T4-like viruses, belonging to T-, PseudoT- and Schizo T-evens sub

T4-like viruses, belonging to T-, PseudoT- and Schizo T-evens subgroups, attack members of different genera of Enterobacteriaceae family and genera Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Burkholderia, Pseudomonas and Vibrio of other families (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ICTVdb/Ictv/fs_index.htm). The presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria of the listed groups in Lake Baikal was shown previously using cultivating methods (Drucker & Panasyuk, 2006) and by analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments (Bel’kova

et al., 1996, 2003; Soutourina et al., 2001). Enterobacteria and bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas were also detected in the samples used in our study (in the Southern and Northern lake basins, respectively) (Parfenova et al., 2009). However, we failed to detect structures closely related to known T4 bacteriophages. T4-phage numbers, MDV3100 concentration even if they were present in Lake Baikal water, were probably extremely low due to the small concentrations of their respective hosts. For example, enterobacteria were detected at a concentration of 30 CFU mL−1 in a sample collected in Southern Baikal (Parfenova et al., 2009). As was noted above, one g23 clone from Lake Baikal (S0508/1-1) was extremely different from other Baikalian sequences and joined to a small group with two g23 sequences from Japanese paddy soils. Two Rucaparib latter clones

were obtained from distant paddy fields in Northern and Southern Japan. In spite of the geographical disconnected location, the Baikalian clone and those from paddy fields had similar amino acid changes in highly conserved motifs and similar sequences in the hypervariable regions (Fig. 2). Phylogenetic analysis showed their common origin with 100% posterior probability. This group was quite distinct from other subgroups

of T4 bacteriophages. Therefore, it is impossible to arrive at any conclusion on the range of their hosts. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that g23 genes were highly diverse, suggesting a conceivable role of T4 phages in the evolution Ergoloid of their hosts and in Lake Baikal productivity. In general, the g23 gene sequences from Lake Baikal, except for the single clone from Southern Baikal, were closely related to marine T4 cyanophages and to previously described subgroups of uncultured T4 phages from marine and rice field environments. The composition of T4 phages in Northern and Southern Baikal as well as the populations of bacteria, phytoplankton and autotrophic picoplankton differed. Further identification, isolation and molecular characterization of T4-type bacteriophages from various environments will allow us to obtain more accurate information about the phylogenetic relations within the genus ‘T4-like viruses’ and about the range of their hosts. We are grateful to Dr Tatyana Sherbakova and Prof.

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