A number of surface receptors coupled to ITAM-bearing adaptors ha

A number of surface receptors coupled to ITAM-bearing adaptors have been shown to regulate myeloid cell functions. Among them, CD300e (IREM-2) appeared selectively expressed

by monocytes and mDC and was shown to associate with DAP12 in transfected cells, delivering activating signals 20. In the present study, we provide data supporting that cross-linking of CD300e triggered the intracellular calcium mobilization and ROS secretion in monocytes. Signaling through CD300e activated monocytes and mDC, promoting their survival and leading to the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and increased expression of co-stimulatory molecules. Moreover, CD300e-stimulated mDC enhanced the alloreactive response of CbT cells. Altogether, these results

formally support that CD300e functions as an activating Bioactive Compound Library receptor capable of regulating the inflammatory and immune responses. The expression pattern and function of CD300e partially differed from other activating myeloid receptors associated to ITAM-bearing adaptors. Unlike the DAP12-associated TREM-1 31, 32, CD300e was not upregulated upon monocyte activation via TLR4 (data not shown), thus resembling the FcRγ-associated receptor hOSCAR 27. CD300e ligation induced a rapid intracellular calcium mobilization, as well as the production of ROS, supporting that this receptor may regulate the microbicidal https://www.selleckchem.com/products/AP24534.html activity of monocytes 33. Similarly, and in line with the previous reports on the ability of both hOSCAR and TREM-1 to trigger the respiratory burst in granulocytes 27, 34, we have observed that TREM-1 activates ROS production also in monocytes. Once recruited and activated at inflammatory sites, monocytes upregulate the expression of co-stimulatory molecules (i.e. CD40, CD83, CD80 and CD86) that, together with cytokine secretion, contribute to T-cell activation

and the generation of an optimal adaptive immune response. Herein, we show that CD300e engagement induced an upregulation of CD25, CD83 and CD86, without detectably influencing the expression of CD40 or CD54, in contrast to TREM-1 31 and hOSCAR activation 27. On the contrary, it is Morin Hydrate of note that these two receptors appear capable of triggering the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-8/CXCL8 in monocytes 27, 31 similarly to CD300e. In our experience, some differences in the functional response patterns were noticed when CD300e was compared with TREM-1 and hOSCAR in monocyte activation assays using specific mAb (Brckalo et al., unpublished data). Yet, it is of note that despite the fact that agonistic mAb are valuable tools to functionally characterize cell surface receptors, data should be cautiously interpreted for comparative analysis between different molecules, unless validated with their natural ligands.

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