In the case of the pot experiment, the abnormalities observed wer

In the case of the pot experiment, the abnormalities observed were learn more of two distinct types (i) mitotic abnormalities, i.e., abnormalities in dividing cells, and (ii) interphase nuclear abnormalities. The varying ratio of ammonium and nitrate with respect to time has been considered as a possible reason for such variations in

nuclear behaviour.”
“The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of nitrogen limitation as well as sequential nitrogen starvation on morphological and biochemical changes in Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. The results revealed that the nitrogen limitation and sequential nitrogen starvation conditions significantly decreases the photosynthetic activity as well as crude protein content

in the organism, while dry cell weight and biomass productivity are largely unaffected up to nitrate concentration of about 30.87 mg/L and 3 days nitrate limitation condition. Nitrate stress was found to have a significant effect on cell morphology of Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. Total removal of nitrate from the growth medium resulted in highest MDV3100 lipid (27.93%) and carbohydrate content (45.74%), making it a potential feed stock for biodiesel and bio-ethanol production. This is a unique approach to understand morphological and biochemical changes in freshwater microalgae under nitrate limitation as well as sequential nitrate removal conditions. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Laccases are members of a large family of multicopper oxidases Selleck LY2835219 that catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of organic and inorganic substrates accompanied

by the reduction of dioxygen to water. A new laccase was isolated from the basidiomycete Coriolopsis caperata strain 0677 and its amino-acid sequence was determined. According to its physicochemical properties and spectroscopic features, the laccase from C. caperata is a high redox-potential blue laccase. Attempts to crystallize the native enzyme were unsuccessful. The copper type 2-depleted (T2D) laccase was prepared and crystallized. The structure of T2D laccase from C. caperata was solved at 1.6 angstrom resolution, and attempts to reconstruct the T2 copper centre were performed using Cu+ and Cu2+ ions. The structure of T2D+Cu+ laccase was solved at 1.89 angstrom resolution. It was shown thatthe T2D+Cu+ laccase structure contained four copper ions in the active site. Reconstruction could not be achieved when the T2D laccase crystals were treated with CuSO4.”
“Throughout the animal kingdom, Hailer’s rule holds that smaller individuals have larger brains relative to their body than larger-bodied individuals. Such brain-body size allometry is documented for all animals studied to date, ranging from small ants to the largest mammals.

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