However, the use of speech and other broadly defined categories o

However, the use of speech and other broadly defined categories of behaviorally relevant natural sounds has led to many discrepancies regarding where voice-sensitivity occurs, and more generally the identification of cortical networks, “proto-networks” or protolanguage networks, and pathways that

may be sensitive or selective for certain aspects of vocalization processing. In this prospective review we examine different approaches for exploring vocal communication processing, including pathways that may be, or become, specialized for conspecific utterances. In particular, we address the use of naturally produced non-stereotypical vocalizations (mimicry of other animal calls) as another category of vocalization for use with human and non-human primate auditory systems. We focus this review on two main themes, including progress and future ideas for studying vocalization FG-4592 chemical structure processing in great apes (chimpanzees) and in very early stages of human development, including infants and fetuses. Advancing our understanding of the fundamental principles that govern the evolution

and early development of cortical pathways for processing non-verbal communication utterances is expected to lead to better diagnoses and early intervention strategies in children with communication disorders, improve rehabilitation of communication disorders resulting from brain injury, and develop new strategies for intelligent hearing aid and implant design that can better enhance speech signals buy Roscovitine in noisy environments.\n\nThis

article is buy FG-4592 part of a Special Issue entitled “Communication Sounds and the Brain: New Directions and Perspectives”. Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“Although social behavior in vertebrates spans a continuum from solitary to highly social, taxa are often dichotomized as either social or non-social. We argue that this social dichotomy is overly simplistic, neglects the diversity of vertebrate social systems, impedes our understanding of the evolution of social behavior, and perpetuates the erroneous belief that one groupthe reptilesis primarily non-social. This perspective essay highlights the diversity and complexity of reptile social systems, briefly reviews reasons for their historical neglect in research, and indicates how reptiles can contribute to our understanding of the evolution of vertebrate social behavior. Although a robust review of social behavior across vertebrates is lacking, the repeated evolution of social systems in multiple independent lineages enables investigation of the factors that promote shifts in vertebrate social behavior and the paraphyly of reptiles reinforces the need to understand reptile social behavior.

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