Conversely, the constant activation of p53 consecutive to ribosom

Conversely, the constant activation of p53 consecutive to ribosomal stress induced by RPS20 mutation could favor, in the long run, the selection of cells that escape regulation by p53. In summary, we

show that inactivating germline mutation of RPS20 is associated with a dominant predisposition to colorectal cancer. This report links germline mutation of RPS20 to human disease. Future investigations are necessary to establish the prevalence of RPS20 mutations in FCCX families worldwide as well as the exact tumorigenic mechanisms AZD0530 chemical structure and the basis of apparent tumor-type specificity. Finally, our study encourages investigations into the possible involvement of other ribosomal protein genes in colon cancer susceptibility. The authors thank Saila Saarinen for expert technical assistance and Tuula Lehtinen and Kirsi Pylvänäinen for help in collecting clinical data. The authors also thank Dr Hanna Gazda for helpful discussions. “
“Podcast interview:

Also available on iTunes. Current therapies for Crohn’s disease (CD), a chronic inflammatory disorder of the alimentary tract,1 include corticosteroids; immunosuppressives (eg, azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, methotrexate); the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists infliximab, adalimumab, and certolizumab; and the anti–α4 integrin C59 supplier monoclonal antibody natalizumab.1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 Treatment with TNF antagonists substantially has improved

the care of Trichostatin A supplier patients with CD that is refractory to other treatments by inducing and maintaining remission and decreasing the need for hospitalization and surgery.7 and 8 However, in controlled trials, approximately two thirds of patients did not attain or maintain remission at 1 year after TNF antagonist initiation.9, 10 and 11 In addition, patients in whom 1 TNF antagonist has failed have a substantially decreased response rate when treated with a second TNF antagonist.12 and 13 Important safety concerns are associated with the immunosuppressive effects of TNF antagonists, including an increased risk of serious infections (eg, tuberculosis).14, 15 and 16 Natalizumab, another option for patients with CD, binds to α4β1 and α4β7 integrins, inhibiting T-lymphocyte adhesion to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1). Natalizumab is approved for multiple sclerosis in many countries and for moderate to severe CD in the United States.3, 5 and 6 However, an increased risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a rare, serious infection of the central nervous system (CNS), has limited natalizumab use in patients with CD.

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