We suggest that autophagy constitutes a ‘pro-survival’ mechanism that controls the containment of host tissue-destructive microbial infections. In contrast, atg plants do not show spreading necrosis, but exhibit marked resistance against Z-DEVD-FMK the virulent biotrophic phytopathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Inducible defenses associated with basal plant immunity, such as callose production or mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, were unaltered in atg genotypes. However, phytohormone analysis revealed that salicylic acid (SA) levels in non-infected and bacteria-infected atg plants
were slightly higher than those in Col-0 plants, and were accompanied by elevated SA-dependent gene expression and camalexin production. This suggests that previously undetected moderate infection-induced rises in SA result in measurably enhanced bacterial resistance, and that autophagy negatively controls SA-dependent defenses and basal immunity to bacterial infection.
We infer that the way in which autophagy contributes to plant immunity to different pathogens is mechanistically diverse, and thus resembles the complex role of this process in animal innate immunity.”
“We investigated the potential neuroprotective effects of leptin (LEP) against cellular damage, long-term recurrent spontaneous seizures, and behavioral changes associated with kainate (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE). Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed 24 hours after KA injections, and hippocampi were subjected to histological analysis. In the acute condition, one group Cyclosporin A received 12 mg/kg KA intraperitoneally (KAac group), and another group received 12 mg/kg KA intraperitoneally, followed by two intraperitoneal LEP injections of 4 mg/kg each, 1 and 13 hours after
KA (KALEPac group). For long-term outcomes, one group received KA (KA group), and the other group received three intraperitoneal LEP injections (4 mg/kg at 1 hour, and 2 mg/kg at 13 and 24 hours) after KA (KALEP group). Controls were sham manipulated. Behavioral tests started 6 weeks after SE. All rats that received KA underwent behavioral Savolitinib research buy seizures of comparable severity. Compared with the KAac group, the KALEPac group had significantly larger pyramidal cell surface areas and fewer black-stained degenerating neurons with silver stain. The KALEP and KA groups were comparable with respect to recurrent spontaneous seizures, aggression, hyperactivity, and impaired memory. We show that leptin reduces cellular injury associated with KA-induced SE, but does not prevent long-term recurrent spontaneous seizures and behavioral deficits. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“As part of the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense recurrent selection program of popcorn, we evaluated full-sib families of the sixth cycle of recurrent selection and estimated genetic progress for grain yield and expansion capacity.