At present, no molecular tools are avail

At present, no molecular tools are available to replace MEK ic50 the time consuming race determination tests. We identified a number of transcripts with differential expression Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries profiles between the two races. Although differences in gene expression cannot be used directly as genetic markers of race identity, TDFs could be used as fingerprints for this purpose. In addition, the differential virulence of the two 1,2 strains demonstrated by the host colonization pattern, could also be fingerprinted using TDFs that are differentially expressed between ISPaVe1018 and ISPaVe1083. Unfor tunately, most TDFs in this category either matched hypothetical protein sequences in public databases or did not generate hits at all, and therefore do not allow speculation about the possible metabolic differences between the two races or between the two strains of FOM race 1,2.

Large scale transcriptional changes underlie disease development Transcriptional changes associated with resistance responses occur within the first 2 dpi, and are maintained with few changes thereafter. However, only 11 melon transcripts are specific for the incom patible interaction. The largest group of modulated genes is expressed in a non specific manner, with variable Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries modulation throughout the experiment, in both the incompatible and compatible interactions. The estab lishment of compatibility is characterized by a slightly Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries delayed but progressive increase of the number of genes involved, underlying the significant metabolic distur bances that might be associated with symptom develop ment.

The majority of these changes are included in Cluster D and are thus non specific Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries up to 8 dpi, but are followed by a sudden wave of susceptibility specific tran scriptional changes at 21 dpi, almost completely con served between the virulent strains ISPaVe1018 and ISPaVe1083. Although the precocity of the resistance response is expected, the small number of genes involved is unex Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries pected. Incompatible interactions commonly involve large scale transcriptional reprogramming toward defense, which is generally more intense and rapid than in corresponding compatible interactions. However, vascular diseases may represent a peculiar situation, in which symptom development and conse quent damage could depend not only on the pathoge netic activity of the fungus but also the strength and timing of the host response. This was indicated by pio neering research in which delayed formation of tyloses in susceptible genotypes eventually contributes to vessel clogging. In agreement with the above, our data suggest that more striking changes in gene expression accompany disease and symptom development than resistance, thus resistance might depend more on the ability to tolerate selelck kinase inhibitor the infection, avoiding reactions.

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