One study reported a plateau after 3 or 4 years of treatment, in all baseline CD4 cell count groups . Lastly, Kelley et al.  reported that, after 4 years of cART, mean changes in CD4 cell count were higher in those with lower baseline CD4 cell counts. These studies included between 554 and 1638 patients maintaining Lenvatinib low viral loads – substantially fewer than the 5089 analysed here. These smaller sample sizes, together with the inevitably smaller numbers of patients followed for longer periods, may have limited their ability to distinguish long-term trends according to both baseline CD4 cell count and whether patients maintained virological suppression.
Three studies with more than 4 years of follow-up have modelled the effects of post-cART viral load (>400 copies/mL) on long-term CD4 cell counts [6,16,18]. Each reported lower post-cART CD4 cell count increases during periods of virological failure. For patients who do not maintain low viral loads throughout follow-up, after 3 or 4 years on treatment, CD4 counts start to decrease among those with higher baseline CD4 counts, and plateau for those with baseline CD4 counts of <200 cells/μL [16,18]. These studies either did not report [16,18]
or reported that they lacked the statistical power to distinguish  the effects of low-level compared with higher-level viraemia, or time since virological failure, on subsequent CD4 cell counts. PF-562271 mw Five studies have reported associations of factors additional to post-cART viral loads with changes in CD4 cell counts beyond 6 months of treatment [6,8,9,16,17]. Two reported higher CD4 cell count increases in younger patients but no important differences between men and women [6,16] and
one study also stated that there were no important differences by reported mode of HIV exposure . The other three studies found no evidence of associations between demographic factors and increases in CD4 cell counts beyond 6 months of treatment [8,9,17]. Further Fenbendazole studies restricted to patients who maintained virological suppression reported HIV transmission via injecting drug use to be associated with lower post-cART CD4 cell counts  and greater increases in women than in men . For the best-fitting model, we found that predicted CD4 cell counts from the model were higher than those observed. This effect was most notable among those starting treatment with low CD4 cell counts, suggesting that this was a consequence of informative censoring as a result of deaths among patients who started cART with low CD4 cell counts. Random-effects models are robust to dropout mechanisms that are predictable from observed data (‘missing at random’) . Cross-sectional analyses, however, assume that dropout is independent of any observed or unobserved data (‘missing completely at random’)  and may produce biased estimates if this assumption is not valid.