In this study, sink size was the yield-related trait most signifi

In this study, sink size was the yield-related trait most significantly positively correlated with GY. In this study, SM of the cultivars with yields over 15.0 t ha− 1 was more than 50,000. Grain yield in rice depends Volasertib datasheet upon PN, SP, SFP, and GW. Direct path coefficients of PN and PW to GY were similar, indicating that the effects on GY were equal for these two factors. Panicle number per square meter was significantly influenced by location, but PW was not. Panicle number per square meter was significantly and positively correlated with LAI, SM, and GY, suggesting that PN is the basis for increasing

source and sink and the guarantee of higher yields. Gravois and Helms [40] reported that optimum rice yield could not be attained without optimum panicle density at uniform maturity. Panicle number per square meter was significantly and negatively correlated with individual Birinapant order PW for both years, showing that high yields could be attributed to factors other than PN. These results are supported by the statistic analysis, showing that the average PN of the 48 cultivars tested in 2008 was lower than those in 2007, whereas the average GY was higher in 2008 than in 2007. Panicle weight is the product of SP, SFP, and GW. The direct path coefficient to PW declined from SP to GW to SFP, in contrast to the results of Yuan et al.

[19]. Given that only two cultivars were used by Yuan et al. [19], their results may have been limited. Spikelet number per panicle, ranging from 121 to 287 with an average of 191, differed significantly across cultivars but not across locations or years. Spikelet filling percentage was influenced mainly by the environment, but was relatively stable under high yield cultivation, reaching 80% at Nanjing and 87% at Taoyuan. Grain weight is a stable varietal factor, because grain size is rigidly controlled by the size of the hills in which the rice is ifenprodil planted [41]. Consequently, average GW is nearly constant

and minimally influenced by the environment. Similar results were observed in this study; the GWs of II You 107 and Xieyou 107 were 27.6 ± 0.8 g and 30.6 ± 1.3 g across locations and years. However, the GW of the 101 cultivars tested ranged from 18.8 g to 35.6 g, with an average of 30.3 g. The cultivars with lower GW values also showed low GY. These results indicate that larger grain size has been an objective of high-yield hybrid rice breeding. Grain weight ranged from 29.0 to 31.0 mg for cultivars with a GY of more than 17 t ha− 1 in this study. Although the average PN decreased from 308 m− 2 in 2007 to 274 m− 2 in 2008, SP increased from 180 to 205 over the same period, resulting in similar sink size for the two years. However, the average GW increased from 29.2 mg in 2007 to 31.5 mg in 2008, resulting in a higher GY in 2008 than in 2007. Clearly, the newly developed hybrid rice cultivars have changed from heavy-panicle to large-panicle types. The yield potential varied greatly over locations, but not across growing seasons.

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