioid receptor in morphine-induced conditioned responses by examining the effect of a selective δ2-opioid receptor antagonist (naltriben), using a conditioned place preference paradigm in rats. Additionally, we used a subcellular fractionation technique to analyze the synaptic localization of μ-opioid and δ-opioid receptors

in the hippocampus, in order to examine the molecular mechanisms that may underlie this morphine-induced conditioned behavior. Our data show that the administration of 1 mg/kg naltriben (but not 0.1 mg/kg) prior to morphine was able to block morphine-induced conditioned place preference. Interestingly, this naltriben-induced disruption of morphine conditioned place preference was associated with a significant increase in the expression of the δ-opioid receptor dimer at the postsynaptic density. In addition, we also observed that morphine conditioned place preference was associated with an increase in the expression of the μ-opoid receptor in the total homogenate. Overall, these results suggest that modulation of the δ-opioid receptor expression and its synaptic localization may constitute a viable therapeutic approach to disrupt morphine-induced conditioned responses.

This was done more than 1 month before leaving by 475% of the re

This was done more than 1 month before leaving by 47.5% of the responders; 25.1% started preparing 2 weeks to 1 month before departure, 15.7% did so 1 to 2 weeks in advance, and 11.6% did so less than 1 week before leaving. Of those who had not sought health information, the majority stated that they already knew what to do. The most common sources since 2004 for travel health advice to high-risk destinations were the travel clinic or

public health service (66.4%) followed by general practitioner (GP) or family doctor in 21.3% of the respondents. For low-to-intermediate-risk destinations the travel clinic BGJ398 mw or public health service was consulted in 53.2% of the respondents, whereas the GP or family doctor was consulted in 27.8% of the cases. In the 2002 and 2003 questionnaires there was no item concerning source of advice. There were no significant trends over the selleck inhibitor years in the proportion of travelers to high-risk destinations seeking travel

health advice (p = 0.315). In contrast, trend analyses in travelers to low-to-intermediate-risk destinations showed a decrease over the years in the proportion of travelers seeking travel health advice (p = 0.0005). The group of older adult travelers comprised 439 respondents. Of them, 365 (83.1%) traveled to a high-risk destination. The group of last-minute travelers comprised 545 respondents; 474 (87.0%) of them traveled to a high-risk destination. Of all respondents, 869 respondents traveled alone and were classified as solo travelers; 650 (74.8%) of them Thiamet G traveled to a high-risk destination. The group of business travelers consisted of 453 individuals of whom 330 (72.8%) traveled to destinations rated as a high risk for hepatitis A. The group of VFRs consisted of 521 respondents; 390 (74.9%) of them traveled to a high-risk destination (Table 1). Older adult travelers to either high-risk (p = 0.076) or low-to-intermediate-risk destinations (p = 0.434) did

not better prepare their vacation than younger-aged travelers to the same risk destination. Older adult travelers visited high-risk destinations more frequently (Table 1). The risk perception and protection rate of older adult travelers to either high-risk or low-to-intermediate-risk destinations was comparable to that of younger travelers (Table 2). Older adult travelers, however, had less intended risk-seeking behavior than younger travelers, irrespective of the hepatitis A risk at the planned destination. As a consequence, as shown in Table 3, the composite risk estimate of KAP of older adult travelers suggested a slight reduction of relative risk for hepatitis A. Solo travelers to either high- (p < 0.001) or low-risk destinations (p < 0.001) had less preparation for their travel than non-solo travelers to the same risk destination. Solo travelers traveled more frequently to low-to-intermediate-risk destinations than to high-risk destinations (Table 1).

Seventy percent of the proteins were assembled into 42 HGs (Suppo

Seventy percent of the proteins were assembled into 42 HGs (Supporting Information, Table S1), containing 2–15 members each. The remainder of the proteins form 85 single-member

HGs. The products of wzg, wzz, wzd and wze each fall into a single HG, which is contained in every serotype. These four HGs (Wzg, Wzz, Wzd, and Wze) are the largest groups. The next largest HG consists of nine WcdA CapD-like proteins (HG4), followed by six WchA initial glycosylphosphotransferases (HG5). There are 12 groups of Wzy repeat-unit polymerases and nine groups of Wzx flippases. A pseudogene in serotype 8 cps locus is caused by frame shift. The first four genes, wzg, wzz, wze and wzd (also known as cpsABCD), are conserved with high sequence identity in all 15 serotypes. Wzg and Wzz proteins were predicted to play an important role in the synthesis regulation and the chain Selleckchem Forskolin length determination of CPS in the S. suis serotype 2. Isogenic mutants in wzg

gene cannot produce CPS (Smith et al., 1999a, b, c). The exact function of Wze and Wzd in S. suis is unknown. wze and wzd were also found in other Streptococcus capsule gene clusters (Wessels, 1997). The two proteins are in the MPA1 class of the Paulsen et al. (1997) classification and are thought to be involved in polysaccharide export. It was reported that Wzd is a tyrosine kinase and Wze is a substrate for Wzd kinase in S. pneumoniae (Morona et al., 2003) and the Wzd and Wze proteins may play similar roles in S. suis. The initial glycosylphosphotransferases are responsible Sirolimus cost for linkage of an activated glycosylphosphate to the lipid carrier (Pelosi et al., 2005). The initial glycosylphosphotransferases of all

the 15 serotypes fall into four HGs (WchA, WciI, WcaJ and WcgA). In the group 2 (serotypes 1, 2, 8, 14, 16, 25 and 1/2) cps locus, all the initial transferase genes are wchA, the products of which can add glucose-1-phosphate to undecaprenol phosphate to create Und-PP-Glc (Kolkman, et al., 1997). wchA is absent in the group 1 (serotype 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 19 and 23) cps locus. The product of the fifth cps gene is a CapD-like protein (WcdA), which can generate amide bonds with peptidoglycan cross-bridges to anchor capsular material within the cell wall envelope (Candela & STK38 Fouet, 2005). In the group 1 locus, the initial transferase genes (wciI, wcaJ and wcgA) are downstream of wcdA. Because the exact composition and structure of most S. suis serotypes CPS is unknown, the transferred sugars of the initial transferases can only be suspected, based on the function of similar proteins of other bacteria. WciI proteins showed a high degree of similarity to that of S. pneumoniae serotype 4 (62% identity). The transferred initial sugar for WciI in S. suis was predicted to be N-acetylgalactosamine pyranose (GalpNAc) or N-acetylglucosamine pyranose (GlcpNAc) (Bentley et al., 2006).

Other studies suggest continued immunological and clinical benefi

Other studies suggest continued immunological and clinical benefits if the HIV RNA level is maintained <10 000–20 000 copies/mL [66]. Continuing or commencing NRTIs, even in the presence of known resistance may contribute partial ARV activity [54, 55]. Hence, if the CD4 cell count is well maintained (>200 cells/μL), it may be better to continue the failing regimen and not change treatment until investigational agents are available that can be put together with drugs, which may have only partial activity

at best, to increase the likelihood of constructing virologically suppressive and durable regimen options. In general, selleck screening library adding a single, fully active ARV to a failing regimen is not recommended because of the risk of rapid development of resistance. However, in patients with a high likelihood of clinical progression (e.g. CD4 cell count <100 cells/mL) and limited drug options, adding a single drug may reduce the risk of immediate clinical

progression, because even transient decreases in HIV RNA and/or transient increases in CD4 cell counts have been associated with clinical benefits [67]. Potential benefits must be balanced with the ongoing risk of accumulating additional resistance mutations and patients should maintain that regimen for the shortest period possible [68, 69]. Where feasible, patients should be given the opportunity to enrol in research studies or expanded access programmes evaluating investigational new drugs. Some drugs are likely to be available in the near future that might be find more sequenced in the same class (e.g. dolutegravir) although others with novel sites of action (e.g. maturation Ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors, CD4 receptor antagonists, etc.) are still in earlier phases of development and some years off randomized trials. Drugs developed

for, and used in, other settings such as pegylated interferon that have been incidentally demonstrated to decrease VL should not be used without discussion with an experienced HIV physician as data are either too limited or contradictory. Several studies and an early meta-analysis suggested that CCR5 receptor antagonists were associated with significant gains in CD4 cell counts even in the presence of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 tropic virus. However, a more recent meta-analysis refuted this finding (P=0.22) when comparing with other new drugs [53]. A priority question that the Writing Group addressed was whether 3TC/FTC should be used in maintaining an RT mutation at codon 184 in patients with limited or no therapeutic options. Although the M184V mutation is associated with resistance to 3TC/FTC, the mutation has a broad influence on the RT enzyme. In vitro studies have shown that M184V-possessing enzymes have lower processivity and higher fidelity and replicate more slowly than WT enzymes [70].

3f ) As indicated above, IAL does not inhibit the growth of S a

3f ). As indicated above, IAL does not inhibit the growth of S. aureus; therefore, it can be concluded that IAL did not decrease S. aureus CFUs, which then led to a decrease in A549 cell injury. The in vitro results show that low concentrations of IAL inhibit the production of α-toxin by S. aureus and attenuate α-toxin-mediated injury of human lung cells, which indicates that IAL has potential therapeutic relevance. To investigate the in vivo protective effects of IAL on mouse S. aureus-related pneumonia, we first assessed its pharmacokinetic characteristics in mice. Time–concentration

profiles of plasma for three single subcutaneous IAL doses are presented in Fig. 4. The maximum concentrations of IAL in plasma (Cmax) were 6.16, 15.67, and 32.66 μg mL−1 for doses of 10, 25, and 50 mg kg−1, respectively. The area under

each of the concentration–time selleckchem curves (AUC) for plasma was calculated from 0.25 to 24 h and was 29.73, 82.69, and 206.31, for doses of 10, 25, and 50 mg kg−1, respectively. Mice were infected via the intranasal route with 4 × 108 CFUs of S. aureus 8325-4. Following treatment with IAL as described in the ‘Materials and methods’, mortality was monitored over 72 h. As a control, the mortality following infection with an hla−S. aureus strain DU 1090 was also determined. As shown in Fig. 5a, MAPK Inhibitor Library mice that received 50 mg kg−1 of IAL were significantly protected from S. aureus pneumonia (P < 0.05); however, the mortality was much higher than that in mice infected with S. aureus DU 1090. The protective effect was less evident in mice that received 25 mg kg−1

of IAL, and little protective effect was observed in mice that were given 10 mg kg−1 Sirolimus of IAL. To evaluate the impact of IAL treatment on pathological manifestations of lung injury, we performed histopathologic analysis of lungs from S. aureus-infected mice that received 50 mg kg−1 of IAL or PBS as a control. Gross inspection indicated that the lung tissue of infected mice was crimson and had a tight texture. Following treatment with IAL, the lung tissue of infected mice was light pink and fungous (Fig. 5b). As shown in the Fig. 5c, there were significant accumulations of inflammatory cells (dark blue or purple) in alveolar space in the group infected with S. aureus 8325-4. Notably, treatment with IAL resulted in a marked alleviation of pulmonary inflammation; treated mice had less accumulation of cellular infiltrates in the alveolar space. The increase in resistance of S. aureus to β-lactam antibiotics as well as the decreased clinical performance of vancomycin and linezolid (Mandell et al., 2007; Nguyen & Graber, 2010), combined with a decrease in the discovery of new antibiotics (Liu et al., 2008), warrants the search for new therapeutic targets to combat infections caused by S. aureus.