Twenty proteins were up-regulated and four proteins were down-reg

Twenty proteins were up-regulated and four proteins were down-regulated

at 12 hpi, whereas 18 proteins were up-regulated and eight proteins were down-regulated at 24 hpi. Generally, proteins involved in photosynthesis were down-regulated, whereas proteins associated with disease and defense response, protein folding and assembly, carbohydrate metabolism and energy production were up-regulated. Results are discussed in terms of the functional implications of the proteins identified, with special emphasis on their putative roles in defense. Abundance changes of these proteins, together with their putative functions reveal a comprehensive picture of the host response in rust-resistant soybean leaves and provide a useful platform for better p38 MAPK apoptosis understanding of the molecular SB203580 basis of soybean rust resistance. “
“Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important diseases affecting more than 200 plant species, including solanaceous crops. The pathogen is known to cause complicated

symptoms ranging from visible to latent ones. Understanding crop’s reaction to the pathogen and the underlying relatedness of latent infection to wilt incidence is of paramount importance. Thus, a number of potato cultivars including improved and otherwise were evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions. Accordingly, twenty-eight of the cultivars tested under greenhouse conditions were resistant to the pathogen with scores ranging from 0.77 to 1.17 of 5. Nonetheless, under field conditions, only 2 of 28 cultivars found to be ‘resistant’ under greenhouse conditions, showed adequate resistance to the pathogen, indicating the significant impact of environment on the activity of the pathogen and reaction of the crop. Percentage wilt incidence and latent infection showed significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation, with r = 0.9438.

Thus, evaluation of crop’s performance based on the combination of the parameters like field wilt incidence and proportion of latent infection gave us better picture of the overall crop feat, than using wilt incidence as a sole parameter of evaluation as has been the case in most studies. Moreover, the established correlation of latent infection with field wilt incidence will also help us understand the disease epidemiology 5-FU supplier and design effective management measures, accordingly. “
“Four disease diagram sets to aid in assessments of rice brown spot severity were developed and evaluated with regard to accuracy and reliability of the estimates. These sets had severity increments in a linear (LIN) or logarithmic (LOG) fashion with the diagrams depicted in true colour (COL) or black and white (BW). Ten inexperienced raters evaluated one of the sets, totalling forty raters. On each group of raters, the assessment was made first unaided and then aided with the respective diagram set.

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