However, inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus after repeated ex

However, inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus after repeated exposure to the training context did not affect object recognition memory. Our findings suggest that object recognition memory formation does not require the hippocampus and, moreover, that activity in the hippocampus can interfere with the consolidation of object recognition memory when object information encoding occurs in an unfamiliar environment.”
“Rats subjected to a single prolonged episode of maternal deprivation (MD) [24h, postnatal days 9-10] show, later in life, behavioural alterations that resemble specific signs of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric signs including increased

levels of impulsivity and an apparent difficulty to cope with selleck chemicals llc stressful situations. Some of these

behavioural modifications click here are observable in the periadolescent period. However there is no previous information regarding the possible underlying neurochemical correlates at this critical developmental period. In this study we have addressed the effects of MD on the levels of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and their respective metabolites in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, midbrain and cerebellum of male and female periadolescent Wistar rats. MD rats showed significantly increased levels of 5-HT in all regions studied with the exception of cerebellum. In addition, MD animals showed increased levels of DA in PFC as well as increased levels of DA and a decrease of DOPAC/DA and HVA/DA ratios in striatum. The effect of MD on the monoaminergic systems was in several cases sex-dependent. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“”"Transitive inference”" refers to the ability to judge from memory the relationships between indirectly related items that compose a hierarchically organized series, and this capacity is considered a fundamental feature of relational memory. Here we explored the role of the prefrontal cortex in transitive inference by examining the performance of mice with selective damage Methane monooxygenase to the medial prefrontal cortex. Damage to the infralimbic and

prelimbic regions resulted in significant impairment in the acquisition of a series of overlapping odor discrimination problems, such that animals with prefrontal lesions required twice as many trials to learn compared to sham-operated controls. Following eventually successful acquisition, animals with medial prefrontal lesions were severely impaired on a transitive inference probe test, whereas they performed as well as controls on a test that involved a nontransitive judgment from a novel odor pairing. These results suggest that the prefrontal cortex is part of an integral hippocampal-cortical network essential for relational memory organization.”
“Astrocytes are thought to play a role in the maintenance of homeostasis and the provision of metabolic substrates for neurons as well as the coupling of cerebral blood flow to neuronal activity.

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