169 Reserpine may also affect cognition in the elderly,170 most likely due to its sedative properties, though one study of five antihypertensive agents found no effect of reserpine on cognition in the elderly.171 Psychosis has been associated with reserpine withdrawal- presumably due to rebound increases in dopamine levels after discontinuation.172,173 Finally, reserpine has been used for treatment purposes. It has been used in cases of refractory mania with good effect,174-176 and it was, along with chlorpromazine, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical one of the first agents used to treat psychosis. Its antipsychotic effects
and tolerability appear inferior to those of current antipsychotic medications,47 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical but this agent is still used, though rarely, in combination with atypical antipsychotics in refractory cases or to treat psychosis associated with phencyclidine.176-180 At one time, reserpine, especially via intravenous administration, was thought to have potential as a rapid-acting antidepressant, but its effects appear to be transitory and overall less effective
than standard treatments.181 Bottom line: Reserpine is associated with both Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical sedation and daytime fatigue. Incidence of depression may be elevated among patients taking reserpine. However, other (generally more recent) reports question this association. It may see more provide benefit to patients with mania or psychosis, but is not first-line therapy for either Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical condition. α-Adrenergic agents The α1-adrenergic antagonists prazosin, doxazosin, and alfuzosin are used as antihypertensive
agents and to treat symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy. In general, there are few adverse neuropsychiatrie consequences associated with these medications. Fatigue is the most common neuropsychiatrie effect, occurring in association with all α1 antagonists.182-184 This effect is relatively infrequent (presenting Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in approximately 5% to 15% of patients),182,183 but it does occur more often than Edoxaban with placebo, and can lead to its discontinuation. Depression is not consistently associated with this class of agents, although there have been rare occurrences reported in association with prazosin use.185 Sleep disturbance and anxiety can occur with these agents, though such symptoms are usually mild186,187; there has been a single case report of psychosis associated with doxazosin.188 Finally, aside from a small case series describing encephalopathy in three patients with endstage renal disease,189 α1 antagonists have not been frequently implicated in the development of delirium, and a study of nonelderly patients found that prazosintreated patients performed slightly better on cognitive testing than did patients given hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) or propranolol.