This in turn increased survival from 30% in UCP2+/+ mice to 50% in UCP2-/- mice. In summary, we show for the first time that mitochondrial dysfunction-associated oxidative stress enhances hepatic protein glycation, which aggravates inflammation-induced liver injury. Targeting the AGE/RAGE interaction by the blockade of RAGE might be of therapeutic value for the oxidative stress-exposed liver. Laboratory Investigation (2010) 90, 1189-1198; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2010.84; published online 5 April 2010″
“Temporal processing forms the basis of a vast number of
human behaviours, from simple perception and action to tasks like locomotion, playing a musical instrument, and understanding language. Growing MLN0128 clinical trial evidence suggests that these procedural skills are consolidated during sleep, however investigation of such learning has focused upon the order in which movements are made rather than their temporal dynamics. Here, we use psychophysics and neuroimaging to explore the possibility that temporal aspects of such skills are also enhanced over a period of sleep. Behaviourally, our examinations of motor (tapping a finger in time with a temporal rhythm) and perceptual (monitoring a temporal rhythm for deviants) tasks reveal post-sleep improvements in both domains. Functionally, we show that brain-state during retention (sleep or wake) modulates subsequent responses in the striatum,
supplementary motor area, and lateral cerebellum during motor timing, and click here in the posterior hippocampus during perceptual timing. Our data support the proposal that these two forms of timing draw on different brain mechanisms, with motor timing using a more automatic system while perceptual timing of the same rhythm is more closely associated with cognitive processing. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Earlier studies conducted by our laboratory have shown that suppression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta)-mediated upregulation of connective
tissue growth factor (CTGF) by iloprost resulted in a greatly diminished oval cell response to 2-acetylaminofluorene/partial hepatectomy (2AAF/PH) in rats. We hypothesized that this effect is due to decreased activation of hepatic stellate cells. To test this hypothesis, we maintained rats on a diet supplemented with 2% L-cysteine as a means of inhibiting stellate Dichloromethane dehalogenase cell activation during the oval cell response to 2AAF/PH. In vitro experiments show that L-cysteine did, indeed, prevent the activation of stellate cells while exerting no direct effect on oval cells. Desmin immunostaining of liver sections from 2AAF/PH animals indicated that maintenance on the L-cysteine diet resulted in an 11.1-fold decrease in the number of activated stellate cells within the periportal zones. The total number of cells proliferating in the periportal zones of livers from animals treated with L-cysteine was drastically reduced.