The diagnostic efficiency was constantly high at cutoff points of

The diagnostic efficiency was constantly high at cutoff points of 0.2 kU/l (Hycor) up to 0.1 kU/l (Phadia) accompanied by an optimized sensitivity. Altogether, a cutoff point of at least 0.2 kU/l represented the most advantageous combination of specificity and sensitivity and yielded constantly high

diagnostic efficiency for both commercial test kits. Fig. 3 Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficacy of the commercial cattle allergen tests (a Hycor, b Phadia) to identify the symptomatic claw trimmers, given in 27 claw trimmers with and 65 without work-related symptoms. We used different cut points between Tofacitinib chemical structure 0.35 and 0.10 kU/l (WS work-related symptoms) Discussion This paper is the first to report the results obtained with a self-prepared cattle allergen mix designed to represent the full spectrum of cattle allergens present in a typical agricultural workplace, PU-H71 order as previously characterized with immunoblotting (Heutelbeck et al. 2009). Additional tests with self-made cattle hair extracts can help to bridge the diagnostic gap seen in patients showing cattle-related symptoms, but negative results

in tests with commercially available extracts (Heutelbeck et al. 2007, 2009; Prahl et al. 1978; Ylönen et al. 1990). However, the complexity and the costs of the immunoblotting procedures involved in such tests are too high for routine use at present. For routine screening, the commercial test kits are more practicable and cost-effective. In our study, up to 27.8% of all claw trimmers with negative results using commercial test kits showed positive results with the self-prepared allergen mix extracted from cattle hair. Similar results have been previously reported (Heutelbeck et al. 2007; Prahl et al. 1978; Ylönen et al. 1990): some farmers with a negative result using commercially available serological allergy tests showed distinct reactions with cattle

allergens in immunoblotting experiments (Heutelbeck et al. 2009). Such inconsistencies between clinical symptoms and in vivo or in vitro diagnostics may result from the absence of certain ARN-509 mw important allergens in the commercial extract used for Amine dehydrogenase testing. The strong association of work-related allergy symptoms with cattle-related sensitization in this study may be a result of the unique characteristics of claw trimming with constantly high cattle allergen exposure. However, regarding the sensitization pattern in the immunoblot experiments, we found more specific reactivity at molecular weights of about 16 kDa rather than in the range of about 20 kDa previously described as the major allergen Bos d 2 (Prahl et al. 1982; Ylönen et al. 1992; Rautiainen et al. 1997). The relevance of these proteins to an earlier stage of sensitization should be addressed in further studies. To improve the sensitivity of commercial test kits, this study proposes an optimized cutoff level for two commercially available cattle allergen extracts. Cutoff levels around 0.

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