The CMC-SPM clusters were non-toxic towards both human cervical (

The CMC-SPM clusters were non-toxic towards both human cervical (HeLa) and hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells. While, CMDP–CMC–SPM clusters were more active (0.9 μm) than CDDP (2.6 μm) towards HeLa

cells, in HepG2 the CMDP–CMC–SPM clusters were only 1.2-fold more active than CDDP. Similar to other platinum delivery systems, the release of the platinum pharamacophore from the CMDP-CMC-SPMNC is facilitated by the acidic environment of the tumour [ 19]. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are biocompatible, biogradable, have good aqueous HSP inhibitor cancer solubility and magnetic properties. Pectin is a suitable drug carrier for colon-specific drug delivery owing to its resistance to both protease and amylase. Dutta et al. have encapsulated both SPIONs and oxaliplatin in situ into pectin cross-linked with Ca2+ forming pectin nanocarriers. These magnetic nanocarriers exhibited cytotoxicity 10-fold higher than free oxaliplatin towards MIA-PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells [ 20]. The cisplatin nanoconjugate, γ-PGA-CA-CDDP is a hydro-soluble polymer of γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA) modified with citric acid (CA) conjugated with diaqua cisplatin (15, Figure 1k). Sustained release of the nanoconjugate indicated its improved selectivity and efficiency. However, 15

was less potent than free CDDP towards both BcaP-37 human breast and Bel-7402 liver cancer cell lines [21]. While delivery of anticancer CYTH4 agents via nanocarriers is efficient for reaching the tumour site through the EPR effect, correct attachment of receptor-binding molecules (particularly for

receptors overexpressed in cancer tissues) on the surface of NPs can enhance the uptake of the nanocarrier into the tumour cell through receptor-mediated internalisation. The most common receptors targeted in nanotechnology include the folate (FR), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transferrin (TfR) receptors. Rout et al. have conjugated cis-diaquadiammine PtII, folic acid (FA) and rhodamine B isothiocyanate onto magnetic calcium phosphate nanoparticles for the targeted delivery of CDDP into HeLa human cervical cancer cells (16). The cytotoxicity of 16 towards both HeLa (FR +ve) and L929 (FR −ve) human cervical cancer cells was ca. fourfold and onefold, respectively, more active compared to free CDDP, indicating that the nano-agent selectively targeted the HeLa cells through receptor mediated endocytosis [ 22]. Coencapsulation of AsIII-based and cisplatin-based anticancer complexes in a folate-functionalised liposome, referred as a “nanobin” (17), provided efficient drug delivery and uptake in KB human nasopharyngeal cells (FR +ve), but not in MCF-7 breast cancer cells (FR −ve) [ 23]. Nanogels are swollen polymers containing ca. 95% water suitable for trapping a range of chemical and biological agents. Nukolova et al. have investigated the antitumour activity of nanogels conjugated with folic acid (18) and loaded with CDDP.

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