Abbreviations A??: ??-amyloid; AD: Alzheimer’s disease; ADNI: Alz

Abbreviations A??: ??-amyloid; AD: Alzheimer’s disease; ADNI: Alzheimer’s selleck chemicals Baricitinib Disease Neuroimaging Initiative; CDR: Clinical Dementia Rating; CERAD: Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease; CSF: cerebral spinal fluid; DLB: dementia with Lewy bodies; DVR: distribution volume ratio; ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; FDG: 18F-fl uorodeoxyglucose; MCI: mild cognitive impairment; MRI: magnetic resonance imaging; NFT: neurofibrillary tangles; NIA-Reagan: National Institute of Aging – Reagan Institute; PET: positron emission tomography; PIB: Pittsburgh compound B; SUVR: standard uptake volume ratio. Competing interests MP and MM are employees and stockholders in Avid Radiopharmaceuticals. Avid owns the patent license for florbetapir F 18, one of the PET amyloid imaging compounds discussed in this review.

Authors’ contributions Both MP and MM contributed to the analysis and views expressed in this review. MP drafted the manuscript with critical revision by MM. Note This article is part of a review series on Amyloid Imaging. Other articles in the series can be found online at Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Drs Alan Carpenter, Christopher Clark, Franz Hefti and Daniel Skovronsky for discussions that shaped the ideas expressed in this review, and Dr Reisa Sperling for comments on a preliminary draft.
In 2005, in the US, 36 million persons were over 65. Strong evidence indicates that memory and other cognitive tasks start declining at age 50 [1].

Furthermore, in the US, the prevalence of dementia ranges from 5% to 10% [2,3] and that of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) ranges from 12% to 18% [4,5]. Cognitive decline is common in persons over 70 and has an important impact on quality of life. To improve the quality of life Drug_discovery for older persons, it is imperative that we begin to understand which factors contribute to cognitive decline and brain atrophy. Furthermore, we need to determine which biomarkers or neurological measures can be used to predict these conditions and what therapeutic interventions can improve an individual’s brain health. Recently, moderate exercise and improved fitness were shown to enhance cognition in cognitively normal older persons as well as in individuals who complain of memory difficulty [6].

Additionally, fitness correlates with brain volume in persons who are cognitively normal [7] and in those with Alzheimer’s selleck chemicals llc disease (AD) [8]. In this paper, we shall discuss the following: 1. The causes of cognitive decline in older persons and why exercise could be a broad-spectrum intervention for dementia. 2. After this, we shall present epidemiological evidence that exercise may slow cognitive decline and decrease the chance of dementia. 3. Then we shall discuss the randomized control trials that provide evidence that exercise has a positive effect on improving cognition. 4.

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