5,6 The mode of acquisition is by inhalation, inoculation, or ing

5,6 The mode of acquisition is by inhalation, inoculation, or ingestion. In high-endemic countries melioidosis is the most common cause of pneumonia with septicemia during the rainy season.3Burkholderia pseudomallei is also a potential agent for biological terrorism. The two patients presented are to our knowledge the first Norwegian melioidosis cases ever reported. Outside the endemic areas, melioidosis is usually diagnosed in returning tourists or in people

originating from these regions. Various clinical presentations of melioidosis have been reported in surviving selleck compound Swedish and Finnish tourists after the tsunami in 2004,7,8 and in a recent publication five cases from Denmark were presented.9 Still, the risk of contracting infection with B pseudomallei is low among tourists and melioidosis is a rare disease in Scandinavia. Thus, the awareness of melioidosis is limited among the clinicians. Melioidosis is a clinically diverse disease, with a wide range of manifestations and severities, varying from potentially fatal bacteraemia to subacute or chronic infections that can be localized or disseminated involving any organ.3 In a study from the Northern Territory

in Australia, the mortality rate was 4% in the cases without bacteraemia, compared to 37% in the cases with bacteraemia.10 Abscesses in abdominal organs are well recognized, FDA approved Drug Library cost especially in the kidney, spleen, and prostate, as in our patients. Antibiotics most often resolve the infection, but prostatic abscesses may require drainage because treatment failures have developed when this was not performed.6 Splenic abscesses are generally uncommon, but in a recent study from Singapore, the most common etiological agent was B pseudomallei.11Burkholderia pseudomallei can be reactivated from latent disease long after exposure, resembling infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis both clinically and histologically.3 Patient 1 did not return to Sri Lanka or visit other tropical areas in the period of 2005 to 2007. Thus, this might be a case of reactivation of latent

Molecular motor melioidosis or progression of subclinical infection because the patient suffered from abdominal pain at regular intervals throughout this time period. Risk factors for developing severe melioidosis are diabetes, excessive alcohol consumption, chronic lung disease, and chronic renal disease.3,12 It seems that patients with cystic fibrosis are at special risk of airway colonization and pulmonary infections,13 and they should be warned about the risk of traveling to melioidosis endemic regions. Still, as much as one third of the cases of melioidosis have no predisposing risk factors.4 Healthy individuals may develop fulminant melioidosis, but severe disease and fatalities are uncommon in patients without risk factors.

, 2006; Abram et al, 2008; O’Byrne & Karatzas, 2008), thus it se

, 2006; Abram et al., 2008; O’Byrne & Karatzas, 2008), thus it seemed logical to selleck kinase inhibitor assess if SigB function contributed to the development of L. monocytogenes GASP. When examined for long-term survival in culture, a ΔsigB mutant exhibited the expected death and long-term stationary growth phases during the course of a 12-day incubation in BHI at 37 °C (Fig. 4a). Similar to the prfA* mutant, ΔsigB long-term stationary phase cultures exhibited final stable bacterial CFU numbers that were approximately twofold lower than those maintained by wild-type L. monocytogenes (Fig. 4a). SigB is thus

required for the optimal fitness of L. monocytogenes during the long-term stationary growth phase. ΔsigB mutant bacteria from 12-day-old cultures were added to 1-day-old mutant cultures at a final ratio of 1 : 100. Over 10 days, bacteria from the 12-day-old culture outcompeted bacteria of the 1-day-old culture such that the ratio at day 10 was 1 : 1 (Fig. 4b), indicating that the ΔsigB mutant

retained its ability to express the GASP phenotype. However, similar to the phenotype expressed by the prfA* mutant, the GASP phenotype exhibited by the ΔsigB strain was not as robust as that exhibited by wild-type L. monocytogenes (Fig. 4b). Although bacteria derived from 12-day-old wild type cultures increased 1000-fold in comparison to 1-day-old wild-type bacteria Y-27632 solubility dmso (Fig. 4b), the bacterial numbers of a 12-day-old ΔsigB culture increased approximately 100-fold in comparison to those of the 1-day-old ΔsigB culture (Fig. 4b). Similar to the situation described above for prfA* strains, the failure of the ΔsigB mutant to express a robust GASP phenotype could reflect an impaired ability to develop GASP or may indicate that the loss of SigB contributed to a partial GASP phenotype for 1-day-old cultures. To distinguish between these two possibilities, the CI between wild type 12-day-old cultures and 1-day-old wild type or ΔsigB cultures was assessed. If the ΔsigB mutant expresses a partial GASP phenotype as the

result of the loss of SigB, then the competitive advantage of a wild-type 12-day-old culture should be less in comparison to 1-day-old ΔsigB than in comparison to Resveratrol 1-day-old wild type. Interestingly, the difference in the competitive advantage of wild-type 12-day-old cultures observed vs. 1-day-old wild-type or 1-day-old ΔsigB was minimal (Fig. 4c). SigB contributes to L. monocytogenes fitness in broth culture, based on the competitive advantage of 1-day-old wild-type strains vs. 1-day-old ΔsigB mutants (Fig. 4c). Thus, in spite of ΔsigB mutants exhibiting a broth culture fitness defect, the overall magnitude of the competitive defect observed between 12-day-old wild-type L. monocytogenes and 1-day-old wild-type strains and ΔsigB mutants was similar rather than exacerbated for ΔsigB, suggesting that the loss of SigB may indeed contribute to the development of the GASP phenotype. Taken together, these data indicate a role for SigB in L.

We also thank the administration staff who provide the logistical

We also thank the administration staff who provide the logistical support for the YFVC program (Geraldine Oliver and Yetunde Ibitoye), and former staff who helped to develop the program for YFVCs (Dr Gil Lea, Rose Tucker, and Stella Bailey). The National Travel Health Network and Centre Selleckchem Ulixertinib charges a registration fee for yellow fever vaccination centers (YFVCs). This fee contributes to running the NaTHNaC program for YFVCs and to the general operating budget of this not-for profit organization. The authors state that they have no conflicts

of interest. “
“Background. KABISA TRAVEL is a clinical decision support system developed by the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Antwerp, Belgium, for the diagnosis of febrile illnesses after a stay in the tropics. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of KABISA TRAVEL with that of expert travel physicians. Methods. From December 2007 to April 2009, travelers with fever after a stay in the tropics were included in a multicenter trial conducted in travel referral centers in the Netherlands, Italy, Spain, and Belgium. Physicians were asked (1) to rank their first assessment diagnoses, (2) to enter in KABISA TRAVEL clinical and laboratory data available within 36 hours, and (3) to interact with the tutor until its final diagnostic ranking. Both physicians and KABISA TRAVEL rankings were then compared with the final diagnosis confirmed by reference

methods. The clinical utility was also surveyed. Results. A total of 205 cases with confirmed diagnosis were evaluated (male/female ratio: 1.85; mean age: 35 y). 17-AAG Most patients were western travelers or expatriates (60%) and were returning from sub-Saharan

Africa (58%). Travel physicians and KABISA TRAVEL ranked the correct diagnosis in the first place for 70 and 72% of the cases, respectively, and within the top five both for 88% of them. Travel physicians reported having been suggested useful further investigations in 16% of the cases, and having been helped for obtaining the diagnosis in 24%. This was reported more frequently when they had initially missed the diagnosis (suggestion: 48% in missed vs 12% in found diagnoses, p < Cell Penetrating Peptide 0.001; helpful: 48% in missed vs 21% in found diagnoses, p = 0.005). Conclusions. KABISA TRAVEL performed as well as expert travel physicians in diagnosing febrile illnesses occurring after a tropical stay. Clinicians perceived the system as more helpful when they had not immediately considered the correct diagnosis. Fever is a leading reason for consultation in travel clinics, together with diarrhea and skin disorders.1 It is also the most challenging travel-related symptom because the differential diagnosis is wide, most tropical febrile diseases present with nonspecific features, and severe complications may sometimes rapidly develop.2,3 Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) have been developed with the aim to improve patient care.

Statistical analysis was performed

with graphpad prism 5

Statistical analysis was performed

with graphpad prism 5 (GraphPad Software Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was performed to identify time from RA diagnosis to first cardiovascular event and time from RA diagnosis to death. The denominator of all newly diagnosed RA patients within the 10-year study period, the vast majority seen as outpatients, was calculated from the Department of Rheumatology database. RA diagnosis was made using American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria and/or rheumatologist diagnosis. The rheumatology database case notes were also reviewed to selleck chemical confirm the presence or absence of a discharge diagnosis of ischemic heart disease to cross-check the accuracy and completeness of the ICD discharge coding search. Four hundred and six patients were discharged during the study period with combined

ICD9 or 10 codes for RA and a cardiovascular event. One hundred and ninety-four of these had a confirmed cardiovascular event, of whom 34 were diagnosed with RA between January 1999 and December 2008 prior to their cardiovascular event. This was the first cardiovascular event following RA diagnosis in all 34 patients. A search of the Rheumatology Departmental database yielded 619 additional patients who were diagnosed with RA during the study period (who did not sustain RG-7204 a cardiovascular event) giving a total of 653 patients (Fig. 1, flowchart of patient selection). The median RA disease duration of the cohort as a whole was 5.8 years (i.e., in over half of cohort, RA diagnosis was made post-March 2002). Of the 34 RA patients tetracosactide who had cardiovascular events, the median age was 64 years (range 47–79) and there was an equal sex distribution;

91% were rheumatoid factor positive; 59% of the cardiovascular events were non-ST elevation MI, 21% were ST elevation MI and 21% unstable angina. There were no cardiac arrests or deaths during the study period. The most common cardiovascular risk factors were smoking (41% current smokers, 35% ex-smokers) and hypertension (71%); 41% had a family history of ischemic heart disease and 12% had diabetes. Table 1 shows the use of rheumatoid and cardiovascular medications. None of the patients were on biologics at the time of their event. Reliable data on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use was unavailable. The time to first cardiovascular event is shown in Figure 2. The probability of a cardiovascular event in the first year after diagnosis of RA was 0.64% and 9.4% after 10 years. The median time to first cardiovascular event from RA diagnosis was 2.53 years (range 0.02–8.31). In the whole cohort there were 26 documented deaths; cause of death could not be determined. Figure 3 shows the probability of death in the first year after RA diagnosis was 0.48% and at 10 years 8.16%. The median time to death for these 26 patients was 3.23 years (range 0.25–8.55).

However, despite this symmetry, the methylene groups have a diast

However, despite this symmetry, the methylene groups have a diastereotopic relationship with each other, and therefore display different chemical shifts in the 1H-NMR. In addition, each proton on the methylene groups also has a diastereotopic relationship with each other, and this results in the appearance of a large geminal coupling constant (15.3 Hz) between these protons. The symmetrical nature of 1 is also supported by the presence of only five signals in

the 13C-NMR. The other possible isomer of dimethyl citrate, with a terminal carboxylic acid, would possess a center of chirality, and as a result, there would be two methyl signals in the 1H-NMR, as well as possibly eight signals in the 13C-NMR (Anet & Park, 1992). The second compound that eluted from the column (187 mg) displayed two EPZ015666 ic50 singlets in the 1H-NMR (δ 3.76, 3H, and 3.65, 6H), which suggested the presence of two unique methyl ester groups. A pattern of doublets similar to that observed in 1, at δ 2.94 and 2.82 (J=15.3 Hz), suggested that this compound was trimethyl citrate (2). This was further reinforced by the 13C-NMR, where the two carbonyl groups (δ 175.3 and 171.8) were evident along with a signal for an oxygenated quaternary carbon (δ 74.8), and

two signals (δ 53.3 and 52.4) consistent with methyl esters and an additional signal (δ 44.4) suggested a methylene attached to an electron-withdrawing group. The EI-MS http://www.selleckchem.com/products/bgj398-nvp-bgj398.html suggested a molecular formula of C9H14O7 consistent with the proposed

structure of 2. The symmetrical nature of 2 was evident from the 1H- and 13C-NMR Adenosine and the pattern of signals can be explained using a discussion similar to that for 1. The least polar compound (198 mg) had a rather simple set of spectra, displaying only a single peak in the 1H-NMR at δ 3.76 and only two peaks in the 13C-NMR spectrum at δ 157.6 and 53.1. Based on these data, the structure of this compound was assigned as dimethyl oxalate (3). All of the structural assignments described were confirmed by comparison with spectra in the literature for the compounds. Additionally, a repeat fermentation of this organism using newly propagated spores led to the production of these compounds at a level comparable to our first fermentation. Despite the scale of global citric acid fermentation, there appear to have been no reports of methylated derivatives being produced by fungal cultures. To the best of our knowledge, the strain of A. niger described here is the first report of a filamentous fungus capable of producing methylated citric acid derivatives. Dimethyl citrate (1) and trimethyl citrate (2) have been reported previously as secondary metabolites in a variety of other organisms, but mainly in higher plants such as Prunus mume (Miyazawa et al., 2003), an apricot variety; Gastrodia elata (Pyo et al., 2000), an orchid; Dioscorea opposite (Bai et al., 2008), the Chinese yam; Opuntia ficus-indica (Han et al.

However, cells grown on 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid failed to oxid

However, cells grown on 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid failed to oxidize phenanthrene, but did oxidize salicylic acid and catechol. On the other hand, cells grown on salicylic acid failed to oxidize both phenanthrene and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic Selleck Navitoclax acid apart from catechol. Oxygen uptake rates were found to be in the range of 23–40 nmol of oxygen consumed per minute per milligram of protein. Moreover, the immediate oxygen-incorporating

activity of the enzymes involved in phenanthrene degradation was not observed with any of the above substrates with succinate-grown cells. It is therefore believed that the oxygen-incorporating enzymes involved in the phenanthrene degradation pathway in strain PWTJD are inducible. HPLC analysis of a resting cell incubated (48 h) phenanthrene-degraded sample showed a number of well-resolved RG-7388 cell line peaks (Fig.

2), of which, peaks I–V and VII were identified as salicylic acid, catechol, 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid, salicylaldehyde, 2-naphthol and the unutilized phenanthrene, respectively, on comparing their retention times, coelution profiles and UV-visible spectra (Fig. 2, inset) obtained from diode array analysis with those of the authentic compounds analyzed under identical conditions. Identification of 2-naphthol may be due to abiotic decarboxylation of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid under the experimental conditions used. In addition, the UV-visible spectrum of peak VI eluted at 17.6 min was found to be relatively similar to that of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid (III), eluted at 5.9 min. Other peaks of Fig. 2 showed neither Chlormezanone any match with the UV-visible spectral pattern nor retention behavior of the available authentic compounds that are reported as phenanthrene pathway metabolites in the literature. Compounds corresponding to peaks I, II, IV–VI were also obtained from resting

cell incubated 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid-degraded samples by the strain PWTJD grown either on phenanthrene or on 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid. GC-MS analysis of biodegraded products obtained from the organic extracts (neutral as well as acidic) of the spent culture (96 h) and resting cell incubation (48 h) with phenanthrene are summarized in Table 1. GC-MS data correlate well with those obtained from HPLC analysis, although 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid was not detected as such because this compound was decarboxylated under the GC-MS conditions and furnished the typical spectrum of 2-naphthol (product V, Table 1). This has been verified using authentic 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid under the GC conditions used. However, a methylated derivative of an acidic extract of resting cell incubation with phenanthrene indicated the presence of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid (metabolite III).

T4-like viruses, belonging to T-, PseudoT- and Schizo T-evens sub

T4-like viruses, belonging to T-, PseudoT- and Schizo T-evens subgroups, attack members of different genera of Enterobacteriaceae family and genera Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Burkholderia, Pseudomonas and Vibrio of other families (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ICTVdb/Ictv/fs_index.htm). The presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria of the listed groups in Lake Baikal was shown previously using cultivating methods (Drucker & Panasyuk, 2006) and by analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments (Bel’kova

et al., 1996, 2003; Soutourina et al., 2001). Enterobacteria and bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas were also detected in the samples used in our study (in the Southern and Northern lake basins, respectively) (Parfenova et al., 2009). However, we failed to detect structures closely related to known T4 bacteriophages. T4-phage numbers, MDV3100 concentration even if they were present in Lake Baikal water, were probably extremely low due to the small concentrations of their respective hosts. For example, enterobacteria were detected at a concentration of 30 CFU mL−1 in a sample collected in Southern Baikal (Parfenova et al., 2009). As was noted above, one g23 clone from Lake Baikal (S0508/1-1) was extremely different from other Baikalian sequences and joined to a small group with two g23 sequences from Japanese paddy soils. Two Rucaparib latter clones

were obtained from distant paddy fields in Northern and Southern Japan. In spite of the geographical disconnected location, the Baikalian clone and those from paddy fields had similar amino acid changes in highly conserved motifs and similar sequences in the hypervariable regions (Fig. 2). Phylogenetic analysis showed their common origin with 100% posterior probability. This group was quite distinct from other subgroups

of T4 bacteriophages. Therefore, it is impossible to arrive at any conclusion on the range of their hosts. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that g23 genes were highly diverse, suggesting a conceivable role of T4 phages in the evolution Ergoloid of their hosts and in Lake Baikal productivity. In general, the g23 gene sequences from Lake Baikal, except for the single clone from Southern Baikal, were closely related to marine T4 cyanophages and to previously described subgroups of uncultured T4 phages from marine and rice field environments. The composition of T4 phages in Northern and Southern Baikal as well as the populations of bacteria, phytoplankton and autotrophic picoplankton differed. Further identification, isolation and molecular characterization of T4-type bacteriophages from various environments will allow us to obtain more accurate information about the phylogenetic relations within the genus ‘T4-like viruses’ and about the range of their hosts. We are grateful to Dr Tatyana Sherbakova and Prof.

There was a significant correlation between changes in EMG mirror

There was a significant correlation between changes in EMG mirroring and the individual maximal s-IHI at baseline (r = 0.65, P = 0.0019; Fig. 6), indicating that the greatest reduction in EMG selleck kinase inhibitor mirroring was associated with the most effective individual maximal s-IHI. The correlation between changes in EMG mirroring and the average baseline l-IHI was not significant (r = 0.25, P = 0.27; Fig. 6). There was no correlation between overall changes in either s-IHI or l-IHI and practice-related changes in EMG mirroring (r = 0.36,

P = 0.11; r = 0.11, P = 0.63). As outlined in the Materials and methods, we also tested whether the practice-related changes in EMG mirroring were related to the changes in acceleration of the ballistic movement or to the changes of the average corticospinal excitability of the trained hemisphere. There was no correlation between changes in EMG mirroring and acceleration peak (r = 0.32, P = 0.16). Similarly, there was no correlation between changes in EMG mirroring and average corticospinal excitability of the trained hemisphere (r = −0.0081,

P = 0.97). In the present study we found that, as reported by others (Classen et al., 1998; Muellbacher et al., 2001; Agostino et al., 2007, 2008), subjects improved performance in the trained task. Furthermore, this happened even though there was no overall change in EMG mirroring, and even a tendency for it to decline. Physiologically there was an increase in the excitability of corticospinal Etoposide in vivo output from the trained hemisphere, but there was no change in IHI from Meloxicam the trained to the contralateral hemisphere. However, individual changes in EMG mirroring did relate to the basal amount of s-IHI, i.e. the greater the basal levels of s-IHI the greater the reduction in EMG mirroring. The conclusions from this are: (i) that corticospinal excitability and cortico-cortical (interhemispheric) excitability can be modulated independently

by motor training, even though they may share some of the same circuitry (Avanzino et al., 2007); and (ii) basal physiology measures of s-IHI give an indication of the overall extent to which EMG mirroring modification is possible, i.e. that the baseline s-IHI is a key factor that determines how successfully participants can learn to focus their motor commands on the task being trained and prevent overflow to the opposite hemisphere. The reduction in EMG mirroring we observed during motor training in individuals with greater baseline s-IHI was not explained by a change in the level of background EMG activity in the tonically contracting FDIMIRROR as this was constant. Nor is it likely to reflect any fatigue that might have been caused by training as fatigue is known to increase rather than decrease EMG mirroring (Cincotta & Ziemann, 2008). There was also no correlation between the reduced amount of EMG mirroring and the improvement in motor performance, i.e.

In addition,

HIV-infected patients’ LSOA of residence was

In addition,

HIV-infected patients’ LSOA of residence was used to categorize patients according to residential deprivation. The ONS classification was used to categorize LSOAs as either ‘urban’ this website or ‘rural’ [10]. The location of HIV services was established using the site’s postcode centroid (central geographical point of the postcode area). The location of each patient’s residence was established using the population weighted LSOA centroid published by the ONS [7]. The straight-line distance between a patient’s LSOA of residence and HIV services was determined using mapinfo pro 9.0™ (PB MapInfo Corporation, North Greenbush, NY, USA). The distance to the closest HIV service was measured; this service and any other services within a radius of 5 km plus the distance to the closest service were categorized as ‘local’ (Fig. 1). Services beyond this distance were categorized as ‘non-local’. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted using stata 10™ (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA) to determine factors associated with use of a non-local HIV service. Sex was incorporated into the route of transmission variable rather than analysed as a separate variable in the multivariable model. The χ2-test for association was used to

supplement descriptive analyses where appropriate. In 2007, 51 108 HIV-infected patients accessed HIV care in England, of whom 46 550 (91.1%) were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. Of these, 66.2% (30 804) were male and 50.3% (23 426) were White and the median age was 40 years (range 15–90 years). The majority resided in an urban area (95%; 44 420) and 42% Regorafenib (19 461) resided in an LSOA ranked in the most deprived quintile. The triclocarban South Central Strategic Health Authority (SHA) had the smallest proportion of diagnosed patients living in a highly deprived area (10%; 205/2147) and the North East SHA the highest (60%; 571/956) (Table 1). Almost three-quarters (73%; 33 117/45 350) of patients were known to have received ART; of these, 97% (31 968) were

prescribed three or more drugs. The median distance to the closest HIV service was 2.5 km; this ranged from less than 1 km to 80 km (IQR 1.5–4.2 km) and varied across SHAs (Table 1). Patients living in London lived a median distance of 2.0 km (IQR 1.3–2.9 km) from their closest service and patients outside London a median distance of 3.7 km (IQR 2.0–6.3 km). The majority (81%; 37 539) of patients had at least one HIV service within 5 km of their place of residence, and 93% (43 473) had at least one service within 10 km. The average number of HIV services within 5 km of residence was 3.0 in London and 0.85 outside London. The median distance actually travelled to an HIV service in 2007 was 4.8 km (IQR 2.5–9.7 km) (Table 1). Almost three-quarters (73%; 34 206) of patients used a local HIV service, but just 8.7% (4033) used their closest.

, 2010) In brief, contigs were assembled using the CAP3 sequence

, 2010). In brief, contigs were assembled using the CAP3 sequence assembly program (Huang & Madan, 1999). In order to identify FK228 chemical structure potential protein encoding segments, three open reading frames (orfs) prediction programs were used: heuristic genemark™ (Besemer & Borodovsky, 1999), fgenesb (http:www.softberry.com) and metageneannotator (Noguchi et al., 2006). blastn and blastp queries were performed at the NCBI server (Altschul et al., 1997). Ribosome binding sites (RBS), putative promoter and terminator

sequences were predicted by metageneannotator, bprom and findterm (http:www.softberry.com), respectively. kodon software (Applied Maths N.V., Sint-Martens-Latem, Belgium) was used for the construction of the genetic map of pREN plasmid, for the prediction of the DNA secondary structures

and for the comparative mapping of pREN with its closely related plasmids. After blastp searches, protein sequences receiving top scores were retrieved from the GeneBank database. Multiple alignments of protein or nucleotide sequences were constructed using the muscle program (Edgar, 2004). jalview allowed the visualization and editing of the alignments (Waterhouse et al., 2009). For phylogenetic analysis, the alignments were further curated with gblocks (Castresana, 2000). Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on the maximum likelihood method using the phyml program (Guindon & Gascuel, 2003) and treedyn for tree rendering (Chevenet JQ1 order et al., 2006) with the WAG substitution matrix. Statistical validation for branch support (%) was conducted via a χ2-based parametric approximate likelihood-ratio test (Anisimova

& Gascuel, 2006). The MobB protein sequence was analyzed using interproscan to determine functional protein domains (Mulder & Apweiler, 2007). The full-length Reverse transcriptase nucleotide sequence of the annotated pREN plasmid was deposited in the EMBL database under Accession No.: FR714836. The plasmid content of L. rennini ACA-DC 1534 was investigated. The strain harbors more than one plasmid and plasmid assigned as pREN was further analyzed. pREN was found to be a circular molecule of 4371 bp with a 43.3% GC content. Ab initio orf calling revealed that pREN carries six putative genes located on the same DNA strand (Fig. 1). The coding sequences (3513 nucleotides in total) cover ∼80% of the plasmid. fgenesb indicated that orf1 (921 bp) and orf2 (330 bp) formed a single operon. Further analysis of this region supported this prediction. The two orfs shared a common promoter (−35 and −10 sequences) found upstream of orf1. Right after orf2, a terminator could be determined, while both orfs were preceded by typical RBS sequences. orf1 was identified as a replication initiation protein-coding gene. The deduced amino acid product (306 residues) showed the highest identity to RepA of plasmid pLJ42 from Lactobacillus plantarum (100% query coverage, 90% identity, e-value 7e−161) (Accession No.: DQ099911, direct submission).