Reh et al22 investigated the factor structure and concurrent and

Reh et al22 investigated the factor structure and concurrent and discriminant validity of QbTest and found the hyperactivity factor correlated with teacher ratings of hyperactive behaviour, providing evidence for inhibitor the utility of including

this additional measure of activity in a CPT. In addition, Reh et al23 found the hyperactivity factor could identify intermediate levels of impairment in ADHD siblings, suggesting this factor maybe particularly sensitivity as an intermediate phenotype for ADHD. Their findings also provide initial evidence for the concurrent validity of the three factors (attention, impulsivity and activity), although the authors highlight the need for further research to investigate validity. Wehmeier et al24 found QbTest to be a valid measure of treatment outcome and highly correlated with blinded observer ratings of behaviour in placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial (RCTs). QbTest is effective in evaluating ADHD medication effects in children25 26 and can identify early non-responders.15 One clinical study found QbTest improved clinical accuracy by reducing the risk of unidentified ADHD when patients were re-evaluated 1 year after their initial assessment27 and another indicated the ability for QbTest to differentiate ADHD from normative

controls.28 Initial audit data (K Selby, 2013, unpublished data) suggest that implementation of QbTest in routine ADHD clinics can reduce the time to diagnosis by 30%. This equates to a reduction from an average of three to two out-patient appointments per patient in order to either confirm or exclude a diagnosis of ADHD. These findings indicate potential for QbTest to support the diagnostic assessment and management of ADHD within routine clinical practice; however, there has been no RCT to investigate the added clinical value (clinical utility) and economic cost-effectiveness of adding QbTest to standard ADHD care pathways within the NHS. The primary aim of the Assessing QbTest

Utility in ADHD-Trial (AQUA-Trial) is to determine whether using QbTest in routine NHS settings can accelerate diagnosis without compromising diagnostic accuracy. Second, the study aims to examine Carfilzomib whether QbTest improves the medication titration process by increasing the proportion of patients normalised after 6 months postbaseline assessment and improves patient outcome. The study will also use qualitative methods to explore the barriers, drivers and facilitators to the adoption of the QbTest in routine practice. The cost-effectiveness of implementing the QbTest in practice will also be investigated. The findings will indicate whether establishing QbTest as part of standard practice in ADHD assessment and management is clinically useful, financially viable and acceptable for clinicians and patients.

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