“Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) do not produce alpha interferon (IFN-alpha)
unless viruses cause a systemic infection or overcome the first-line defense provided by conventional DCs and macrophages. We show here that even paramyxoviruses, whose infections are restricted to the respiratory tract, have a V protein able to prevent Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7)- and TLR9-dependent IFN-alpha induction specific to pDCs. Mutational analysis of human parainfluenza virus type 2 demonstrates that the second Trp residue of the Trp-rich motif (Trp-X(3)-Trp-X(9)-Trp) in the C-terminal domain unique to V, a determinant for IRF7 binding, is critical for the blockade of TLR7/9-dependent signaling.”
“A nonhuman primate model was applied to investigate the relationships between variations in the organization of microtubules, microfilaments, http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Vandetanib.html and chromatin in metaphase I and metaphase II oocytes. Marmoset oocytes were subjected to in vitro maturation and coincubation with sperm. Oocytes which failed to cleave were investigated for chromatin, tubulin, and actin using Hoechst 33258, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled alpha-tubulin antibody and rhodamine-labeled phalloidin, respectively. Spindles were categorized according to size, shape and microtubule organization: normal, large, multipolar, selleck chemical disorganized, absent spindle, and spindles with broad poles. Actin caps were categorized
as: normal, small, split, and disorganized. Chromosomal condensation and alignment were described as
Carfilzomib normal or abnormal. Improper chromosomal condensation was associated with both abnormal microfilament and microtubule arrangement. This was further associated with abnormal actin organization, disorientation and late stabilization of microtubules, but not related to abnormal organization of spindle poles. Chromosomal misalignment was associated with disorientation and late stabilization of tubulin, but not to broad spindle pole. Additionally, abnormal actin polarization appeared not to be related to abnormal spindle poles. The model system presented in this study could be used as an experimental platform for studying the contribution of different factors to the exactness of late meiotic events in primate oocytes. The present study provides basic information on spindle, chromosome, and actin normal and abnormal organization, which can be observed in in vitro matured, but failed to cleave primate oocytes. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Notocotylus attenuatus (Digenea: Notocotylidae) is a monostome fluke parasitizing the intestinal caeca of waterfowl that uses an injection apparatus to infect its intermediate snail host. Morphology of the invading larva (a sporocyst), and the intramolluscan larval development of this fluke have not been characterized extensively. In this study, experimental infections of Lymnaea stagnalis using N.