“Deciphering the complexity and heterogeneity of cancer, b

“Deciphering the complexity and heterogeneity of cancer, benefits from integration of proteomic level data into systems biology efforts. The opportunities available as a result of advances in proteomic technologies, the successes to date, and the challenges involved in integrating diverse datasets are addressed in this review. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2012 doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1169 For further resources related to this article, please visit the .”
“Positive relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are reported in many studies. The underlying mechanisms are, however, only little understood, likely due to the

focus on the aboveground system and neglecting species-specific traits. We used different clusters of tree species composition to investigate how tree species diversity and Etomoxir cost tree species identity affect belowground nematode communities. Since ML323 manufacturer soil nematodes comprise different trophic groups and are strongly linked to the microbial community, results can provide insight on how soil food webs are structured. In addition, data on leaf litter

and fine root biomass were included to account for different effects of aboveground and belowground resources. Clusters of three trees of one, two and three species were identified within a temperate deciduous forest. Target tree species were European beech (Fagus sylvatica), common ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and lime (Tilia cordata, T. platyphyllos) differing in physiology, leaf litter quality and type of mycorrhiza. Tree species identity strongly affected nematode trophic structure, whereas tree Species diversity had no impact. Ash beneficially affected bacterial-feeding nematodes, whereas fungal feeders were suppressed, likely caused by ash litter increasing soil pH. Fostering of the Raf phosphorylation bacterial food chain by ash additionally could be related to rhizodeposition gaining importance after disappearance of high quality ash litter in spring, highlighting seasonal shifts in root and leaf litter-derived resources. The negative effect of ash on fungal-feeding nematodes is suggested

to be due to the lack of ectomycorrhizal fungi as ash roots only form arbuscular mycorrhiza. In contrast, beech benefited fungal feeders and detrimentally affected bacterial feeders due to more acidic soil conditions that increase the competitive strength of fungi. Lime tended to negatively impact total nematode density but positively influenced plant-feeding nematodes. Generally, beech and ash strongly but opposingly influenced the trophic structure of nematode communities suggesting that changes in tree species identity result in major shifts in the channeling of energy through decomposer food webs. The results indicate that the structure of soil food webs varies markedly with tree species and point to the importance of basal resources, i.e., leaf litter and rhizodeposits.

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