, 2005b). It has been proposed that the activity enhancement of working memory induced by tDCS over the left DLPFC could be responsible for motor improvement (Fregni et al., 2005a).
Therefore, we suggest that activation of this area by mental training (Thobois et al., 2000) added to the anodal tDCS-induced excitability increase (Zaehle et al., 2011) in our study might allow an increase in the capacity of the system responsible for maintaining order information active. With enhancement of working memory efficiency, the motor plans may be stored and/or precompiled not only for individual letters but also for larger graphemic chunks, allowing for faster production of letter sequences. This explanation of the results is necessarily Ipilimumab ic50 somewhat hypothetical at present, as further investigations are needed to prove or disprove this proposed mechanism. In our study, two dimensions were used to evaluate handwriting performance: writing time and legibility. high throughput screening compounds With regards to legibility, compared with the sham condition, any stimulation type used in our study combined with mental training was unable to alter the quality of legibility in the categories word length, word and letter legibility. However, only the cerebellar stimulation worsened one category of legibility (word size). The letter/word size outcome can be used to measure the development of the motor control of distal movements (Chartrel & Vinter, 2008). It has been proposed that, at the
beginning of the handwriting learning process, essentially
it uses proximal articulations resulting in impulsive and large-sized movements. Motor maturity enables the distalisation of the movement, which gives subjects better control of their movements and therefore improves the quality of the production, revealed by a decrease of word/letter size (Meulenbroek & Van Galen, 1988; Chartrel & Vinter, 2008). The lack of specific effects on handwriting legibility might be mainly due to limitations of the assessment approach. As a complex motor skill, it is likely that handwriting quality is not sufficiently sensitive to precisely show the effects of only one session of tDCS combined with MP. In this scenario, perhaps quantitative Interleukin-3 receptor kinematic analysis of writing quality (such as length, duration, mean and peak velocity of components and strokes) could be too sensitive to detect changes of performance on complex handwriting tasks after mental training. Size, specifically the vertical stroke size, was found to be the most invariant property of handwriting (Teulings & Schomaker, 1993). However, in our study, the cerebellar tDCS increases word size after mental training. It is known that the cerebellum is a brain structure where mismatches between intended and perceived outcomes of motor processes are monitored and corrected (Oscarsson, 1980; Schmahmann et al., 1999). Damage to the cerebellum produces errors in the planning and execution of movements (Kleim et al.