Fifteen patients, with a median age of 62 years, received trastuzumab according to the schedule approved for breast cancer patients (ie, 4 mg/kg intravenous loading dose followed by 2 mg/kg weekly). The overall response rate was 13% with 2 patients achieving partial response and partial remission cytolytic response, respectively. Two other patients were documented with blast clearance. Only 1 reversible grade 3 cardiac toxic event occurred. This phase 2 study showed that trastuzumab monotherapy can allow for some responses in a very high-risk refractory/relapsed HER2-positive adult B-ALL population. Combination of trastuzumab with chemotherapy or other therapeutic monoclonal antibodies should be tested in the future. This
trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct as NCT00724360. (Blood. 2012; 119(11): 2474-2477)”
“Bile ducts are hepatic tubular IPI-145 mw structures that are lined by cholangiocytes, a type of liver epithelial cell. Cholangiocytes first form a single layer of cells, termed the ductal plate, surrounding the portal vein, which eventually remodels into the branching tubular Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor network of bile ducts. The process of bile duct morphogenesis is not yet clear: a conventional model where cholangiocytes
proliferate to duplicate a single layer of the ductal plate before lumen formation seems inconsistent with the observation that proliferation is dramatically reduced when hepatoblasts, liver progenitor cells, differentiate into cholangiocytes. Here, we developed a new culture system in which a liver progenitor cell line, HPPL, reorganizes from
a monolayer to tubular structures in response to being overlaid with a gel containing type I collagen and Matrigel. We found that some of the HPPL in the monolayer depolarized www.selleckchem.com/screening/autophagy-signaling-compound-library.html and migrated to fold up the monolayer into a double-cell layer. These morphogenetic processes occurred without cell proliferation and required phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt activity. Later in morphogenesis, luminal space was generated between the two cell layers. This process, in particular enlargement of the apical lumen, involved transcriptional activity of HNF1 beta. Thus, using this sandwich culture system, we could segregate tubulogenesis of bile ducts into distinct steps and found that the PI3K/Akt pathway and HNF1 beta regulated different steps of the morphogenesis. Although the process of tubulogenesis in culture specifically resembled early bile duct formation, involvement of these two key players suggests that the sandwich culture might help us to find common principles of tubulogenesis in general.”
“Hyperglycemia with severe reduction of plasma insulin level is frequently associated with acute ischemic heart disease. Since insulin is reported to be an anti thrombotic humoral factor, the mechanism of the impaired insulin synthesis was investigated. The plasma from the patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.