“Employing genetic mouse models we have recently shown tha

“Employing genetic mouse models we have recently shown that ceramide accumulation is critically involved in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Kinase Inhibitor Library price Genetic or systemic inhibition of the acid sphingomyelinase (Asm) is not feasible for treatment of patients or might cause adverse effects. Thus, a manipulation of ceramide specifically in lungs of

CF mice must be developed. We tested whether inhalation of different acid sphingomyelinase inhibitors does reduce Asm activity and ceramide accumulation in lungs of CF mice. The efficacy and specificity of the drugs was determined. Ceramide was determined by mass spectrometry, DAG-kinase assays, and fluorescence microscopy. We determined pulmonary and systemic Asm activity, neutral sphingomyelinase (Nsm), ceramide, cytokines, and infection susceptibility. Mass spectroscopy, DAG-kinase assays, and semiquantitative immune fluorescence microscopy revealed that a standard diet did not influence ceramide in bronchial respiratory epithelial cells, while a diet with Peptamen severely affected the concentration of sphingolipids in CF lungs. Inhalation of the Asm inhibitors see more amitriptyline, trimipramine, desipramine, chlorprothixene, fluoxetine, amlodipine, or sertraline restored normal ceramide concentrations in murine bronchial epithelial cells, reduced inflammation

in the lung of CF mice and prevented infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All drugs showed very similar efficacy. Inhalation of the drugs was without systemic effects and did not inhibit

Nsm. These findings employing several structurally different Asm inhibitors identify Asm as primary target in the lung to reduce ceramide concentrations. Inhaling an Asm inhibitor may be a beneficial treatment for CF, with minimal adverse systemic effects.”
“Background: Chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) is an alternative to immunohistochemistry selleck kinase inhibitor or FISH for the assessment of HER2 oncogene status in breast cancer. Although CISH is being used increasingly in routine diagnostics, there are no established inter-laboratory quality assurance programmes for this test.\n\nMethods: The reproducibility of HER2 CISH analysis was assessed when performed by seven different centres that use the test routinely in diagnostic service.\n\nResults: The results from 28 cases showed overall concordance of 98.5% (192/195 tests; k coefficient 0.91). One of the discrepancies was due to the invasive carcinoma having been cut out in the sections received by two of the centres, and the other two were in the non-amplified/equivocal/low-amplified category.\n\nConclusion: This is believed to be the first report of a quality assurance study assessing laboratories that use HER2 CISH routinely in clinical diagnostics. The results show that CISH is a robust technique providing a suitable assay for the frontline testing of HER2 status in breast cancer.

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