Activating mutations of EZH2 have been reported in B-cell lymphom

Activating mutations of EZH2 have been reported in B-cell lymphomas [46] whereas missense, nonsense, and frameshift mutations have been reported in various myeloid malignancies [47, 48]. In AML, 3

cases so far have been described to carry EZH2 mutations [27]. 5. Clinical Use of Epigenetics At present, there are two major areas of interest in the clinical use of epigenetics, namely, biomarkers and therapeutics. We now consider these areas. 5.1. Cancer Biomarkers Methylated genomic DNA has a number of properties, which make it an attractive molecule for biomarker utility. First, it is stable in biofluids such as blood, urine, and saliva. Second, in the majority of cases Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical methylation in CpG is acquired during malignant transformation and is therefore specific to neoplasia. Third, the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical techniques used for detection of methylated DNA are readily amenable to automation. Several studies have explored the methylation status of gene promoters and its association with clinical parameters in primary patient samples from patients with haematological malignancies and solid tumours. Various methodologies have been used such as selleck kinase inhibitor methylation-specific PCR (MSP), Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical methylation-specific restriction enzyme digestion, HpaII tiny fragment enrichment by ligation-mediated

PCR (HELP), bisulphite sequencing, and pyrosequencing. Either single genes or panels of genes in microarrays were studied. In MDS and AML methylation of several genes has been reported such as MEG3, SNRPN [49], Plk2 [50], cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, e-cadherin [51], and various others reviewed in [52]. In multiple myeloma, methylation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the

VHL promoter has been shown to correlate with bone disease [20] and methylation of the bcl-2 interacting killer (BIK) promoter has been shown to predict relapsed/refractory disease [21], while methylated FHIT has been shown to be an independent adverse prognostic factor Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical [53]. In a study by Shen et al. [54] a panel of 10 hypermethylated genes was identified in patients with MDS. Quantitative pyrosequencing in a large cohort showed that patients with higher levels of methylation for these genes Farnesyltransferase had shorter median overall and progressive-free survival (PFS) independent of age, sex, and the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS). Similarly, in solid tumours numerous methylated genes have been described. A substantial body of experimental evidence exists mechanistically associating acquired chemotherapy resistance with changes in the cancer cell epigenome and a number of genes have been identified, in which increased CpG island methylation and transcriptional downregulation are associated with resistance to specific agents such hMLH1 [55] and Plk2 [56] in ovarian cancer.

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