The third most common fungus Mucor was found in all samples as we

The third most common fungus Mucor was found in all samples as well, but it seemed to prefer elevated thermophilic temperatures. In fact, several fungal groups, like Zygorhynchus Cladosporium and Pseudeurotium were found solely in the thermophilic conditions, whereas for example Rhizomucor

Geotrichum and Trichosporon were found exclusively in the mesophilic reactor. The relative abundance Veliparib mw of fungal groups like Pichia Saccharomyces Aspergillus Mucor and Candida increased during the digestion process, indicating that these fungal groups not only tolerate the conditions in the reactors but may actually benefit from them. Pichia and Candida are also associated in aerobic digestion [61]. Schnürer and Schnürer [12] FRAX597 purchase recently studied fungal survival in anaerobic digestion of household waste and found out that mesophilic temperature did not reduce the amount of culturable fungal colony forming units in the waste, and that thermophilic conditions caused only a slight decrease in the number of fungal viable cells.

This phenomenon was not detected in our study, but actually the thermophilic digestor buy Anlotinib (M3 and M4) contained more fungal diversity in both samplings compared to the mesophilic digestor (M1 and M2, Figure. 2). The majority of Fungi are aerobic, but a wide range of them are able to grow in low oxygen conditions. There are also fungi that can survive and grow in anaerobic conditions if Ureohydrolase an appropriate nutrient source is available. The fungal genera Candida Mucor Penicillium Saccharomyces and Trichoderma, detected

in our study, are facultative anaerobes and as such capable of degrading organic material in anoxic environment [62–64]. Thus, these groups can potentially not only survive the anaerobic conditions but also actively contribute to the process by decomposing more complex organic compounds such as lignin and cellulose in the beginning of the degradation. Functional validation of the microarray probes Microarray as a high-throughput platform has the potential for routine microbial analysis of environmental samples [65–67], although detection accuracy of oligomeric probes targeting phylogenetic marker gene may present a challenge in analysing complex communities consisting of a large number of closely related genomes [16]. Assaying the microbial composition in the AD process would be valuable for in-process monitoring of the microbial content and confirming hygienisation of the end product. To that end, we applied ligation probes that circularize upon target recognition (“padlock probes”) and are subsequently amplified and hybridised on microarray by unique tag sequences (Figure. 3).

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