Moreover, most of these studies have focused on the mRNA and, sur

Moreover, most of these studies have focused on the mRNA and, surprisingly, relatively little is known about how learning can affect Arc protein expression levels. Here we used taste recognition memory and examined Arc protein expression in the insular cortex of rats at distinct times during taste memory formation. Interestingly, we found that more Arc protein was induced by a familiar rather than by a buy JQ1 novel taste. Moreover, this increase was inhibited by post-trial intrahippocampal anisomycin injections, a treatment

known to inhibit safe-taste memory consolidation. In addition, confocal microscopy analysis of immunofluorescence stained tissue revealed that the proportion of IC neurons expressing Arc was the same in animals exposed selleck to novel and familiar taste, but Arc immunoreactivity in dendrites was dramatically higher in rats exposed to the familiar taste. These results provide novel insights on how experience

affects cortical plasticity.”
“The psychological refractory period (PRP) is a basic but important form of dual-task information processing. Existing serial or parallel processing models of PRP have successfully accounted for a variety of PRP phenomena; however, each also encounters at least I experimental counterexample to its predictions or modeling mechanisms. This article describes a queuing network-based mathematical model of PRP that is able to model various experimental findings in PRP with closed-form equations including all of the major counterexamples encountered by the

existing models with fewer or equal numbers of free parameters. This modeling work also offers an alternative theoretical account for PRP and demonstrates the importance of the theoretical Roflumilast concepts of “”queuing”" and “”hybrid cognitive networks”" in understanding cognitive architecture and multitask performance.”
“The medial lemniscus (ML) and its thalamocortical pathway is responsible for proprioception, in contrast, the spinothalamic tract (ST) and its thalamocortical pathway is the neural tract for pain and body temperature. Therefore, the ML pathway plays a crucial role in skillful movements and may be more linked to motor function than the ST pathway. We investigated the differences in the distribution of the primary motor cortex (M1) and the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) between the ML and ST pathways. Adults (mean age: 40.4 years, range: 21-61 years) were recruited for this study. The seed masks for the ML and ST pathways were given on the color map of the medulla according to the known anatomy and waypoint masks were placed on the ventro-postero-lateral nucleus of the thalamus. The volume of ML pathway did not show any difference between the M1 (10.94) and S1 (13.02) (p > 0.05). By contrast, the mean voxel number of the ST pathway in the M1 (18.25) and S1 (27.38) showed significant difference between the M1 and S1 (p < 0.05).

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