, 2004) and
the novel-sound P3a has been found to be enlarged in highly distractible children such as those with attention deficit Dapagliflozin concentration hyperactivity disorder (van Mourik et al., 2007) and major depression (Lepistö et al., 2004). In sum, a large P3a to subtle deviants appears to be associated with highly accurate auditory discrimination, whereas high-amplitude P3as to novel sounds may be indicative of heightened distractibility. The P3a responses elicited by novel sounds vs. more subtle deviant tones might also display distinct developmental trajectories. For frequency deviants, an age-related increase in P3a amplitude has been reported (Wetzel & Schröger, 2007a). Admittedly, very few studies have specifically examined the development of the deviant elicited P3a. By visual inspection of the figures,
a few studies (Gomot et al., 2000; Shafer et al., 2000; Horváth et al., 2009a) appear to support an age-related increase in the deviant-tone P3a but unfortunately these studies did not statistically examine the age differences in this response. In contrast, the novel-sound P3a seems to decrease (over the frontal electrodes) between preschool age and adulthood Roxadustat supplier (Määttä et al., 2005; Wetzel & Schröger, 2007b; Wetzel et al., 2011), which might be related the maturation of the frontal cortex. Therefore, the enlarged P3as to deviants and reduced P3as to novel sounds found in the children from more musically active homes could be speculated to reflect more mature response morphology. With regard to the novel-sound P3a, the correlation was specific to parental singing, whereas the correlation between this response and the overall musical activities at home score did not reach significance. This result indicates that, in particular, listening to informal musical performances (as opposed to more active musical play) is associated with
reduced distractibility. Parental singing is highly effective in maintaining the attention of young infants (Trehub, 2009). In fact, singing by the father might be especially engaging for infants as indicated by behavioural Abiraterone concentration measures of visual attention during listening to paternal vs. maternal singing (O’Neill et al., 2001). Several authors have proposed that formal musical training might enhance executive functions (Moreno et al., 2011; Bialystok & DePape, 2009; Dege et al., 2011; however, see Schellenberg, 2011) such as selective attention (Trainor et al., 2009; Moreno et al., 2009). A recent longitudinal intervention study found support for these claims (Moreno et al., 2011). Our results indicate that even informal musical activity may also enhance functions related to auditory attention in childhood. Although a number of suggestions for the functional significance of the LDN have been put forward, the cognitive processes underlying this response remain to be disambiguated.