Although there is no direct proof, it is probable that the dilata

Although there is no direct proof, it is probable that the dilatation of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, one of the most robust findings in schizophrenia,13 has something to do with a volume reduction of frontal white matter. Here again, it seems to be a case of hypotrophy as well as atrophy.“ Voxel-based morphometry has mainly highlighted the probability of a reduction in white matter in the subcortical frontal region and the corpus callosum. Abnormal microscopic organization

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of white matter has been repeatedly described with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), although selleckchem Tofacitinib multiple and not overlapping areas were concerned in the studies.15,16 Reduced myelinization has also been suggested due to signal reduction in magnetization transfer imaging.17 This is in accordance with phosphorous Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical magnetic resonance spectroscopy showing an increased breakdown of phospholipids at the onset of the disorder (increased phosphodiesters in patients at the first episode)18,19

and a pervasive reduction in synthesis (reduction in phosphomonocster)20-22 in the prefrontal region. The latest evidence for white matter decrease comes from the observation of a reduction in oligodendrocyte gene expression.23-25 In brief, there is also substantial support for a Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical reduction in long-range connectivity. Erroneous connections In about 30% of schizophrenic patients, persistent subplate neurons have been found.26,27 As their disappearance is important for the maturation of thalamocortical connections, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical some authors have raised the point that this might be an example of erroneous connections,

ie, persistent connection with subplate instead of layer 4 neurons. Pyramidal cell disarray in internal temporal cortices28 could also be accompanied by such abnormalities of connectivity. However, many of these results have been hard to replicate, and the false target Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical hypothesis remains speculative, although interesting to look into. Both local and long-range reductions in anatomical connectivity, together with possible erroneous connections, have led several authors to rejuvenate the “sejunction hypothesis” under the updated appellation of disconnéetivity.27,29-33 A disorder of functional integration? The functional counterpart of Anacetrapib these anatomical disorders could be an abnormal coordination between neurons of the same (local) and/or distant (long-range) areas. Functional integration is thought to allow segregated neurons to interact as a global assembly. Such a process is supposed to allow information to be streamed and bound into the coherent whole that we experience as consciousness.34-36 It is viable to think that this could be the process which breaks down in schizophrenic patients.37,38 An initial way to assess integration is by functional connectivity, defined as the amount of dependency between pairs of regions.

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