Meanwhile, some

Meanwhile, some Eltanexor in vitro methylation-related genes that are functional in carcinogenesis can also be regulated by folic acid in terms of DNA methylation [36]. Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 12a (Tnfrsf12a), also known as fn14 or TWEAK-R have been implicated in a variety of pathological processes including chronic inflammation and cancers [37]. And fn14 expression is at a relative lower level in normal tissues while much higher in cancer cells or tissues [38]. Kawashima [39] reported that IL-13 may damage the mucosa of colon

via the function of TWEAK and Fn14 check details pathway and Fn14 could aggravate intestinal inflammation in patients with UC. So the relation between fn14 and diseases might suggest fn14 and TWEAK are targets for cancer therapy [37]. In our study, Tnfrsf12a’s expression is 2.5 fold changes higher in FA2 group than FA3, which may be explained that the degree

of colon mucosal damage in FA2 was much worse and was prone to develop to cancers compared to FA3. In this aspect, the high expression of fn14 may contribute to the growth of masses in FA2 group. Vitamin D Receptor gene (VDR) is involved in the progress of cancers or chronic diseases [40]. Some argued that the polymorphism of VDR and CDX2 was not associated with increased risk of CRCs [41]. While others suggested that significant associations with VDR polymorphisms was found not in colorectal cancers but much stronger in cancers of breast, prostate and renal cell carcinomas [42]. And the association between VDR polymorphisms and folic find more Adenosine triphosphate acid has not been reported yet. In another respect, VDR is considered to be an epithelial marker in the process of Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and thus might have a suppressive function of invasion [43]. Therefore, the expression of many tumor suppressors such as VDR was much lower (FC = 0.3010) compared with group FA2 and FA3, which was opposite to oncogenes. However, there are

some limitations of our study should be mentioned. First, we ignored the usage of the B Vitamins in the animal experiment, which is important in the process of Folic acid’ transport and storage in liver. Therefore, Folic acid supplements may sometimes include vitamin B12 supplements with simultaneous administration of vitamin B12 [22]. However, some studies do not think there are any influences exiting with or without vitamin B12 [44]. Others even found that treatment with folic acid plus vitamin B(12) was associated with increased cancer outcomes [45]. Thus, consideration should be given to the potential value of providing with or without vitamin B12 in addition to the current mandatory folic acid supplementation. Second, since folic acid is important in many processes of metabolism and might help to protect against the cardiovascular, mental diseases, cancer and birth defects [46].

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