Three days after immunization with MOG-pulsed splenic DCs, total donor cells were differentiated from host
cells based on CD45.2 expression (Fig. 3) and Treg cells were distinguished from Teff cells on the basis of Thy1.1 expression. As seen previously, no difference in CFSE profiles were observed between the two groups, but the FG-4592 solubility dmso total number of Teff cells in the spleen was greater in the presence of Treg cells. There was appreciable proliferation of the Treg cells, but they did not divide to the same extent as did the Teff cell. Teff-cell expansion greatly outpaced Treg cell expansion, becoming 97% of the total transferred CD4+ population. Although recent reports 11 have suggested that during inflammatory conditions Treg cells downregulate the expression of Foxp3, the levels of Foxp3 expression were almost identical
to pre-transfer levels (Fig. 3 and data not shown). The increase in the number of antigen-specific T cells in the LN following priming in the presence of polyclonal Treg cells is in apparent conflict with our studies in EAE that demonstrated a decreased number of Teff cells in the target organ in the presence of an excess of Treg cells. However, the total Doxorubicin number of T cells in the LN is determined not only by in situ proliferation and expansion but also by the relative contribution of entry and exit from the LN. We therefore determined the relative proportions of transferred T cells in the LN and the blood. In mice that had received Teff cells in the absence of Treg cell, 8.63% of the total LN CD4+ cells were of donor origin 7 days following immunization (Fig. 4, top panels). At the same time point, 4.13% of the CD4+ cells in the blood were of donor ever origin. In contrast, in mice that had received Treg cells in addition to Teff cells, 11.6% of the LN CD4+ cells were of donor origin, but only 1.3% of the CD4+ cells in the blood were of donor origin.
In multiple experiments, we consistently found a greater number of cells in the LN, and fewer cells in the blood of mice that had received Treg cells at multiple time points (Fig. 4, lower panels; Supporting Information Fig. S1C). To determine whether Treg cell altered the trafficking of Teff cells, we used a modified delayed type hypersensitivity model in which we could control the timing and location of a tissue dwelling antigen. CD45.1+ 5CC7 TCR-Tg T cells (specific for PCC) were adoptively transferred into CD45.2+ recipients in the presence or absence of Treg cells. The following day, the mice were immunized in the hind flank with PCC in CFA. Seven days later, the mice were challenged in the ear with PCC peptide in PBS. The next day, the ears were removed, dissociated, and the total number of Teff cells enumerated (Fig. 5). As seen previously, there was an increase in the percentage and absolute numbers of Teff cells in the LN, and a decreased number of Teff cells in the blood of mice that had received Treg cells.