Anaerobic bacteria were cultured on several media, and DNA was ex

Anaerobic bacteria were cultured on several media, and DNA was extracted from suitable anaerobic enrichments and examined with conventional 16S rRNA gene clone library, as well as high-density phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene microarray (PhyloChip) technologies. AS1842856 ic50 The culture-dependent analyses predominantly showed the presence of clostridial and propionibacterial strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from clone libraries revealed distinct microbial populations associated with each clean-room facility, clustered exclusively within gram-positive organisms. PhyloChip analysis detected a greater microbial diversity, spanning many phyla of bacteria, and provided a

deeper insight into the microbial community structure of the clean-room facilities. This study presents an integrated approach for assessing the anaerobic microbial population within clean-room facilities, using both molecular and cultivation-based analyses. The results reveal that highly diverse anaerobic bacterial populations persist PF-03084014 nmr in the clean rooms even after the imposition

of rigorous maintenance programs and will pose a challenge to planetary protection implementation activities.”
“Few intergalactic, plausibly primordial clouds of neutral atomic hydrogen ( H I) have been found in the local Universe, suggesting that such structures have either dispersed, become ionized or produced a stellar population on gigayear timescales. The Leo ring(1,2), a massive (M(HI) approximate to 1.8 x 10(9) M., M. denoting Selleckchem Bafilomycin A1 the solar mass), 200- kpc- wide structure orbiting the galaxies M105 and NGC 3384 with a 4- Gyr period, is a candidate primordial cloud. Despite repeated atttempts(3,4),

it has previously been seen only from HI emission, suggesting the absence of a stellar population. Here we report the detection of ultraviolet light from gaseous substructures of the Leo ring, which we attribute to recent massive star formation. The ultraviolet colour of the detected complexes is blue, implying the onset of a burst of star formation or continuous star formation of moderate (similar to 10(8)-yr) duration. Measured ultraviolet visible photometry favours models with low metallicity (Z approximate to Z./ 50-Z./5, Z. denoting the solar metallicity), that is, a low proportion of elements heavier than helium, although spectroscopic confirmation is needed. We speculate that the complexes are dwarf galaxies observed during their formation, but distinguished by their lack of a dark matter component(5). In this regard, they resemble tidal dwarf galaxies, although without the enrichment preceding tidal stripping. If structures like the Leo ring were common in the early Universe, they may have produced a large, yet undetected, population of faint, metal- poor, halo- lacking dwarf galaxies.

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