Following prochemerin secretion, protease-mediated generation of

Following prochemerin secretion, protease-mediated generation of chemerin isoforms with a range of biological

activities is a key regulatory mechanism controlling local, context-specific chemerin bioactivity. Together, experimental and clinical data indicate that localized and/or circulating chemerin expression and activation are elevated in numerous metabolic and inflammatory diseases including psoriasis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. These elevations are positively correlated with deleterious changes in glucose, lipid, and cytokine homeostasis, and may serve as a link between obesity, inflammation and other metabolic disorders. This review highlights the current state

of knowledge regarding chemerin expression, processing, PXD101 biological function and NCT-501 chemical structure relevance to human disease, particularly with respect to adipose tissue development, inflammation, glucose homeostasis and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it discusses study variability, deficiencies in current measurement, and questions concerning chemerin function in disease, with a special emphasis on techniques and tools used to properly assess chemerin biology. An integration of basic and clinical research is key to understanding how chemerin influences disease pathobiology, and whether modulation of chemerin levels and/or activity may serve as a potential method to prevent and treat metabolic diseases.”
“Background: Coagulopathy is present in 25% to 38% of trauma patients on arrival to the hospital, and these patients are four times more likely to die than trauma patients without coagulopathy. Recently, a high ratio of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) to packed red blood cells (PRBCs) has been shown to decrease mortality in massively transfused trauma patients. Therefore, we hypothesized that patients with elevated International Normalized Ratio (INR) on arrival to the hospital may benefit more from transfusion

with a high ratio of FFP:PRBC than those with a lower INR.

Methods: Retrospective multicenter cohort study of 437 massively transfused trauma patients was conducted to determine whether the effect of the ratio of FFP:PRBC on death at 24 hours is modified by a patient’s admission INR on arrival to the hospital. Contingency tables and logistic regression were used.

Results: Trauma patients who arrived to the hospital with an elevated INR had a greater risk of death than those with a lower INR. However, as the ratio of FFP:PRBC transfused increased, mortality decreased similarly between the INR quartiles.

Conclusions: The mortality benefit from a high FFP:PRBC ratio is similar for all massively transfused trauma patients. This is contrary to the current belief that only coagulopathic trauma patients benefit from a high FFP:PRBC ratio.

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