Restoration was undertaken 25 years ago by the singly application

Restoration was undertaken 25 years ago by the singly application of two doses of organic domestic waste at 65 Mg ha(-1) (LD plots) and 195 Mg ha(-1) (HD plots). Control soils without see more amendment were also evaluated. Pyrosequencing of 16S- and 18S-rRNA genes did not reveal significant differences in phylogenetic diversity between restored and control soils. However, principal coordinates analysis of unweighted Unifrac distances showed variation in the structure of bacterial and fungal communities of HD plots. The number of Alpha-proteobacteria sequences

was higher in HD plots than in LD and control plots, while Actinobacteria abundance diminished in HD plots. In contrast to Basidiomycota, the number of Ascomycota sequences responded positively to restoration. Changes in microbial phylogenetic structure were related to changes in functional structure established by multivariate analysis of community-level-physiological find more profiles. Interestingly, despite the absence of phylogenetic diversity, restoration decreased the catabolic diversity in HD plots. This effect is likely due to the aboveground plant influences in restored plots. Overall, in the long-term, soil restoration under semiarid conditions did not increase microbial diversity but influenced microbial community structure and functionality. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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“The development of osteoarthritis (OA) after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is an unsolved problem. Articular cartilage and meniscus injuries are particularly important factors that contribute to OA progression.\n\nThe

purpose of this study was to investigate how articular cartilage and meniscus learn more injuries at the time of surgery affected the development of OA under limited conditions retrospectively. Exclusion criteria of this study were (1) age 40 years or over, (2) previous surgery, (3) another combined knee ligament injury, and (4) unstable reconstructed knees.\n\nThis study included 49 knees in 46 patients (average 26 years; range, 13-39 years) who had undergone isolated ACL reconstruction. Mean follow-up period was 3.9 years (range, 2-8 years). We classified patients into two groups, cartilage-damaged and non-damaged. Patients were also classified into two groups on the basis of treatment for meniscus: meniscectomy group and meniscus intact group. OA changes were investigated using weigh-bearing anteroposterior radiographs taken before surgery and at evaluation. OA changes were evaluated in terms of joint space narrowing, atrophy, sclerosis, cysts, spurs, flattening of the femoral condyle, concavity of the tibial condyle, and sharpening of the eminence. Each parameter was scored, and the total number of points was recorded as the OA score.

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